Trademark infringement is a violation of the exclusive right
s attached to a trademark
without the authorization of the trademark owner or any licensees (provided that such authorization was within the scope of the licence). Infringement may occur when one party, the "infringer", uses a trademark which is identical or confusingly similar
to a trademark owned by another party, in relation to products or services which are identical or similar to the products or services which the registration covers. An owner of a trademark may commence civil legal proceedings
against a party which infringes its registered trademark. In the United States, the Trademark Counterfeiting Act of 1984
criminalized the intentional trade in counterfeit goods and services.
If the respective marks and products or services are entirely dissimilar, trademark infringement may still be established if the registered mark is well known pursuant to the Paris Convention
. In the United States, a cause of action for use of a mark for such dissimilar services is called trademark dilution
In some jurisdictions a party other than the owner (e.g., a licensee) may be able to pursue trademark infringement proceedings against an infringer if the owner fails to do so.
Courts consider various factors in order to determine whether a trademark was infringed.
* Whether the plaintiff has a valid trademark. A trademark can be valid because it is officially registered, or because it has a claim under common law.
* Whether the trademark is being used by the defendant.
* Whether the defendant's use of the mark is "in commerce."
* Whether that use is connected to the sale, offer, distribution, or advertising of a product.
* Whether the defendant's use of the trademark is likely to confuse consumers.
This last factor, consumer confusion, is the main topic of debate in most cases.
Where the respective marks or products or services are not identical, similarity will generally be assessed by reference to whether there is a likelihood of confusion that consumers will believe the products or services originated from the trademark owner.
Likelihood of confusion is not necessarily measured by actual consumer confusion
if two products do not directly compete against each other but are in proximate markets. Then, to determine consumer confusion, a court may apply one of various factor tests. The primary test comes from Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals
and is found in ''AMF, Inc v. Sleekcraft Boats'', 599 F.2d 341 (C.A.9) 1979.
The Court there announced eight specific elements to measure likelihood of confusion:
# Strength of the mark
# Proximity of the goods
# Similarity of the marks
# Evidence of actual confusion
# Marketing channels used
# Type of goods and the degree of care likely to be exercised by the purchaser
# Defendant's intent in selecting the mark
# Likelihood of expansion of the product lines
[AMF, Inc v Sleekcraft Boats, 599 F.2d 341 (C.A.9) 1979](_blank)
Other Courts have fashioned their own tests for likelihood of confusion—like those announced in ''In re E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co''., 476 F.2d 1357, 177 USPQ 563 (CCPA 1973)'','' known collectively as the ''DuPont'' factors.
The party accused of infringement may be able to defeat infringement proceedings if it can establish a valid ''exception'' (e.g., comparative advertising) or ''defence'' (e.g., laches) to infringement, or attack and cancel the underlying registration (e.g., for non-use) upon which the proceedings are based. Other defenses include genericness, functionality, abandonment, or fair use.
The ACTA trade agreement, signed in May 2011 by the United States, Japan, Switzerland, and the EU, requires that its parties add criminal penalties, including incarceration and fines, for copyright and trademark infringement, and obligated the parties to actively police for infringement.
[Miriam Bitton (2012]
Rethinking the Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement’s Criminal Copyright Enforcement Measures
The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology 102(1):67-117
In many countries (but not in countries like the United States, which recognizes common law trademark rights), a trademark which is ''not'' registered cannot be "infringed" as such, and the trademark owner cannot bring infringement proceedings. Instead, the owner may be able to commence proceedings under the common law for passing off or misrepresentation, or under legislation which prohibits unfair business practices. In some jurisdictions, infringement of trade dress may also be actionable.
* ''Facebook, Inc. v. Power Ventures, Inc.'', case still pending
* ''Google, Inc. v. American Blind & Wallpaper Factory, Inc.'', in which Google's AdWords program was alleged to be in violation of trademark
* ''Rescuecom Corp. v. Google Inc.'', in which the use of trademarks in Google's AdWords program was found to be a "use in commerce" under the Lanham Act
* ''Network Automation, Inc. v. Advanced Systems Concepts, Inc.'', in which the use of a competitor's trademark as an Internet advertisement search keyword was found to not constitute trademark infringement
* ''College Network, Inc. v. Moore Educational Publishers, Inc.'', in which the use of a competitor's trademark does not qualify as a "use in commerce" is upheld
* ''Polaroid Corp. v. Polarad Elects.''
* Madrid Protocol
* Canadian trademark law
* Exhaustion of rights
* Passing off
* Trade dress
* Patent infringement
* Copyright infringement
World Intellectual Property Organization
Madrid Protocol Text of Treaty
* ttp://www.uspto.gov/web/offices/tac/tmlaw2.html#_Toc52344333 Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act (15 U.S.C. 1125(a))
The Trade Mark Act (UK)
Study of Alleged Trademark Infringement Against Global Brands in Internet Search Advertising