HOME
TheInfoList



A film producer is a person who oversees
film production Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film is made. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound ...
. Either employed by a
production company#REDIRECT Production company#REDIRECT Production company {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
or working independently, producers plan and coordinate various aspects of film production, such as selecting the script; coordinating writing, directing, editing; and arranging financing. During the "discovery stage", the producer finds and selects promising material for development. Then, unless the film is based on an existing script, the producer has to hire a
screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs and video games, are based. ...
and oversee the
development of the script
development of the script
. Once a script is completed, the producer will lead a
pitch Pitch may refer to: Acoustic frequency * Pitch (music), the perceived frequency of sound including "definite pitch" and "indefinite pitch" ** Absolute pitch or "perfect pitch" ** Pitch class, a set of all pitches that are a whole number of octaves ...
to secure the financial backing (a " green light") to allow production to begin. The producer also supervises the pre-production, production, and post-production stages of filmmaking. One of the most important tasks is to hire the
director Director may refer to: Literature * ''Director'' (magazine), a British magazine * ''The Director'' (novel), a 1971 novel by Henry Denker * ''The Director'' (play), a 2000 play by Nancy Hasty Music * Director (band), an Irish rock band * ''Directo ...
and other key crew members. Whereas the director makes the creative decisions during the production, the producer typically manages the logistics and business operations, though some directors also produce their own films. The producer is tasked with making sure the film is delivered on time and within budget, and has the final say on creative decisions. Finally, the producer will oversee the marketing and
distributionDistribution may refer to: Mathematics *Distribution (mathematics), generalized functions used to formulate solutions of partial differential equations *Probability distribution, the probability of a particular value or value range of a variabl ...
. For various reasons, producers cannot always supervise all of the production. In this case, the main producer or executive producer may hire and delegate work to associate producers, assistant producers,
line producerA line producer is a type of film producer who is the key manager during daily operations of a feature film, advertisement film, television film, or an episode of a TV program. A line producer usually works on one film at a time. They are responsible ...
s or
unit production manager In the cinema of the United States, a unit production manager (UPM) is the Directors Guild of America–approved title for the top below-the-line staff position, responsible for the administration of a feature film or television production. Non-DGA ...
s.


Types

Different types of producers and their roles within the industry today include:


Executive producer

The executive producer oversees all of the other producers working on the same project. They make sure that the producers are fulfilling their roles on the given production. They are also usually in charge of managing the film's finances and handling all other business aspects of the film.Zetti, Herbert (2011). ''Television Production Handbook 12th Edition''. Cengage Learning. p. 7. On a
TV series upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, - excluding breaking news, advertise ...
an Executive Producer or Co-Executive Producer is often a writer and given the credit in a creative capacity. On a
Feature Feature may refer to: Computing * Feature (CAD), could be a hole, pocket, or notch * Feature (computer vision), could be an edge, corner or blob * Feature (software design) is an intentional distinguishing characteristic of a software item (i ...
or Movie the Executive Producer is often the person directly funding the movie or the person who found the investors or company that provided the funding.


Line producer

The line producer manages the staff and day-to-day operations and oversees each and every physical aspect that is involved in the making of a film or television program. The line producer can be credited as "produced by" in certain cases.


Supervising producer

The supervising producer supervises the creative process of screenplay development and often aids in script re-writes. They can also fulfill the executive producer's role of overseeing other producers.


Producer

Within the production process, a producer can oversee, arrange, manage, and begin every aspect. They are involved in every stage of the overall production process.


Co-producer

A co-producer is a member of a team of producers that perform all of the functions and roles that a single producer would have in a single given project.


Coordinating producer or production coordinator

A coordinating producer coordinates the work/role of multiple producers who are trying to achieve a shared result.


Associate producer or assistant producer

The associate or assistant producer helps the producer during the production process. They can sometimes be involved in coordinating others' jobs, such as creating peoples' schedules and hiring the main talent.


Segment producer

A segment producer produces one or more single specific segments of a multi-segment film or television production.


Field producer

A field producer helps the producer by overseeing all of the production that takes place outside of the studio in specific locations for the film.


Responsibilities


Development and Pre-production

During this stage of the production process, producers bring together people like the
film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, produ ...
,
cinematographer A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical d ...
, and
production designer#REDIRECT Production designer {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Unless the film is supposed to be based on an original script, the producer has to find an appropriate
screenwriter A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist, is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs and video games, are based. ...
. If an existing script is considered flawed, they are able to order a new version or make the decision to hire a
script doctor A script doctor is a writer or playwright hired by a film, television, or theatre production to rewrite an existing script or polish specific aspects of it, including structure, characterization, dialogue, pacing, themes, and other elements. Scrip ...
. The producer also has the final say on hiring the
film director A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, produ ...
, cast members, and other staff. In some cases, they also have the last word when it comes to casting questions. A producer's role will also consist of approving locations, the studio hire, the final
shooting script A shooting script is the version of a screenplay used during the production of a motion picture. Shooting scripts are distinct from spec scripts in that they make use of scene numbers (along with certain other formatting conventions described below ...
, the
production schedule The production schedule is a project plan of how the production budget will be spent over a given timescale, for every phase of a business project. The scheduling process starts with the script, which is analysed and broken down, scene by scene, ...
, and the budget. More time and money spent in pre-production can reduce the time and money wasted during production time.


Production

During production, the producer's job is to make sure the film stays on schedule and under budget. They will always be in contact with directors and other key creative team members. For various reasons, producers cannot always personally supervise all parts of their production. For example, some producers run a company which also deals with film distribution. Also, cast and
film crew A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or pr ...

film crew
often work at different times and places, and certain films even require a
second unit#REDIRECT Second unit#REDIRECT Second unit {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
.


Post-production

During post-production, the producer has the last word on whether sounds, music, or scenes have to be changed or cut. Even if the shooting has been finished, the producers can still demand that additional scenes be filmed. In the case of a negative
test screening A test screening is a preview screening of a movie or television show before its general release to gauge audience reaction. Preview audiences are selected from a cross-section of the population and are usually asked to complete a questionnaire or p ...
, producers may even demand and get an alternative film ending. For example, the audience reacted very negatively to
Rambo Rambo is a surname with Norwegian (Vestfold) and Swedish origins. It possibly originated with ''ramn'' + ''bo'', meaning "raven's nest". It has variants in French (''Rambeau'' and ''Rimbaud'') and German (''Rambow''). It is now best known from the ' ...
's death in the test screening for the film ''
First Blood ''First Blood'' is a 1982 American action film directed by Ted Kotcheff, and co-written by Sylvester Stallone, who also stars as Vietnam War veteran John Rambo. It co-stars Richard Crenna and Brian Dennehy, and is the first installment in the '' ...
'', and the producers requested that the cast and crew shoot a new ending. Producers also oversee the sales, marketing and distribution rights of the film, often working with specialist third-party firms.


The union

Within the United States film and television industry, all producers union contracts are negotiated by The Alliance of Motion Picture and Television Producers (AMPTP). It was founded in 1924 by the U.S Trade Association as the Association of Motion Picture Producers. The AMPTP was originally responsible for negotiating labor contracts, but during the mid-1930s it took over all contract negotiation responsibilities previously controlled by the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS, often pronounced ; also known as simply the Academy or the Motion Picture Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion ...
. Today, the AMPTP negotiates with various industry associations when dealing with producers union contracts, including the
American Federation of Television and Radio Artists The American Federation of Television and Radio Artists (AFTRA) was a performers' union that represented a wide variety of talent, including actors in radio and television, radio and television announcers and newspersons, singers and recording ar ...
(AFTRA), the
Directors Guild of America The Directors Guild of America (DGA) is an entertainment guild that represents the interests of film and television directors in the United States motion picture industry and abroad. Founded as the Screen Directors Guild in 1936, the group merged w ...
(DGA), and the
Screen Actors Guild The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) was an American labor union which represented over 100,000 film and television principal and background performers worldwide. On March 30, 2012, the union leadership announced that the SAG membership voted to merge ...
(SAG). In 2012, the AMPTP negotiated over eighty industry-wide union agreements on behalf of 350 producers. Since 1982, the AMPT has been responsible for negotiating these union agreements and it's now considered the official contract negotiation representative for everyone within the industry.


Career process

Many producers start in a college, university or
film school A film school is any educational institution dedicated to teaching aspects of filmmaking, including such subjects as film production, film theory, digital media production, and screenwriting. Film history courses and hands-on technical training are ...
. On the occasion of announcing his own film school, 'École de la Cité, film producer
Luc Besson Luc Paul Maurice Besson (; born 18 March 1959) is a French film director, screenwriter, and producer. He directed or produced the films ''Subway'' (1985), ''The Big Blue'' (1988), and ''La Femme Nikita'' (1990). Besson is associated with the ''C ...
admitted that at the beginning of his career, he would have appreciated the chance to attend a film school.
Film school A film school is any educational institution dedicated to teaching aspects of filmmaking, including such subjects as film production, film theory, digital media production, and screenwriting. Film history courses and hands-on technical training are ...
s and many
universities A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically offer both undergraduate and postgraduate programs. ...

universities
offer degree courses that include film production knowledge, with some courses that are especially designed for future film producers. These courses focus on key topics like pitching,
script development Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of handwriting) * Script (Unicode), historical and modern scripts as organise ...
, script assessment, shooting schedule design, and budgeting. Students can also expect practical training regarding
post-production 275px, A video editing suite Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, audio production, and photography. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segm ...
. Training at a top producing school is one of the most efficient ways a student can show professionals they are not a rookie. While education is one way to begin a career as a film producer, experience is also required to land a job.
Internship An internship is a period of work experience offered by an organization for a limited period of time. Once confined to medical graduates, internship is used for a wide range of placements in businesses, non-profit organizations and government agen ...
s are a great way to gain experience while in school and give students a solid foundation on which to build their career. Many internships are paid, which enable students to earn money while gaining hands-on skills from industry professionals. Through internships, students get to network with people in the film industry as well. This pays off in the end when looking for jobs after school. Once an internship is over, the next step typically will be to land a junior position, such as a
production assistant#REDIRECT production assistant {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Although rates can vary based on a producer's role and the location of filming, the average salary can start anywhere from $20,000 to $70,000, even doubling when working in Los Angeles. The average annual salary for a producer in the U.S. is $109,844. When examining more than 15,000 producers in the
Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially the City of Los Angeles and often abbreviated as L.A., is the largest city in California. With an estimated population of nearly four million people, it is the second most populous ...
metropolitan area, the average annual salary is $138,640. Producers can also have an agreement to take a percentage of a movie's sales. There is no average workday for a film producer since their tasks are changing from day today. A producer's work hours are often irregular and can consist of very long days with the possibility of working nights and weekends.


See also

* List of highest-grossing film producers


References


Further reading

* * * *


External links

* *
Producers Guild of America The Producers Guild of America (PGA) is a 501(c)(6) trade association representing television producers, film producers and New Media producers in the United States. The PGA's membership includes over 7,000 members of the producing establishment wor ...
{{Authority control Entertainment occupations Filmmaking occupations
Mass media occupationsThis category groups articles related to occupations within the media industry. {{Commons category, Media occupations Occupations Occupations by type ...