A smart TV, also known as a connected TV (CTV), is a traditional television set
with integrated Internet
and interactive Web 2.0
features, which allows users to stream music and videos, browse the internet, and view photos. Smart TVs are a technological convergence
s, and digital media player
s. Besides the traditional functions of television sets provided through traditional broadcasting
media, these devices can provide access to over-the-top media service
s such as streaming television
and internet radio
, along with home network
Smart TV should not be confused with Internet TV, IPTV
, or streaming television
. ''Internet TV'' refers to receiving television content over the Internet instead of traditional systems such as terrestrial, cable, and satellite, regardless of how the Internet is delivered. IPTV is one of the Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters. Streaming television
is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV.
In smart TVs, the operating system
is preloaded into the television set's firmware
, which provides access to apps and other digital content
. In contrast, traditional televisions primarily act as display
s and are limited to vendor-specific customization. The software application
s can be preloaded into the device or updated or installed on demand via an application store or marketplace
, in a similar manner to how applications are integrated into modern smartphone
The technology that enables smart TVs is also incorporated in external devices such as set-top boxes and some Blu-ray
players, game console
s, digital media player
s, hotel television systems
, smartphones, and other network-connected interactive devices that utilize television-type display outputs.
[Intel and Smart TV](_blank)
intel.com. Retrieved on November 11, 2010.
These devices allow viewers to find and play videos, movies, TV shows, photos, and other content from the Web, cable
or satellite TV
channels, or a local storage device.
A ''Smart TV'' device is either a television set with integrated Internet capabilities or a set-top box for television that offers more advanced computing ability and connectivity than a contemporary basic television set. Smart TVs may be thought of as an information appliance
or the computer system
from a mobile device
integrated within a television set unit. As such, a Smart TV often allows the user to install and run more advanced applications or plugins/addons
based on a specific platform. Smart TVs run a complete operating system
or mobile operating system
software providing a platform for application developers.
Smart TV platforms or middleware have a public software development kit
(SDK) and/or native development kit
(NDK) for apps so third-party developers can develop applications for it, and an app store
so the end-users can install and uninstall apps themselves. The public SDK enables third-party companies and other interactive application developers to "write" applications once and see them run successfully on any device
that supports the Smart TV platform or middleware architecture it was written for, regardless of the hardware manufacturer.
Smart TVs deliver content (such as photos, movies and music) from other computers or network attached storage devices on a network using either a Digital Living Network Alliance
/ Universal Plug and Play
media server or similar service program like Windows Media Player
or Network-attached storage
(NAS), or via iTunes
. It also provides access to Internet-based services including traditional broadcast TV channels, catch-up services
(VOD), electronic program guide
, interactive advertising, personalisation, voting, games, social networking
, and other multimedia applications. Smart TV enables access to movies, shows, video games, apps and more. Some of those apps include Netflix, Hulu
, YouTube, and Amazon.
In the early 1980s, "intelligent" television receivers were introduced in Japan. The addition of an LSI
chip with memory and a character generator to a television receiver enabled Japanese viewers to receive a mix of programming and information transmitted over spare lines of the broadcast television signal. A patent was filed in 1994 (and extended the following year) for an "intelligent" television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network. Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user's demand, and process their needs.
The mass acceptance of digital television in the mid-late 2000s and early 2010s greatly improved Smart TVs. Major TV manufacturers have announced production of Smart TVs only, for their middle-end to high-end TVs in 2015. Smart TVs became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. At the beginning of 2016, Nielsen
reported that 29 percent of those with incomes over $75,000 a year had a Smart TV.
Smart TV devices also provide access to user-generated content
(either stored on an external hard drive
or in cloud storage
) and to interactive services and Internet applications, such as YouTube, many using HTTP Live Streaming
(also known as HLS) adaptive streaming. Smart TV devices facilitate the curation of traditional content by combining information from the Internet with content from TV providers. Services offer users a means to track and receive reminders about shows or sporting events, as well as the ability to change channels for immediate viewing. Some devices feature additional interactive organic user interface
/ natural user interface
technologies for navigation controls
and other human interaction
with a Smart TV, with such as second screen
companion devices, spatial gestures
input like with Xbox Kinect
, and even for speech recognition
for natural language user interface
. Smart TV develops new features to satisfy consumers and companies, such as new payment processes. LG and PaymentWall
have collaborated to allow consumers to access purchased apps, movies, games, and more using a remote control, laptop, tablet, or smartphone. This is intended for an easier and more convenient way for checkout.
Smart TV technology and software is still evolving, with both proprietary
and open source software framework
s already available. These can run applications (sometimes available via an 'app store' digital distribution platform
), play over-the-top media services
and interactive on-demand media, personalized communications, and have social networking features.
, Firefox OS
, Frog, Google TV
, Horizon TV
, Kodi Entertainment Center
, RDK (Reference Development Kit), Roku
, Smart TV Alliance, ToFu Media Platform, Ubuntu TV
, Vewd, and Yahoo! Smart TV
are framework platforms managed by individual companies. HbbTV, provided by the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV association, CE-HTML, part of Web4CE, OIPF, part of HbbTV, and Tru2way are framework platforms managed by technology businesses. Current Smart TV platforms used by vendors are Amazon
, LG, Microsoft
, Panasonic, Philips
, Samsung, Sharp
, Sling Media
, and Western Digital
. Sony, Panasonic, Samsung
, and Roku TV
are some platforms ranked under the best Smart TV platforms.
According to a report from research group NPD In-Stat, in 2012 only about 12 million U.S. households had their Web-capable TVs connected to the Internet, although an estimated 25 million households owned a set with the built-in network capability. In-Stat predicted that by 2016, 100 million homes in North America and western Europe would be using television sets blending traditional programming with internet content. By the end of 2019, the number of installed Connect TVs reached 1.26 billion worldwide.
The number of households using over-the-top
television services has rapidly increased over the years. In 2015, 52% of U.S. households subscribed to Netflix
, Amazon Prime
, or Hulu Plus
; 43% of pay-TV subscribers also used Netflix, and 43% of adults used some streaming video on demand
service at least monthly. Additionally, 19% of Netflix subscribers shared their subscription with people outside of their households. Ten percent of adults at the time showed interest in HBO Now
Some Smart TV platforms come prepackaged or can be optionally extended, with social networking technology capabilities. The addition of social networking synchronization to Smart TV and HTPC platforms may provide an interaction both with on-screen content and with other viewers than is currently available to most televisions, while simultaneously providing a much more cinematic experience of the content than is currently available with most computers.
Some Smart TV platforms also support interactive advertising
, addressable advertising
with local advertising insertion and targeted advertising, and other advanced advertising features such as ad telescoping
, enhanced TV for consumer call-to-action
, and audience measurement
solutions for ad campaign effectiveness. The marketing and trading possibilities offered by Smart TVs are sometimes summarized by the term t-commerce
. Taken together, this bidirectional
data flow means Smart TVs can be and are used for clandestine observation
of the owners. Even in sets that are not configured off-the-shelf to do so, default security measures are often weak and will allow hackers to easily break into the TV.
2019 research, "Watching You Watch: The Tracking Ecosystem of Over-the-Top TV Streaming Devices", conducted at Princeton
and University of Chicago
, demonstrated that a majority of streaming devices will covertly collect and transmit personal user data, including captured screen images, to a wide network of advertising and analytics companies, raising privacy concerns.
Digital marketing research
reported a 38 percent surgeto close to $7billion, a 10 percent television advertising
market sharein advertising on connected TV like Hulu
, to be underway in 2019, with market indicators that the figure would surpass $10billion in 2021.
There is evidence that a Smart TV is vulnerable to attacks. Some serious security
bugs have been discovered, and some successful attempts to run malicious code
to get unauthorized access were documented on video. There is evidence that it is possible to gain root access
to the device, install malicious software, access and modify configuration information for a remote control
, remotely access and modify files on TV and attached USB drives, access camera and microphone.
There have also been concerns that hacker
s may be able to remotely turn on the microphone or webcam on a smart TV, being able to eavesdrop on private conversations. A common loop antenna
may be set for a ''bi''directional transmission channel, capable of uploading data rather than only receiving. Since 2012, security researchers discovered a similar vulnerability present in more series
of Smart Tvs, which allows hackers to get an external root access
on the device.
Anticipating growing demand for an antivirus
for a Smart TV, some security software
companies are already working with partners in the digital TV field on the solution. It seems like there is only one antivirus for Smart TVs available: "Neptune", a cloud-based antimalware system developed by Ocean Blue Software in partnership with Sophos
. However, antivirus company Avira
Smart TVs has been called Orwellian
(a reference to George Orwell
and the dystopian world of constant surveillance he depicted in ''1984
''), and compared to Telescreen
s because of eavesdropping concerns.
Hackers have misused Smart TV's abilities such as operating source codes for applications and its unsecured connection to the Internet. Passwords, IP address data, and credit card information can be accessed by hackers and even companies for advertisement. A company caught in the act is Vizio
. The confidential documents, codenamed Vault 7
and dated from 2013–2016, include details on CIA
's software capabilities, such as the ability to compromise Smart TVs.
Restriction of access
Internet websites can block Smart TV access to content at will or tailor the content that will be received by each platform.
-enabled devices were blocked by NBC
, and Hulu
from accessing their Web content since the launch of Google TV in October 2010. Google TV devices were also blocked from accessing any programs offered by Viacom
In 2017, high-end Samsung
Smart TVs stopped working for at least seven days after a software update. Application providers are rarely upgrading Smart TV apps to the latest version; for example, Netflix does not support older TV versions with new Netflix upgrades.
*Automatic content recognition
*10-foot user interface
*Digital Living Network Alliance
*Digital media player
*Home theater PC
*Hotel television systems
*Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV
*List of mobile software distribution platforms
*List of smart TV platforms and middleware software
*Over-the-top media service
*Video on demand
Category:Film and video technology
Category:Internet of things
Category:Streaming media systems
Category:Video on demand