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In law, a resolution is a written
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adopted by a
deliberative body A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure to Decision-making, make decisions. Etymology In a speech to the electorate at Bristol in 1774, Edmund Burke described the Parliament of ...
. The substance of the resolution can be anything that can normally be proposed as a motion. For long or important motions, though, it is often better to have them written out so that discussion is easier or so that it can be distributed outside the body after its adoption. An alternate term for a resolution is a ''resolve''. Resolutions are commonly used in corporations and houses of legislature.


In corporations

In corporations, a written resolution is especially useful in the case of the
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of a
corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and public law 'born out of statute"; a legal person in legal context) and rec ...
, which usually needs to give its consent to
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purchases or sales by the corporation. Such a resolution, when certified by the corporation's
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secretary
, gives assurance to the other side of the transaction that the sale was properly authorized. Other examples include resolutions approving the opening of bank accounts or authorizing the issuance of shares in the corporation.


Houses of legislature

When greater formality is desired, a
motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In physics, motion is the phenomenon in which an object changes its position (mathematics), position over time. Motion is mathematically described in terms of Displacem ...
may be made in the form of a resolution, which is always submitted in writing. Houses of a
legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday l ...
often adopt non-binding resolutions. However, a legislature also uses resolutions to exercise one of its binding powers that isn't a lawmaking power. For example, the
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declares war or proposes
constitutional amendment A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or or ...
s by adopting a joint resolution. A house of a legislature can also use a resolution to exercise its specific powers, as the
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does to elect its Speaker or as the
United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being the upper house. Together they compose the national Bicameralism, bicameral legislature of the United St ...
does to impeach an officer of the
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.


Types


Non-binding

In a house of a
legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday l ...
, the term non-binding resolution refers to measures that do not become
law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by its boundaries, ...
s. This is used to differentiate those measures from a bill, which is also a resolution in the technical sense. The resolution is often used to express the body's approval or disapproval of something which they cannot otherwise vote on, due to the matter being handled by another jurisdiction, or being protected by a constitution. An example would be a resolution of support for a nation's troops in battle, which carries no legal weight, but is adopted for moral support.


Substantive and procedural

Substantive resolutions apply to essential legal principles and rules of right, analogous to substantive law, in contrast to procedural resolutions, which deal with the methods and means by which substantive items are made and administered.


Historical examples of resolutions

*Gulf of Tonkin Resolution *Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions *United Nations General Assembly resolutions *United Nations Security Council resolutions *War Powers Resolution


See also

*Courtesy resolution *Main motion *Preamble


References

{{Authority control Resolutions (law), Motions (parliamentary procedure) Parliamentary procedure