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South London is the southern part of London,
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. En ...
. Situated south of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
, it consists of the boroughs of Bexley, Bromley,
Croydon Croydon is a large town in south London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at ...
,
Greenwich Greenwich ( , , , or ) is a town in South London, south-east London, England, centred east-southeast of Charing Cross and located in the Historic county of England, historic county of Kent. For administrative purposes it formed part of the M ...
, Kingston, Lambeth,
Lewisham Lewisham () is an area of south east London, England, south of Charing Cross. It is the principal area of the London Borough of Lewisham, and is also within the Historic counties of England, historic county of Kent. It is identified in the Londo ...
, Merton, Richmond (in part), Southwark, Sutton and Wandsworth. South London originally emerged from
Southwark
Southwark
, first recorded as ''Suthriganaweorc'',David J. Johnson. ''Southwark and the City''. Oxford University Press, 1969. p. 7. meaning ‘fort of the men of
Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, and Greater London to the northeast. With about 1.2 mill ...

Surrey
’. From , London then extended further down into northern
Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, and Greater London to the northeast. With about 1.2 mill ...

Surrey
and then western
Kent Kent is a Counties of England, county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west. The county also shares borders with Essex along the estu ...
. South London consists of 11 whole boroughs and part of the cross-river borough of Richmond Upon Thames.


Emergence and growth

South London began at at the southern end of , the first permanent crossing over the river, with early development of the area being a direct result of the existence and location of the
bridge A bridge is a Nonbuilding structure, structure built to Span (engineering), span a physical obstacle, such as a body of water, valley, or road, without closing the way underneath. It is constructed for the purpose of providing passage over the ...

bridge
. Southwark was first known as ''Suthriganaweorc'', the fortress of the men of
Surrey Surrey () is a county in South East England which borders Kent to the east, East Sussex to the southeast, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west, Berkshire to the northwest, and Greater London to the northeast. With about 1.2 mill ...

Surrey
, mentioned in the Burghal Hidage as part of military system created by Alfred the Great to defeat the Great Heathen Army of the Vikings. Southwark was also known as ''the Borough'' due to be it being an Ancient borough, incorporated (nationally represented) Borough from 1295. From 1550 to 1899 it was administered as part of the City of London and referred to as the ward of Bridge Without. In 1720, John Strype, John Strype's ‘Survey of London’ described Southwark as one of the then four distinct areas of London; in it he describes the City of London, City and Liberty of Westminster, Westminster (West London), Southwark, Southwark (South London), and East London, 'That Part beyond the Tower' (East London). The area now usually referred to as North London developed later. As late as the mid 18th century, however, there were no other bridges crossing the river and as a result urban growth was considerably slower in the south than in areas north of the River Thames, Thames. The opening of Westminster Bridge and other subsequent bridges to the west encouraged growth in the south-west, but only Tower Bridge was built to the east of , so south-east London grew more slowly, at least until the Surrey Commercial Docks were built. The development of a dense network of railway lines in the mid nineteenth century significantly accelerated growth.


Transport

A significant feature of South London's economic geography is that while there are more than thirty bridges linking the area with West London and the City of London, City, there is only one, Tower Bridge, linking the area with East London. Very little of London's underground rail network lies south of the river, largely due to the challenging geology, however 21st century technology makes tunnelling much cheaper than before (though stations are still expensive) and this may well lead to an improved underground provision in South London with the Crossrail 2 line proposed alongside extensions to the Northern and Bakerloo Lines. South London contains a very extensive overground rail network and all of London's trams operate within the area.


List of boroughs

The 12 boroughs included, in whole or part are: A small area of land, on which the southern end of Blackfriars Bridge stands, is not part of Southwark. It forms part of the City of London, a sui generis local authority which is mainly located north of the Thames.


Formal use

The term ‘South London' has been used for a variety of formal purposes with the boundaries defined according to the purposes of the designation.


Constituency review, 2017

In 2017 the government asked the Boundary Commission for England to reconsider the boundaries of parliamentary constituencies. The commission's study, was to start with existing regions of England and then group the local authorities within that area into sub-regions for further sub-division. The South London sub-region included the 11 boroughs which lay south of the river, plus the parts of cross-river London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames that did so. An earlier 2013 study, whose recommendations were not adopted, took a different approach by including all of Richmond in its South London sub-region.


Sub-region policy

For the purposes of progress reporting on the London Plan, there was a south London sub-region in operation from 2004 to 2008 consisting of Bromley, Croydon, Kingston, Merton, Richmond and Sutton.Greater London Authority,
The London Plan: Sub-Regional Development Framework – South London
''
In 2001 this area had a population of 1,329,000.Greater London Authority,
The London Plan: The Sub Regions
''
This definition is used by organisations such as Connexions (agency), Connexions.Connexions
South London
/ref> Between 2008 and 2011 it was replaced with a South East (London sub-region), South East sub-region consisting of Southwark, Lewisham, Greenwich, Bexley and Bromley and a South West (London sub-region), South West sub-region consisting of Croydon, Kingston, Lambeth, Merton, Sutton, Richmond and Wandsworth. In 2011 a new South London region was created consisting of Bromley, Croydon, the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, Richmond upon Thames, Merton, Sutton, Wandsworth, Bexley, Greenwich and Lewisham.


Climate

South London is, like other parts of London and the UK in general, a Oceanic climate, temperate maritime climate according to the Köppen climate classification system. Three Met Office weather stations currently collect climate data south of the river; Kew, Hampton and Kenley Airfield, on the southern edge of the urban area. Long term climate observations dating back to 1763 are available for Greenwich, although observations ceased here in 2003. Temperatures increase towards the Thames, firstly because of the urban warming effect of the surrounding area, but secondly due to altitude decreasing towards the river, meaning the southern margins of south London are often a couple of degrees cooler than those areas adjacent to the Thames. Often snow can be seen to lie on the North Downs near Croydon when central London is snow free. The record high temperature at Greenwich is recorded during August 2003. Sunshine is notably lower than other London area weather stations (by about 50–100 hours a year), suggesting Greenwich may be a fog trap in winter, and that the hillier land to the south may obscure early morning and late evening sunshine. The highest temperature recorded across south London was on the same occasion at Kew Gardens. Although the Met Office accepts a higher reading from Brogdale in Kent, many have questioned the accuracy of this and regard the Kew reading as the most reliable highest UK temperature reading.


Associated organisations

*South London Gallery *South London Botanical Institute *South London Press *South London Radio *South London Storm *South London Theatre


See also

* Central London * East London * Inner London * North London * Outer London * West London * South Bank


References


External links

* * {{Sub-regions of London London sub-regions Areas of London Geography of London