A private member's bill in a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic governance of a state (or subordinate entity) where the executive derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislature, typi ...

parliamentary system
of government is a
bill (proposed law) A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an ''act of ...

bill (proposed law)
introduced into a
legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments; in the separation of powers model, they are often contrasted with th ...

by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the
executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority i ...

executive branch
. The designation "private member's bill" is used in most
Westminster System The Westminster system or Westminster model is a type of parliamentary system of government that incorporates a series of procedures for operating a legislature that was first developed in England, key aspects of which include an executive branc ...

Westminster System
jurisdictions, in which a "private member" is any
member of parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this category includes specifically members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different ...

member of parliament
(MP) who is not a member of the
cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass sheets or transparent polycarbonate sheets * Filing c ...

(executive). Other labels may be used for the concept in other parliamentary systems; for example, the label member's bill is used in the
Scottish Parliament The Scottish Parliament ( gd|Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: ''Scots Pairlament'') is the devolved, unicameral legislature of Scotland. Located in the Holyrood area of the capital city, Edinburgh, it is frequently referred to by the metonym Holyro ...

Scottish Parliament
and the
New Zealand Parliament The New Zealand Parliament ( mi|Pāremata Aotearoa) is the unicameral legislature of New Zealand, consisting of the Queen of New Zealand (Queen-in-Parliament) and the New Zealand House of Representatives. The Queen is usually represented by he ...

New Zealand Parliament
, and the term private senator's bill is used in the
Australian Senate The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives. The compositioned and powers of the Senate are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia. There are a tot ...

Australian Senate
. In
presidential system A presidential system, or single executive system, is a form of government in which a head of government (president) leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch. This head of government is in most cases also the head of ...

presidential system
s with a
of the executive from the legislature, the concept does not arise since the executive cannot initiate legislation, and bills are introduced by individual legislators (or sometimes by
popular initiative In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a publi ...

popular initiative
). In the Westminster System, most bills are "
government bill
government bill
s" introduced by the executive, with private members' bills the exception; however, some time is set aside in the schedule for reading such bills. They may be introduced by non-ministerial MPs from government-supporting parties (
backbencher In Westminster parliamentary systems, a backbencher is a member of parliament (MP) or a legislator who occupies no governmental office and is not a frontbench spokesperson in the Opposition, being instead simply a member of the "rank and file". ...

s), by members of
opposition Opposition may refer to: Arts and media * ''Opposition'' (Altars EP), 2011 EP by Christian metalcore band Altars * The Opposition (band), a London post-punk band * ''The Opposition with Jordan Klepper'', a late-night television series on Comedy ...

parties (
frontbencher In many parliaments and other similar assemblies, seating is typically arranged in banks or rows, with each political party or caucus grouped together. The spokespeople for each group will often sit at the front of their group, and are then known as ...

or backbencher), or by
independent Independent or Independents may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Artist groups * Independents (artist group), a group of modernist painters based in the New Hope, Pennsylvania, area of the United States during the early 1930s * Independent ...

s or
crossbencher A crossbencher is an independent or minor party member of some legislatures, such as the British House of Lords and the Parliament of Australia. They take their name from the crossbenches, between and perpendicular to the government and oppositio ...

s. The
United Kingdom parliament The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and the British overseas territories. It alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all other politic ...

United Kingdom parliament
has a long history of enacting private members' bills. In contrast, the
Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature of Ireland. The Oireachtas consists of: *The President of Ireland *The two houses of the Oireachtas ( ga|Tithe an Oireachtais): **Dáil Éireann (lower ho ...

(parliament) of the
Republic of Ireland Ireland ( ga|Éire ), also known as the Republic of Ireland ('), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the i ...

Republic of Ireland
rarely passes private members' bills, with the overwhelming number of bills being passed being introduced by members of the cabinet. A private member's bill is not to be confused with a
private bill Proposed bills are often categorized into public bills and private bills. A public bill is a proposed law which would apply to everyone within its jurisdiction. This is unlike a private bill which is a proposal for a law that would apply to a parti ...

private bill
, which is a bill that only affects an individual citizen or group.

Private member's bill by country


In Australia, a draft bill is prepared by Parliamentary Counsel, acting under instructions from the private member. After community consultation, the member introduces the bill into the Parliament. Only 30 private members' bills or private senators' bills introduced into the
Australian Parliament The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament, also called the Commonwealth Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It consists of three elements: the Crown (represented by the Governor-General) ...

Australian Parliament
since 1901 have been passed into law. Of these, thirteen have been initiated by senators, ten by members and seven by the Speaker and Senate President. A larger number have passed one house but not the other. An even larger number did not pass the house in which they were introduced and thus lapsed. Among the most notable of the successful bills was the Commonwealth Electoral Bill 1924, which introduced
compulsory voting Compulsory voting, also called mandatory voting, is the requirement in some countries that eligible citizens register and vote in elections. Penalties might be imposed on those who fail to do so without a valid reason. According to the CIA World ...

compulsory voting
for federal elections. This was introduced by Senator for
Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz|Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main i ...

Herbert Payne Herbert James Mockford Payne (17 August 186626 February 1944) was an Australian politician. He served as a Senator for Tasmania from 1920 to 1938 and as a member of the Tasmanian House of Assembly from 1903 to 1920. Payne was born in Hobart and ...

Herbert Payne
of the Nationalist Party on 16 July 1924, passed by the Senate on 23 July, passed by the House of Representatives on 24 July – both times with little debate – and given Royal Assent on 31 July. Despite much public debate ever since on the issue of compulsory voting, the legislation has never been repealed. Another very notable private member's bill was the Euthanasia Laws Bill 1996, which deprived the Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and Norfolk Island legislatures of the power to make laws permitting
euthanasia Euthanasia (from el|εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, ''eu''; "well" or "good" + θάνατος, ''thanatos''; "death") is the practice of intentionally ending life to relieve pain and suffering. Different countries have different eu ...

. This was introduced by , Member for Menzies, after the
Northern Territory Legislative Assembly The Legislative Assembly of the Northern Territory is the only house of the Parliament of the Northern Territory, Australia. The Legislative Assembly has 25 members, each elected in single-member electorates for four-year terms. The voting method ...

Northern Territory Legislative Assembly
had passed such a law, the
Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995 The ''Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995'' (NT) was a controversial law legalising euthanasia in the Northern Territory of Australia, which was passed by the territory's Parliament in 1995. The Act was passed by the Northern Territory Legis ...

Rights of the Terminally Ill Act 1995
. Although Andrews was a member of the
Liberal Party Liberal Party is a name for political parties around the world. The meaning of ''liberal'' varies across the world, ranging from liberal conservatism on the right to social liberalism on the left. __TOC__ Active liberal parties This is a list of ...

Liberal Party
, members and senators were allowed a
conscience vote A conscience vote or free vote is a type of vote in a legislative body where legislators are allowed to vote according to their own personal conscience rather than according to an official line set down by their political party. In a parliamentary s ...

conscience vote
on the issue, and each side of the debate was supported by members and senators from all political parties. A private member's bill, the
Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act 2017 The Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act 2017 is an Act of the Parliament of Australia, which legalises same-sex marriage in Australia by amending the Marriage Act 1961 to allow marriage between two persons of marriageable ag ...

Marriage Amendment (Definition and Religious Freedoms) Act 2017
, legalised
same-sex marriage Same-sex marriage, also known as gay marriage, is the marriage of two people of the same sex or gender, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony. There are records of same-sex marriage dating back to the first century. In the modern era ...

same-sex marriage
throughout Australia on 9 December 2017. It was introduced by
Dean Smith Dean Edwards Smith (February 28, 1931 – February 7, 2015) was an American men's college basketball head coach. Called a "coaching legend" by the Basketball Hall of Fame, he coached for 36 years at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hil ...

Dean Smith
, Senator for Western Australia. Notable also was the private member's bill introduced by in the
New South Wales Legislative Council The New South Wales Legislative Council, often referred to as the upper house, is one of the two chambers of the parliament of the Australian state of New South Wales. The other is the Legislative Assembly. Both sit at Parliament House in the s ...

New South Wales Legislative Council
to amend the Crimes Act of 1900. The first successfully enacted (or indeed introduced) bill in over 100 years to address the protection of children from abuse and excessive physical chastisement. It received very wide support from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...

New South Wales
organisations related to and was backed by several prominent members of the medical profession, particularly in the
paediatric Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends people be under pediatric care through the age of ...

field, notably Dr.
John Yu John Samuel Yu (; born 12 December 1934) is a Chinese-born Australian paediatrics doctor who served as CEO of the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children from 1979 until 1997. He was the Australian of the Year for 1996. Early life and education B ...

John Yu
, CEO of
Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children The Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children (now named The Children's Hospital at Westmead) is a children's hospital in Sydney. The hospital was founded in 1880 as "The Sydney Hospital for Sick Children". Its name was changed to the "Royal Alexandr ...

Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug: ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about on its periphery toward ...

(who had been honoured by the
Australian Government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Like other Westminster-style systems of government, the Australian Government is m ...

Australian Government
with the prestigious
Australian of the Year The Australian of the Year is an award conferred on an Australian citizen by the National Australia Day Council, a not-for-profit Australian Governmentowned social enterprise. History Since 1960 the award for the Australian of the Year has been ...

Australian of the Year
award in 1996). Its initial aims were to limit physical chastisement by banning the use of implements (belts, sticks, hairbrushes, etc.), ban the use of force above the shoulders (thus preventing neck, head, brain and facial injuries), and require that any physical force applied leave only trivial and short-lived signs such as redness (that is, no bruising, swelling, welts, cuts, grazes, internal injuries, emotional trauma, etc.); with the exception of the clause banning the use of implements (which was dropped to gain essential support from the
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, United States * ''Our Sta ...

for the bill), it was passed intact and became law in 2001.


In Canada, a private member's bill (french: projet de loi émanant d'un député) is a bill introduced in the
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house of the bicameral parliaments of the United Kingdom and Canada. In the UK and Canada, the Commons holds much more legislative power than the nominally upper house of parliament. The lead ...

House of Commons
by a member of parliament who is not a cabinet minister. A private member's bill follows the same legislative process as a government bill, but the time allocated for its consideration is restricted. Private Members' Bills may be considered only during one of the daily Private Members' Hours. Under rules established in 1986, 20 items of private members' business are selected at random to receive priority in debate. Six of these items are chosen by a committee to be votable and must come to a vote in the House. Prior to the 1986 rules, private members' bills and motions could be "talked out", meaning that all the time allocated to private members' bills could be used up introducing or debating bills without them ever being voted on, as each bill must be voted on after the second hour of debate. (The ramifications of the 1986 rules were discussed in the ''
Canadian Parliamentary Review The ''Canadian Parliamentary Review'' is a quarterly publication of the Canadian Region of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. The publication began as a newsletter known as the ''Canadian Regional Review'' in 1978 with a provisional six-mem ...

Canadian Parliamentary Review
'', 1988, Vol 11, No. 3.) Even under the new rules, very few private member's bills become law. But passage is more likely in [[Minority governments in Canada|minority government situations. The vast majority of private members' bills that actually do become law are for the purpose of changing the name of the [[Riding (country subdivision)#Canada|riding represented by the MP introducing the bill. When an election is called, all bills that have not been passed die on the order paper (that is, they are removed from the agenda of Parliament, and must be re-introduced in the new session of Parliament after an election). In the House of Commons (but not in the Senate), private members' bills remain on the order paper when Parliament is [[Prorogation in Canada|prorogued. Notable private members bills have been the following:


In the 98 years from 4 May 1910 to 7 September 2008, 229 private member's bills passed.

=Before the 1986 rules

= * One of the bills passed under the old (pre-1986) rules was a 1964 private member's bill to rename "[[Trans-Canada Airlines" to "[[Air Canada", introduced by then-rookie MP [[Jean Chrétien. Chrétien got his bill voted on by convincing the other MPs scheduled to speak during Private Member's Hour to skip their speech and instead request an immediate vote on the bill.

=After the 1986 rules

= The new rules took effect in 1986. In the 24 years between 5 November 1984 and 7 September 2008, 81 private member's bills passed. Passage was (and is) more likely during the periods of [[minority governments in Canada. The ramifications of the 1986 rules and new probability of success of private members bills were discussed in the ''
Canadian Parliamentary Review The ''Canadian Parliamentary Review'' is a quarterly publication of the Canadian Region of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association. The publication began as a newsletter known as the ''Canadian Regional Review'' in 1978 with a provisional six-mem ...

Canadian Parliamentary Review
'', 1988, Vol 11, No. 3. * [[New Democratic Party|NDP MP [[Lynn McDonald succeeded in getting her private member's bill, the "Non-smokers' Health Act" (aka Bill C-204), passed in 1986, (given [[Royal Assent on 28 June 1988) restricting smoking in federally regulated workplaces and on airplanes, trains and ships. The bill was passed in a [[free vote of the House of Commons despite being voted against by all members of the federal cabinet, including the Minister of Health.


Of the 300 or so private members' bills introduced in the 14th [[Lok Sabha, barely 4% were discussed; 96% lapsed without even a single debate in the House. To date, Parliament has passed a total of 14 private members' bills. Following are the 14 Private Members' Bills which were passed:- #The Muslim Wakfs Bill introduced by Syed Md. Ahmed Kasmi in Lok Sabha #The Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Bill introduced by [[Raghunath Singh in Lok Sabha #The Indian Registration (Amendment) Bill introduced by [[Satish Chandra Samanta|SC Samanta in Lok Sabha #The Proceedings of Legislature (Protection of Publication) Bill introduced by Feroze Gandhi in Lok Sabha #The Women's and Children's Institutions (Licensing) Bill introduced by Rajmata Kamlendu in Lok Sabha #Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Declaration of National Importance) Bill introduced by Raghubir Sinh in [[Rajya Sabha #The Hindu Marriage (Amendment) Bill introduced by Seeta Parmanand in Rajya Sabha #The Code of Criminal Procedure (Amendment) Bill introduced by Subhadra Joshi in Lok Sabha #The Orphanages and other Charitable Homes (Supervision and Control) Bill introduced by Kailash Bihari Lal in Rajya Sabha #The Marine Insurance Bill introduced by MP Bhargava in Rajya Sabha #The Hindu Marriage (Amendment) Bill introduced by Diwan Chand Sharma in Lok Sabha #The Salaries and Allowances of MP (Amendment) Bill introduced by Raghunath Singh in Lok Sabha #Indian Penal Code (Amendment) Bill introduced by Diwan Chand Lal in Rajya Sabha #The SC (enlargement of Criminal Appellate Jurisdiction) Bill introduced by Anand Narain in Lok Sabha Five of these were passed in 1956 alone and after 47 years of passing the last bill, the Supreme Court (Enlargement of Criminal Appellate Jurisdiction) Bill, 1968 that became an Act on 9 August 1970; Rajya Sabha has passed the [[Rights of Transgender Persons Bill, 2014 on April 24, 2015, which was introduced in the lower house, Lok Sabha on 26 February 2016.

New Zealand

In [[New Zealand, a member's bill is one that is introduced by a member of Parliament who is not a minister. There can be a maximum of eight members' bills on the Order Paper awaiting their first reading at any one time. When a slot opens up, a ballot is held to select a new members' bill for introduction; each MP can submit only one member's bill at a time to the ballot. Every second Wednesday is reserved for debating members' bills, although this rule is overridden when certain government business is before the House, such as the Budget. Even when a Wednesday is devoted to members' bills, any private or local bills on the Order Paper are considered first. The ballot to select new member's bills is conducted by drawing numbered counters out of a [[biscuit tin, purchased in the 1980s from now-defunct department store chain [[DEKA (New Zealand)|DEKA. As a result, the member's bill process is nicknamed "biscuit tin democracy". Starting with the [[53rd New Zealand Parliament|53rd Parliament (2020–23), a member's bill can be introduced directly if it has the support of at least 61 non-executive members of Parliament. This will allows member's bills with broad support to avoid the ballot process, while excluding executive members prevents the member's bill process being an alternative way of progressing Government business. Notable legislation passed as a result of a member's bill includes: *Adult Adoption Information Act 1985 – allowed adult adoptees to access information about their birth parents *[[Homosexual Law Reform Act 1986 – decriminalised homosexual acts between men *[[Prostitution Reform Act 2003 – decriminalised prostitution *[[Crimes (Substituted Section 59) Amendment Act 2007 – removed "reasonable force" legal defence for assault of children by parents *[[Marriage (Definition of Marriage) Amendment Act 2013 – legalised same-sex marriage *[[End of Life Choice Act 2019 – provided for a [[2020 New Zealand euthanasia referendum|binding referendum to give people with a terminal illness the option of requesting [[Assisted suicide|assisted dying


In the [[Parliament of Norway, any member may submit a private member's bill, called a representative's bill ( no|representantforslag lovvedtak). The other method of initiating legislation is by a "Proposition to the ''Storting''" from the [[Cabinet of Norway|Government.

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom [[British House of Commons|House of Commons, there are several routes to introducing private members' bills. In each session, twenty backbench MPs are selected by [[ballot to introduce a bill. These bills are given priority for debate and generally offer the best chance of success. Additional bills may be introduced via the [[Ten Minute Rule, although this is usually used just to raise an issue rather than legislate on it, or through presentation without debate under Standing Order 57. Neither Ten Minute Rule or presentation bills are likely to get time to be debated, so only non-controversial bills have any chance of success. Private members' bills from the Lords may also be adopted by an MP to complete their journey through Parliament. Private member's bills can sometimes become the cause for much anxiety and shenanigans, as outside individuals or organisations seek to influence members who have been selected in the ballot. There are two principal routes for influencing UK law: * [[Lobbying a government department or minister. * Lobbying a member of parliament who has a private member's bill coming up. Only a small proportion of private members' bills are enacted. This is generally because of lack of time – a controversial private member's bill can be [[filibuster|"talked out". In some cases, measures that a government does not want to take responsibility for may be introduced by backbenchers, with the government secretly or openly backing the measure and ensuring its passage. They are sometimes known as "handouts" or "whips' bills". The [[Abortion Act 1967 was enacted in the [[United Kingdom through this means: with the Bill itself being introduced by a [[Liberal Party (UK)|Liberal Party Member of Parliament, [[David Steel; through the support from Labour [[Home Secretary [[Roy Jenkins the Bill was given enough government time to allow a full debate. Other private member's bills to have been enacted include the Adoption Act 1964, the [[Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965, the [[Charter trustees#Charter Trustees Act 1985|Charter Trustees Act 1985, the [[Law Reform (Year and a Day Rule) Act 1996, the [[Knife legislation#Knives Act 1997|Knives Act 1997, the [[British nationality law and Hong Kong#British Nationality (Hong Kong) Act, 1997: British citizenship for British Nationals (Overseas) without Chinese ancestry|British Nationality (Hong Kong) Act 1997, the Mental Health (Discrimination) Act 2003 the [[Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003, the [[Gangmasters (Licensing) Act 2004, the [[Sustainable Communities Act|Sustainable Communities Act 2007. Current legislation in progress as a result of a member's bill includes: *[[Hong Kong Bill 2019-21 -place requirements on relating to the Sino-British Joint Declaration 1984 and human rights in Hong Kong.

House of Commons procedure

In principle, private members' bills follow much the same [[Act of Parliament#Procedure|parliamentary stages as any other bill. In practice, the procedural barriers to passage are much greater. Time is allocated for private members' bills on 13 Fridays a year in the [[British House of Commons|House of Commons. Five hours of time are available each day, and several private members' bills are scheduled for each session. Unlike Government bills, debates are not timetabled and there is no guarantee that the debate will finish within the time available. MPs opposed to a private member's bill, including Government [[Minister (government)|ministers and [[Whip (politics)|whips, will routinely attempt to [[talked out|talk out the bill, stopping further progress by preventing a vote. The bill's proponent can force a vote only with the support of at least a hundred members (and a majority of those voting). As many MPs return to their constituencies on Thursday night, this has the practical effect of blocking all private members' bills without solid support. It is quite possible for the first bill to take up all five hours, preventing any other bill on the agenda from being debated. Any bill not debated may receive second reading without debate at the end of the session, but a single shout of "object!" will delay consideration to a future date; Government and opposition whips routinely block contentious private members' bills in this way. Another date for second reading will also be set for bills which have been talked out. This is a formality; the bill will be put to the bottom of the [[order paper, will likely be objected to on each future occasion and has no practical chance of success. Even if second reading is passed, a bill is likely to need the support of the government to become law. The bill will be referred to [[public bill committee, which may make amendments. The amended version of the bill will then return to the Commons. To become law, it must also successfully negotiate report stage and third reading, as well as the [[House of Lords. Contentious bills are likely to run out of parliamentary time unless the government allocates some; any pending private members' bills lapse at the end of each parliamentary session. Private members' bills may also originate in the House of Lords. To become law, these bills must be adopted by an MP and passed in the same way as a Commons originated bill.

See also

*[[Bill (proposed law) *[[Private bill *[[Right of initiative (legislative) *[[Motion (parliamentary procedure) *[[Table (parliamentary procedure), which has a different meaning in the US compared to the other countries mentioned in this article.


External links

UK Parliament website: Bill Procedure

UK Parliament website: The result of the Private Members' Bill ballot for the current session

House of Commons Factsheet: Private Members' Bills Procedure

House of Commons Factsheet: Success of Private Members' Bills
{{DEFAULTSORT:Private Member's Bill [[Category:Westminster system [[Category:Proposed laws of the United Kingdom [[Category:Parliament of India [[Category:Parliament of Canada