Secession is the withdrawal of a group from a larger entity, especially a political entity
, but also from any organization, union or military alliance. Some of the most famous and significant secessions have been: the former Soviet republics
leaving the Soviet Union
leaving the United Kingdom
and Algeria leaving France
. Threats of secession can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007.
It is, therefore, a process, which commences once a group proclaims the act of secession (e.g. declaration of independence). A secession attempt might be violent or peaceful, but the goal is the creation of a new state or entity independent from the group or territory it seceded from.
There is a great deal of theorizing about secession so that it is difficult to identify a consensus regarding its definition.
There is also a claim that this subject has been neglected by political philosophers
and that by the 1980swhen it finally generated interestthe discourse concentrated on the moral justifications of the unilateral right to secession. It was only in the early 1990s when American philosopher Allen Buchanan
offered the first systematic account of the subject and contributed to the normative
classification of the literature on secession. In his 1991 book ''Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec'', Buchanan outlined limited rights to secession under certain circumstances, mostly related to oppression by people of other ethnic or racial groups, and especially those previously conquered by other people.
[Allen Buchanan, ''Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec'', West View Press, 1991.]
According to the 2017 book ''Secession and Security'' by George Mason political scientist Ahsan Butt
, states respond violently to secessionist movements if the potential state would pose a greater threat than a violent secessionist movement would.
States perceive future war as likely with a potentially new state if the ethnic group driving the secessionist struggle has deep identity division with the central state, and if the regional neighbourhood is violent and unstable.
Justifications for secession
Some theories of secession emphasize a general right of secession for any reason ("Choice Theory") while others emphasize that secession should be considered only to rectify grave injustices ("Just Cause Theory"). Some theories do both. A list of justifications may be presented supporting the right to secede, as described by Allen Buchanan, Robert McGee
, Anthony Birch
, Jane Jacobs
, Frances Kendall
and Leon Louw
, Leopold Kohr
, Kirkpatrick Sale
, and various authors in David Gordon's "Secession, State and Liberty", includes:
* United States President James Buchanan
, Fourth Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union December 3, 1860: "The fact is that our Union rests upon public opinion, and can never be cemented by the blood of its citizens shed in civil war. If it can not live in the affections of the people, it must one day perish. Congress possesses many means of preserving it by conciliation, but the sword was not placed in their hand to preserve it by force."
* Former President of the United States Thomas Jefferson
, in a letter to William H. Crawford
, Secretary of War
under President James Madison
, on June 20, 1816: "In your letter to Fisk, you have fairly stated the alternatives between which we are to choose: 1, licentious commerce and gambling speculations for a few, with eternal war for the many; or, 2, restricted commerce, peace, and steady occupations for all. If any State in the Union will declare that it prefers separation with the first alternative, to a continuance in union without it, I have no hesitation in saying, 'let us separate.' I would rather the States should withdraw, which are for unlimited commerce and war, and confederate with those alone which are for peace and agriculture."
* Economic enfranchisement of an economically oppressed class that is regionally concentrated within the scope of a larger national territory.
* The right to liberty
, freedom of association
and private property
* Consent as important democratic principle; will of majority to secede should be recognized
* Making it easier for states to join with others in an experimental union
* Dissolving such union when goals for which it was constituted are not achieved
when larger group presents lethal threat to minority or the government cannot adequately defend an area
* Preserving culture, language, etc. from assimilation or destruction by a larger or more powerful group
* Furthering diversity by allowing diverse cultures to keep their identity
* Rectifying past injustices, especially past conquest by a larger power
* Escaping "discriminatory redistribution", i.e., tax schemes, regulatory policies, economic programs, etc. that distribute resources away to another area, especially in an undemocratic fashion
* Enhanced efficiency when the state or empire becomes too large to administer efficiently
* Preserving "liberal purity" (or " conservative purity ") by allowing less (or more) liberal regions to secede
* Providing superior constitutional systems which allow flexibility of secession
* Keeping political entities small and human scale
through right to secession
Aleksander Pavkovic, associate professor at the Department of Politics and International Studies at Macquarie University
in Australia and the author of several books on secession describes five justifications for a general right of secession within liberal political theory:
Secession, Majority Rule and Equal Rights: a Few Questions
Macquarie University Law Journal, 2003.
: individual liberty to form political associations and private property rights together justify right to secede and to create a "viable political order" with like-minded individuals.
* Democratic Secessionism: the right of secession, as a variant of the right of self-determination, is vested in a "territorial community" which wishes to secede from "their existing political community"; the group wishing to secede then proceeds to delimit "its" territory by the majority.
* Communitarian Secessionism: any group with a particular "participation-enhancing" identity, concentrated in a particular territory, which desires to improve its members' political participation has a prima facie
right to secede.
* Cultural Secessionism: any group which was previously in a minority has a right to protect and develop its own culture and distinct national identity through seceding into an independent state.
* The Secessionism of Threatened Cultures: if a minority culture is threatened within a state that has a majority culture, the minority needs a right to form a state of its own which would protect its culture.
Types of secession
Secession theorists have described a number of ways in which a political entity (city, county, canton, state) can secede from the larger or original state:
* Secession from federation
(political entities with substantial reserved powers which have agreed to join together) versus secession from a unitary state
(a state governed as a single unit with few powers reserved to sub-units)
* Colonial wars of independence from an imperial state
* Recursive secession, such as India seceding from the British Empire, then Pakistan seceding from India, or Georgia seceding from the USSR, then South Ossetia seceding from Georgia.
* National (seceding entirely from the national state) versus local (seceding from one entity of the national state into another entity of the same state)
* Central or enclave
(seceding entity is completely surrounded by the original state) versus peripheral (along a border of the original state)
* Secession by contiguous units versus secession by non-contiguous units (exclaves
(although an entity secedes, the rest of the state retains its structure) versus dissolution (all political entities dissolve their ties and create several new states)
where secession is sought in order to annex the territory to another state because of common ethnicity or prior historical links
* Minority (a minority of the population or territory secedes) versus majority (a majority of the population or territory secedes)
* Secession of better off regions versus secession of worse off regions
* The threat of secession is sometimes used as a strategy to gain greater autonomy within the original state
Arguments against secession
Allen Buchanan, who supports secession under limited circumstances, lists arguments that might be used against secession:
* "Protecting Legitimate Expectations" of those who now occupy territory claimed by secessionists, even in cases where that land was stolen
* "Self Defense" if losing part of the state would make it difficult to defend the rest of it
* "Protecting Majority Rule" and the principle that minorities must abide by them
* "Minimization of Strategic Bargaining" by making it difficult to secede, such as by imposing an exit tax
* "Soft Paternalism" because secession will be bad for secessionists or others
* "Threat of Anarchy" because smaller and smaller entities may choose to secede until there is chaos, although this is not the true meaning of the political and philosophical concept
* "Preventing Wrongful Taking" such as the state's previous investment in infrastructure
* "Distributive Justice" arguments that wealthier areas cannot secede from poorer ones
Explanations for the 20th century increase in secessionism
According to University of California, Santa Barbara, political scientist Bridget L. Coggins, there are four potential explanations in the academic literature for the drastic increase in state birth during the 20th century:
* Ethnonational mobilization – Ethnic minorities have been increasingly mobilized to pursue states of their own.
* Institutional empowerment – The growing inability of empires and ethnic federations to maintain colonies and member states.
* Relative strength – Increasingly powerful secessionist movements are more likely to achieve statehood.
* Negotiated consent – Home states and the international community increasingly consent to secessionist demands.
Other scholars have linked secession to resource discoveries and extraction. David B. Carter, H. E. Goemans and Ryan Griffiths find that border changes among states tend to conform to borders for previous administrative units.
Several scholars have argued that changes in the international system have made it easier to survive and prosper as a small state.
Tanisha Fazal and Ryan Griffiths link increased numbers of secessions to an international system that is more favorable for new states. For example, new states can obtain assistance from international organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund, World Bank and United Nation.
Alberto Alesina and Enrico Spolaore argue that greater levels of free trade and peace have reduced the benefits of being part of a larger state, thus motivating nations within larger states to seek secession.
Woodrow Wilson's proclamations on self-determination in 1918 created a surge in secessionist demands.
Rights to secession
Most sovereign state
s do not recognize the right to self-determination through secession in their constitutions. Many expressly forbid it. However, there are several existing models of self-determination through greater autonomy and through secession.
The Constitutional Right of Secession in Political Theory and History
Journal of Libertarian Studies, Ludwig von Mises Institute, Volume 17, no.4 (Fall 2003), pp. 39–100.
In liberal constitutional democracies the principle of majority rule
has dictated whether a minority can secede. In the United States Abraham Lincoln
acknowledged that secession might be possible through amending
the United States Constitution
. The Supreme Court
in ''Texas v. White
'' held secession could occur "through revolution, or through consent of the States".
[Aleksandar Pavković, Peter Radan]
Creating New States: Theory and Practice of Secession
p. 222, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
74 U.S. 700 (1868) at Cornell University Law School Supreme Court collection.
The British Parliament
in 1933 held that Western Australia
could secede from Australia only upon vote of a majority of the country as a whole; the previous two-thirds majority vote for secession via referendum in Western Australia was insufficient.
[Aleksandar Pavkovic and Peter Radan]
In Pursuit of Sovereignty and Self-determination: Peoples, States and Secession in the International Order
Macquarie University Law Journal, 1, 2003.
The Chinese Communist Party
followed the Soviet Union in including the right of secession in its 1931 constitution in order to entice ethnic nationalities and Tibet into joining. However, the Party eliminated the right to secession in later years, and had anti-secession clause written into the Constitution before and after the founding the People's Republic of China. The 1947 Constitution of the Union of Burma
contained an express state right to secede from the union under a number of procedural conditions. It was eliminated in the 1974 constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma (officially the "Union of Myanmar"). Burma still allows "local autonomy under central leadership".
As of 1996 the constitutions of Austria, Ethiopia, France, and Saint Kitts and Nevis
have express or implied rights to secession. Switzerland allows for the secession from current and the creation of new cantons
. In the case of proposed Quebec
separation from Canada the Supreme Court of Canada
in 1998 ruled that only both a clear majority of the province and a constitutional amendment confirmed by all participants in the Canadian federation could allow secession.
The 2003 draft of the European Union Constitution
allowed for the voluntary withdrawal of member states from the union, although the State which wanted to leave could not be involved in the vote deciding whether or not they can leave the Union.
There was much discussion about such self-determination by minorities before the final document underwent the unsuccessful ratification process in 2005.
As a result of the successful constitutional referendum
held in 2003, every municipality in the Principality of Liechtenstein
has the right to secede from the Principality by a vote of a majority of the citizens residing in this municipality.
Movements that work towards political secession may describe themselves as being autonomy
movements instead of, or in addition to, being secession movements.
Countries which separated from a colonial empire but which where never an integral part of the colonial state are not included in the list below; instead see Decolonization
and Unilateral declaration of independence
During the 19th century, the single British colony
in eastern mainland Australia, New South Wales
(NSW) was progressively divided up by the British government as new settlements were formed and spread. Victoria
(Vic) in 1851 and Queensland (Qld) in 1859.
However, settlers agitated to divide the colonies throughout the later part of the century; particularly in central Queensland
(centred in Rockhampton
) in the 1860s and 1890s, and in North Queensland
as a potential colonial capital) in the 1870s. Other secession (or territorial separation) movements arose and these advocated the secession of New England in northern central New South Wales, Deniliquin
in the Riverina
district also in NSW, and Mount Gambier
in the eastern part of South Australia
Secession movements have surfaced several times in Western Australia (WA), where a 1933 referendum
for secession from the Federation of Australia
passed with a two-thirds majority. The referendum had to be ratified by the British Parliament
, which declined to act, on the grounds that it would contravene the Australian Constitution
* The Principality of Hutt River
claimed to have seceded from Australia in 1970, although its status was not recognised by Australia or any other country.
After being liberated by the Red Army
and the U.S. Army
seceded from Nazi Germany
on April 27, 1945. This took place after seven years of Austria's being part of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich
due to the Anschluss
annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany in March 1938, and could not have taken place without the Third Reich being defeated by the Allies.
Belgium and the Netherlands
On August 25, 1830, during the reign of William I
, the nationalistic opera La muette de Portici
was performed in Brussels
. Soon after, the Belgian Revolt occurred, which resulted in the Belgian secession from the Netherlands.
In 1825, soon after the Empire of Brazil
managed to defeat the Cortes-Gerais
and Portugal in an Independence War
, the platinean nationalists in Cisplatina
declared independence and joined the United Provinces
, which led to a stagnated war between both, as they were both weakened, without manpower and fragile politically. The peace treaty accepted Uruguay's independence, reasserted the rule of both nations over their land and some important points like free navigation in the Silver River.
Three rather disorganized secessionist rebellions happened in Grão-Pará
, Bahia and Maranhão, where the people were unhappy with the Empire (these provinces were Portuguese bastions in the Independence War). The Malê Revolt
, in Bahia, was an Islamic slave revolt. These three rebellions were bloodily crushed by the Empire of Brazil.
was one of the most nativist
of all Brazilian regions, which in five revolts (1645–1654, 1710, 1817, 1824, 1848), the province ousted the Dutch West India Company
, tried to secede from the Portuguese Empire and from the Brazilian Empire. In the attempts the rebels were crushed, the leaders shot and its territory divided, nevertheless they kept revolting until its territory was a little fraction of what it was before.
In the Ragamuffin War
, the Province of Rio Grande do Sul
was undergoing a (at that time common) liberal vs conservative "cold" war. After the Emperor favoured the conservatives, the liberals took the Capital and declared an independent Republic
, fighting their way to the Province of Santa Catarina
, declaring the Juliana Republic
. Eventually they were slowly forced back, and made a reunification peace with the Empire. The war was not a secessionist war, even if it could become if the Empire were defeated, after the Empire agreed to aid its economy by taxing Argentina's products (like dry meat), the rebels reunited with the Empire and even filled its ranks, as the rebels were very good fighters.
In modern times, the South Region of Brazil
has been the centre of a secessionist movement led by an organization called The South is My Country
since the 1990s. Reasons cited for South Region Brazil's secession are taxation due to it being one of the wealthiest regions in the country and political disputes with the northernmost states of Brazil as well as the recent scandal
revolving around the Workers Party
found to be making shady deals with state-owned oil company Petrobras
and the impeachment of then-President Dilma Rousseff
additionally there is also an ethnic divide as the South Region is predominately European
populated primarily by Germans
and other European countries in contrast to the rest of Brazil which is a multicultural melting pot "Racial Democracy
". The South Region in 2016 voted in an unofficial referendum called "Plebisul" in which 616,917 (or half a million) voters overwhelmingly supported secession and the creation of an independent South Region by 95%. Another Brazilian secession movement is based in the state of Sao Paulo
which seeks to create to make the state an independent country from the rest of Brazil.
In October 2017, Ambazonia
declared its independence from Cameroon. Less than a month beforehand, tensions had escalated into open warfare
between separatists and the Cameroonian military.
Ambazonia-Cameroun conflict is deeply rooted in the October 1, 1961 incomplete decolonization of the former British Southern Cameroons (UNGA Resolution 1608). On January 1, 1960, Cameroon under French administration (Cameroun) was granted independence from France and admitted into the United Nations. The more advanced democratic and self ruling people of former British Southern Cameroons were instead limited to two choices. Through a UN plebiscite, they were directed to gain independence by either joining the independent Federation of Nigeria or the independent Republic of Cameroun as a federation of two equal states. They decided on independence by joining Cameroun, but they did so without a formal UN Treaty of Union on record at the UN. In 1972, Cameroun used her majority population to abolish the federation and implement a system which resulted in the occupation of Southern Cameroon territory by French-speaking Cameroon administrators. To make matters worse in 1984, Cameroun returned to her name at independence "Republic of Cameroun" which did not include the territory of the former British Southern Cameroons or Ambazonia.
For more than fifty years the English-speaking people of the Former British Southern Cameroons made multiple attempts both nationally and internationally to get the Cameroon government to address these issue and possibly return to the previously agreed federation at independence. When all these attempts failed in 2016 and Cameroon engaged in a military crackdown including cutting the internet in the English-speaking regions, the people of Southern Cameroons declared on October 1, 2017, the restoration of their UN state of Southern Cameroons, which they called the "Federal Republic of Ambazonia".
Throughout Canada's history, there has been tension between English-speaking and French-speaking Canadians. Under the Constitutional Act of 1791
, the Quebec colony (including parts of what are today Quebec, Ontario and Newfoundland and Labrador) was divided in two: Lower Canada
(which retained French law and institutions and is now part of the provinces of Quebec
and Newfoundland and Labrador
) and Upper Canada
(a new colony intended to accommodate the many new English-speaking settlers, including the United Empire Loyalists
, and now part of Ontario
). The intent was to provide each group with its own colony. In 1841, the two Canadas were merged into the Province of Canada
. The union proved contentious, however, resulting in a legislative deadlock between English and French legislators. The difficulties of the union led (amongst other factors) in 1867 to Confederation
, the adoption of a federal
system that united the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick
(later joined by other British colonies in North America). The federal framework did not eliminate all tensions, however, leading to the Quebec sovereignty movement
in the latter half of the 20th century.
Other occasional secessionist movements have included anti-Confederation movements in 19th century Atlantic Canada
(see Anti-Confederation Party
), the North-West Rebellion
of 1885, and various small separatism movements in Alberta
particularly (see Alberta separatism
) and Western Canada
generally (see, for example, Western Canada Concept
After the 1823 collapse of the First Mexican Empire
, the former Captaincy-General of Guatemala was organized into a new Federal Republic of Central America
. In 1838 Nicaragua
seceded. The Federal Republic was formally dissolved in 1840, all but one of the states having seceded amidst general disorder.
* The ''Anti-Secession Law
'' against the Taiwan independence movement
* Western regions of Xinjiang
) and Tibet
are the focus of secessionist calls by the Tibetan independence movement
and East Turkestan Independence Movement
* The Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong
has a secessionist movement in the city that the Chinese Communist Party has placed on national security agenda in 2017 which is called the Hong Kong independence movement
In 1960 the State of Katanga
declared independence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo
. United Nations
troops crushed it in Operation Grand Slam
In 1974, Greek irredentists launched a ''coup d'état''
, in an attempt to annex the island with Greece. Almost immediately, the Turkish Army invaded northern Cyprus
to protect the interests of the ethnic Turkish minority, who in the following year formed the ''Turkish Federated State of Cyprus'' and in 1983 declared independence as the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
, recognized only by Turkey.
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
(also known as East Timor) has been described as having "seceded" from Indonesia
. After Portuguese
sovereignty was terminated in 1975, East Timor was occupied by Indonesia. However the United Nations
and the International Court of Justice
refused to recognize this incorporation. Therefore, the resulting civil war and eventual 2002 East Timorese vote for complete separation are better described as an independence
Following the May 1991 victory of EPLF
forces against the communist Derg
regime during the Eritrean War of Independence
(formerly known as "Medri Bahri
") gained de facto independence from Ethiopia. Following the United Nations observed 1993 Eritrean independence referendum
, Eritrea gained de jure independence.
Before the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1December 2009 no provision in the treaties or law of the European Union outlined the ability of a state to voluntarily withdraw from the EU. The European Constitution did propose such a provision and, after the failure to ratify the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, that provision was then included in the Lisbon Treaty.
The treaty introduces an exit clause for members who wish to withdraw from the Union. This formalises the procedure by stating that a member state may notify the European Council that it wishes to withdraw, upon which withdrawal negotiations begin; if no other agreement is reached the treaty ceases to apply to the withdrawing state two years after such notification.
Finland successfully and peacefully seceded from the newly formed and weak Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
in 1917, the latter led by Lenin who had goodwill towards the Finns due to their having helped in his revolutionary struggle. Unsuccessful attempts at greater autonomy or peaceful secession had already been made during the preceding Russian Empire
but had been denied by the Russian emperor.
France was one of the European Great Powers
with populous foreign empires; like the othersthe United Kingdom, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands; and formerly Germany and the Ottoman Empirepopulous states abroad have all seceded, in most cases granted independence. These generally took place at similar stages by continent, see decolonization of the Ottoman Empire
As to France's contiguous state, these have few present representatives at national level, see:
* Alsace independence movement
* Breton independence
* Corsican nationalism
* Occitan nationalism
After a decade of tumultuous federalism, Ecuador
seceded from Gran Colombia
in 1830, leaving the similarly tumultuous United States of Colombia
, now the Republic of Colombia
which also lost Panama
Pakistan seceded from the British Indian empire in what is known as the Partition
Today, the Constitution of India
does not allow Indian states to secede from the Union.
The Indian Union Territory bulk of Jammu and Kashmir
hosts some paramilitary Muslim-state-advocating nationalists, operating against the Indian establishment. They are mostly in the Valley of Kashmir since 1989, where the Indian army sometimes patrol, having bases along the nearby international border. They are supported via Pakistan, though the country denies any direct involvement. The militancy reached at its peak influence in the 1990s.
Other secessionist movements in Nagaland
(known as the Khalistan movement
were also formerly active, while Tamil Nadu
had a non-violent movement
in the 1960s. The sometimes violent, Maoist
insurgency operates in eastern rural India is rarely considered secessionist as its goal is to overthrow the government of India. Its commanders sometimes idealise a Communist republic to be made up swathes of India.
The Movement for the Independence of Sicily
(Movimento Indipendentista Siciliano, MIS) has its roots in the Sicilian Independence Movement
of the late 1940s; they have been around for 60 years. Today, the MIS no longer exists, though many other parties have been born. One is Nation Sicily
(Sicilia Nazione), which still believes in the idea that Sicily, due to its deeply personal and ancient history, has to be a sovereign country. Moreover, a common ideology shared by all the Sicilian independentist movements is to fight against Cosa Nostra
and all the other Mafia organizations, that have a very deep influence over Sicily's public and private institutions. Also, the Sicilian branch of the Five Star Movement
, which is according to the polls Sicily's most popular party, has publicly expressed the intention to start working for a possible secession from Italy in the case where the central government would not collaborate in shifting the nation's administrative organization from a unitary country to a federal state
. Lega Nord
has been seeking the independence of the so-called region of Padania
, which includes lands along the Po Valley
in northern Italy
. Some organizations separately work for the independence of Venetia
or Veneto and the secession or reunification
of South Tyrol
. Lega Nord governing Lombardy
has expressed a will to turning the region into a sovereign country. Also the island of Sardinia
is home to a notable nationalist movement
. In Southern Italy several movements have expressed a will to secede from Italy. This newborn ideology is so-called neo-Bourbonic, because the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
was under the control of the House of Bourbon. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was created in 1816 after the Congress of Vienna
, and it comprised both Sicily and continental Southern Italy. The Kingdom came to an end in 1861, being annexed to the newborn Kingdom of Italy. However, the patriotic feelings shared among the southern Italian population is more ancient, starting in 1130 with the Kingdom of Sicily, which was composed by both the island and south Italy. According to the neo-Bourbonic movements the Italian regions which should secede are Sicily
, and Latio
's provinces of Rieti
. The major movements and parties which believe in this ideology are Unione Mediterranea
Active secession movements include: Iranian Azeri
, Assyrian independence movement
, Bakhtiary lurs
movement in 1876, Iranian Kurdistan
; Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI)
, Khūzestān Province Balochistan
and independence movement for free separated Balochistan, (''Arab nationalist
''); Al-Ahwaz Arab People's Democratic Popular Front, Democratic Solidarity Party of Al-Ahwaz (See Politics of Khūzestān Province: Arab politics and separatism
), and Balochistan People's Party (BPP) supporting Baloch Separatism
The ethnic Ryukyuan (a branch of modern Okinawan) people had their own state historically (Ryukyu Kingdom
). Although some Okinawan people have sought to become independent from Japan since they were annexed by Japan in 1879, and especially after 1972 when the islands were transferred from U.S. rule to Japan, their activism and movement have been consistently supported by single digit of Okinawan people.
When racial and partisan strife
erupted, Singapore was expelled from the Malaysian federation
seceded from Mexico in 1836 (see Texas Revolution
), after animosity between the Mexican government and the American settlers of the Coahuila y Tejas State
. It was later annexed by the United States in 1845.
* The Republic of the Rio Grande
seceded from Mexico on January 17, 1840. It rejoined Mexico on November6 the same year.
* After the federal system
was abandoned by President Santa Anna
, the Congress of Yucatán approved in 1840 a declaration of independence, establishing the Republic of Yucatán
. The Republic rejoined Mexico in 1843.
The United Provinces of the Netherlands
, commonly referred to historiographically as the 'Dutch Republic', was a federal republic
formally established from the formal creation of a federal state in 1581 by several Dutch provinces seceded
Secession movements have surfaced several times in the South Island
of New Zealand. A Premier of New Zealand
, Sir Julius Vogel
, was amongst the first people to make this call, which was voted on by the Parliament of New Zealand
as early as 1865. The desire for South Island independence was one of the main factors in moving the capital of New Zealand from Auckland
in the same year.
The NZ South Island Party
with a pro-South agenda, fielded only five candidates (4.20% of electoral seats) candidates in the 1999 General Election
but achieved only 0.14% (2622 votes) of the general vote. The reality today is that although "South Islanders" are most proud of their geographic region, secession does not carry any real constituency; the party was not able to field any candidates in the 2008 election due to being unable to enlist 500 paying members, a requirement by the New Zealand Electoral commission. The party is treated more as a "joke" party than any real political force.
Between 1967 and 1970, the state of Biafra (The Republic of Biafra
) seceded from Nigeria and fought a war that ended with the state returning to Nigeria.
Later in 1999 at the beginning of a new democratic regime, other secessionist movements emerged, the movement for the Actualization of a Sovereign state of Biafra was formed as a military wing of the Republic of Biafra.
Norway and Sweden
Sweden, having left the Kalmar Union
with Denmark and Norway in the 16th century, entered into a loose personal union
with Norway in 1814. Following a constitutional crisis
, on June 7, 1905 the Norwegian Parliament
declared that King OscarII
had failed to fulfill his constitutional duties. He was therefore no longer King of Norway and because the union depended on the two countries sharing a king, it was thus dissolved. After negotiations Sweden agreed to this on October 26 and on April 14.
After the Awami League
won the 1970 national elections, negotiations to form a new government floundered, resulting in the Bangladesh Liberation War
by which the eastern wing of Pakistan
seceded, to become Bangladesh
. The Balochistan Liberation Army (also Baloch Liberation Army or Boluchistan Liberation army) (BLA) is a Baloch nationalist
militant secessionist organization. The stated goals of the organization include the establishment of an independent state of Balochistan
free of Pakistan
ian and Afghan Federations. The name Baloch Liberation Army first became public in summer 2000, after the organization claimed credit for a series of bomb attacks in markets and removal of railways lines.
Papua New Guinea
The island of Bougainville
has made several efforts to secede from Papua New Guinea
is an autonomous region, which is part of the Federal Republic of Somalia
. Those who call the area the ''Republic of Somaliland'' consider it to be the successor state of the former British Somaliland protectorate
. Having established its own local government in Somalia in 1991, the region's self-declared independence remains unrecognized
by any country or international organization.
[The Signs Say Somaliland, but the World Says Somalia](_blank)
The Constitution of the Soviet Union guaranteed all SSRs the right to secede from the Union. In 1990, after free elections, the Lithuanian SSR declared independence and other SSRs soon followed. Despite the Soviet central government's refusal to recognize the independence of the republics, the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991.
In 1910, following the British Empire's defeat of the Afrikaners in the Boer Wars, four self-governing colonies in the south of Africa were merged into the Union of South Africa. The four regions were the Cape Colony, Orange Free State, Natal and Transvaal. Three other territories, High Commission Territories of Bechuanaland (now Botswana), Basutoland (now Lesotho) and Swaziland (now Eswatini) later became independent states in the 1960s. Following the election of the Nationalist government in 1948, some English-speaking whites in Natal advocated either secession or a loose federation. There were also calls for secession, with Natal and the eastern part of the Cape Province breaking away. following the referendum in 1960 on establishing a republic, and in 1993, prior to South Africa's first elections under universal suffrage and the end of apartheid, some Zulu leaders in KwaZulu-Natal considered secession as did some politicians in the Cape Province.
In 2008, a political movement calling for the return to independence of the Cape resurged in the shape of the political organisation, the Cape Party. The Cape Party contested their first elections on 22 April 2009.
Present-day Spain (known officially as "the Kingdom of Spain") was assembled as a central state in the French model between the 18th and 19th centuries from various component kingdoms with varying languages, cultures and legislations. Spain has several secessionist movements, the most notable ones being in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Galicia.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, operated a de facto independent state for Tamils called Tamil Eelam in eastern and northern Sri Lanka until 2009.
A referendum took place in Southern Sudan from 9to 15 January 2011, on whether the region should remain a part of Sudan or become independent. The referendum was one of the consequences of the 2005 Naivasha Agreement between the Khartoum central government and the Sudan People's Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M).
A simultaneous referendum was supposed to be held in Abyei on whether to become part of Southern Sudan but it has been postponed due to conflict over demarcation and residency rights.
On 7 February 2011, the referendum commission published the final results, with 98.83% voting in favour of independence. While the ballots were suspended in 10 of the 79 counties for exceeding 100% of the voter turnout, the number of votes were still well over the requirement of 60% turnout, and the majority vote for secession is not in question.
The predetermined date for the creation of an independent state was 9July 2011.
In 1847, seven disaffected Catholic cantons formed a separate alliance because of moves to change the cantons of Switzerland from a confederation to a more centralized government federation. This effort was crushed in the Sonderbund War and a new Swiss Federal Constitution was created.
In 2014 after the start of Russian intervention in Ukraine, several groups of people declared independence of several Ukrainian regions:
* The Donetsk People's Republic was declared to be independent from Ukraine on 7April 2014, comprising the territory of the Donetsk Oblast. There have been military confrontations between the Ukrainian Army and the forces of the Donetsk People's Republic when the Ukrainian Government attempted to reassert control over the oblast.
* The Lugansk Parliamentary Republic was proclaimed on 27 April 2014.
before being succeeded by the Lugansk People's Republic. The Lugansk forces have successfully occupied vital buildings in Lugansk since 8April, and controlled the City Council, prosecutor's office, and police station since 27 April. The Government of the Lugansk Oblast announced its support for a referendum, and granted the governorship to independence leader Valeriy Bolotov.
The Republic of Ireland is the only part of the British Isles that has withdrawn from the country. Ireland proclaimed independence in 1916 and, as the Irish Free State, gained independence in 1922. The United Kingdom has a number of secession movements:
* In Northern Ireland, Irish Republicans and Nationalists have long called for the secession of Northern Ireland to join the Republic of Ireland. This is opposed by Unionists.
* In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) campaigns for Scottish independence and direct Scottish membership in the EU. It has representation at all levels of Scottish politics and forms the devolved Scottish government. Later pro-independence parties have had lesser electoral success. The Scottish Green Party and the Scottish Socialist Party are most widely publicised. However all independence movements/parties are opposed by Unionists. A referendum on independence in which voters were asked "Should Scotland be an independent country?" took place in September 2014. It saw "no" win, as 55.3% of voters voted against independence.
* In Wales, Plaid Cymru ''(Party of Wales)'' stands for Welsh independence within the European Union. It is also represented at all levels of Welsh politics and has often been the second largest party in the Welsh Parliament (The Senedd).
** In Cornwall, supporters of Mebyon Kernow call for the creation of a Cornish Assembly and separation from England, giving the county significant self-government, whilst remaining within the United Kingdom as a fifth home nation.
** The Acting Witan of Mercia calls for Mercia to be recognized as distinct from England. Other "regionalists" call for similar recognition of other areas of Britain to be restored from lapsed states.
** London has supporters of an independent or semi-autonomous city-state since the 2016 EU Referendum in which Londoners voted overwhelmingly to remain in the EU. A London independence party, known as Londependence, was established in June 2019. Their calls increased after the 2019 General Election in which most Londoners voted for the Labour Party, gaining a representative, bucking the national trend.
** The Northern Independence Party is a newly formed party that seeks to make Northern England an independent state under the name Northumbria.
Discussions and threats of secession often surface in American politics, and secession was declared during the American Civil War. However, in 1869 the United States Supreme Court ruled in ''Texas v. White'' that unilateral secession was not permitted, saying that the union between a state (Texas in the case before the bar) "was as complete, as perpetual, and as indissoluble as the union between the original States. There was no place for reconsideration or revocation, except through revolution or through consent of the States."
In January 2021, after President Donald J. Trump lost to Joe Biden in a hotly debated election, President Trump encouraged his supporters to march on the Capitol building. The supporters proceeded to break into, and invade the building forcing an evacuation of the area. In the days after the riot, there were growing threats by militia groups and other Southern organizations to secede from the U.S.
Thought leaders including Michael Malice have proposed that non-violent secession is a viable and humane outcome of the political strife the U.S. faces in 2021.
North Yemen and South Yemen merged in 1990; tensions led to a 1994 southern secession which was crushed in a civil war.
On June 25, 1991, Croatia and Slovenia seceded from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Bosnia and Herzegovina and North Macedonia also declared independence, after which the federation broke up, causing the separation of the remaining two countries Serbia and Montenegro. Several wars ensued between FR Yugoslavia and seceding entities and among other ethnic groups in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and later, Kosovo. Montenegro peacefully separated from its union with Serbia in 2006.
Kosovo declared de facto independence on February 17, 2008, and was recognized by several dozen countries, but officially remains under United Nations administration.
* List of historical autonomist and secessionist movements
* List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
* List of unrecognized countries
* List of U.S. state secession proposals
* List of U.S. county secession proposals
* City state
* Economic secession
* Nullification (U.S. Constitution)
* Schism (religion)
* Urban secession
* Balochistan Liberation Army
* Black Liberation Army
* Cape Party
* East Turkestan Independence Movement
* Essex Junto
* European Free Alliance
* Free State Project
* Hartford Convention
* League of the South
* New York City secession
* Orania, Northern Cape
* Secession of Quebec
* Scottish Secession Church
* Second Vermont Republic
* South Carolina Exposition and Protest
* Texas Secession Movement
* Tibetan Independence Movement
* Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization
* Buchanan, Allen, ''Justice, Legitimacy, and Self-Determination: Moral Foundations for International Law (Oxford Political Theory)'', Oxford University Press, 2007.
* Buchanan, Allen, ''Secession: The Morality Of Political Divorce From Fort Sumter To Lithuania And Quebec'', Westview Press, 1991.
* Coppieters, Bruno; Richard Sakwa, Richard (eds.), ''Contextualizing Secession: Normative Studies in Comparative Perspective'', Oxford University Press, USA, 2003
* Dos Santos, Anne Noronha, ''Military Intervention and Secession in South Asia: The Cases of Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Kashmir, and Punjab (Psi Reports)'', Praeger Security International, 2007.
* Gordon, David, ''Secession, State and Liberty'', Transactions Publishers, 1998.
* Hannum, Hurst, ''Autonomy, Sovereignty, and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights'', University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
* Hawes, Robert F., ''One Nation, Indivisible? A Study of Secession and the Constitution'', Fultus Corporation, 2006.
* Jovanovic, Miodrag, ''Constitutionalizing Secession in Federalized States: A Procedural Approach'', Ashgate Publishing, 2006.
* Kohen, Marcelo G. (ed.), ''Secession: International Law Perspectives'', Cambridge University Press, 2006.
* Kohr, Leopold, ''The Breakdown of Nations'', Routledge & K. Paul, 1957.
* Lehning, Percy, ''Theories of Secession'', Routledge, 1998.
* Norman, Wayne, ''Negotiating Nationalism: Nation-Building, Federalism, and Secession in the Multinational State'', Oxford University Press, USA, 2006.
* Orlov, Dimitry,
', New Society Books, 2008,
* Pascalev, Mario, "Territory: An Account of the Territorial Authority of States"
Bowling Green State University, VDM, 2009.
* Roeder, Philip G. 2018. National secession: persuasion and violence in independence campaigns. Cornell University Press.
* Sorens, Jason, ''Secessionism: Identity, Interest, and Strategy'', McGill-Queen's University Press, 2012.
* Spencer, Metta, ''Separatism: Democracy and Disintegration'', Rowman & Littlefield, 1998.
* Weller, Marc, ''Autonomy, Self Governance and Conflict Resolution (Kindle Edition)'', Taylor & Francis, 2007.
* Wellman, Christopher Heath, ''A Theory of Secession'', Cambridge University Press, 2005.
* ''Secession And International Law: Conflict Avoidanceregional Appraisals'', United Nations Publications, 2006.
Secession (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Category:Changes in political power