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Janitorial_workers_striking_in_front_of_the_MTV_building_in_Santa_Monica,_California.html" "title="MTV.html" ;"title="Janitorial workers striking in front of the MTV">Janitorial workers striking in front of the MTV building in Santa Monica, California">Santa Monica Santa Monica () is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, is the most populous county in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly k ...
, California. Although striking in a trade union is a way of exercising freedom of assembly and freedom of association, other aspects of the conduct of the workers depicted here, such as pedestrian blocking of vehicle traffic in whichever direction has the right of way at this signal-controlled intersection, may violate local or state laws such as California Vehicle Code § 21950(b). Freedom of peaceful assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the
individual right or ability
individual right or ability
of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas. The right to freedom of association is recognized as a human right, a political right and a civil liberty. The terms ''freedom of assembly'' and ''freedom of association'' may be used to distinguish between the freedom to assemble in public places and the freedom to join an association. Freedom of assembly is often used in the context of the right to protest, while freedom of association is used in the context of labor rights and in the
Constitution of the United States The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primar ...
is interpreted to mean both the freedom to assemble and the freedom to join an association.


Human rights instruments

Freedom of assembly is included in, among others, the following human rights instruments: *
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 21 ...
– Article 20 * International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights – Article 21 *
European Convention on Human Rights The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international convention to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe. Drafted in 1950 by t ...
Article 11 * American Convention on Human Rights – Article 15 National and regional constitutions that recognize freedom of assembly include: *
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, :bn:বাংলাদেশ, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, eighth-most populous country ...
– Articles 37 and 38 of the Constitution of Bangladesh guarantee the freedom of association and assembly. * Brazil – Article 5 of the Constitution of Brazil * Canada – S. 2 of the ''Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms'' which forms part of the ''Constitution Act, 1982'' * France – Article 431-1 of the ''Nouveau Code Pénal'' * Germany – Article 8 GG (Grundgesetz, Basic Law) * Hungary – Article VIII (1) of the Constitution of Hungary, Fundamental Law * India – Fundamental Rights in India * Republic of Ireland, Ireland – Article 40.6.1° of the Constitution of Ireland, Constitution, as enumerated under the heading "Fundamental Rights" * Italy – Article 17 of the Italian Constitution, Constitution * Japan – Article 21 of the Constitution of Japan * Macau Basic Law - Article 27 * Malaysia – Article 10 of the Constitution of Malaysia * Mexico – Article 9 of the Constitution of Mexico * New Zealand – Section 16 New Zealand Bill of Rights Act 1990 * Norway – Section 101 of the Constitution of Norway * Philippines – Article III, Section 4 of the Constitution of the Philippines * Poland – Article 57 of the Constitution of Poland * Freedom of assembly in Russia, Russia – Articles 30 and 31 of the Constitution of Russia guarantee the freedom of association and peaceful assembly. * South Africa Bill of Rights – Article 17 * Spain – Article 21 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 * Sweden – Chapter 2 of The Basic Laws of Sweden, Instrument of Government * Taiwan (Republic of China) – Article 14 guarantees freedom of assembly and association. * Turkey – Articles 33 and 34 of the Constitution of Turkey guarantee the freedom of association and assembly. * UAE – The UAE Constitution protects freedom of peaceful assembly. * United States – First Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Constitution of the United States


See also

* Free speech zone * Right to protest * Strategy-31 * Unlawful assembly * United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association


References


External links


Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly
OSCE/ODIHR, 2007 *
Guidelines on Freedom of Peaceful Assembly (2nd edition)
Venice Commission and OSCE/ODIHR, 2010 {{Authority control Freedom of assembly, Human rights by issue