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An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''
ex officio An ''ex officio'' member is a member of a body (notably a board, committee, council) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office. The term ''List of Latin phrases (E)#ex officio, ex officio'' is Latin, meaning literally 'from the office', ...
'' is
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the ...
, meaning literally 'from the office', and the sense intended is 'by right of office'; its use dates back to the Roman Republic. According to '' Robert's Rules of Order'', the term denotes only how one becomes a member of a body. Accordingly, the rights of an ''ex officio'' member are exactly the same as other members unless otherwise stated in regulations or bylaws.It relates to the notion that the position refers the position the ex officio holds, rather than the individual that holds the position. In some groups, ''ex officio'' members may frequently abstain from voting. Opposite notions are dual mandate, when the same person happens to hold two offices (or more), although these offices are not in themselves associated; and
personal union A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch A monarch is a head of stateWebster's II New College DictionarMonarch Houghton Mifflin. Boston. 2001. p. 707. Life tenure, for life or until abdication, and ...
, when two states share the same monarch.


For profit and nonprofit use

Any ''ex officio'' membership (for example, of committees, or of the board) is as defined by the nonprofit association's bylaws or other documents of authority. For example, the bylaws quite often provide that the organization's president will be ''ex officio'' a member of all committees, except the nominating committee.


Governmental examples


Brazil

In the Empire of Brazil, some princes became members by right of the
Imperial Senate
Imperial Senate
once they turn 25.


China

According to the Constitution of the Communist Party of China, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must be a member of Politburo Standing Committee.


Hong Kong

, the Executive Council of
Hong Kong Hong Kong (, ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR) (), is a metropolitan area and Special administrative regions of China, special administrative region of the China, People's Repu ...
is still composed of ''ex officio'' members (official members since 1997) and unofficial members (non-official members since 1997). By practice the ''ex officio'' members include the secretaries of departments, i.e. the Chief Secretary, the Financial Secretary and the Secretary for Justice. Since 2002 all Principal officials of Hong Kong, secretaries of bureaux are also appointed by the Chief Executive (Hong Kong), Chief Executive to be official members of the Executive Council. But since 2005 the secretaries of bureaux attend only when items on the agenda concern their portfolios.


Andorra

The President of the French Republic and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Urgell, Catholic Bishop of Urgell are by virtue of office (''ex officio'') appointed Co-Princes of Andorra.


India

The Vice-President of India is ''ex officio'' Chairman of Rajya Sabha, the Upper House of the Indian Parliament. The Prime Minister of India is ''ex officio'' Chairman of NITI Aayog. Other ''ex officio'' members of NITI Aayog are the Minister of Home Affairs (India), Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Finance (India), Minister of Finance, Minister of Railways (India), Minister of Railways and the Minister of Agriculture (India), Minister of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.


Philippines

In Sangguniang Panlalawigan, provincial boards, the provincial presidents of the League of Barangays in the Philippines, League of Barangays (villages), Sangguniang Kabataan (youth councils) and of the Philippine Councilors League sit as ''ex officio'' board members. In Sangguniang Panlungsod, city and Sangguniang Bayan, municipal councils, the city and municipal presidents of the League of Barangays and the youth councils sit as ''ex officio'' councilors. The deputies of local chief executives (vice governors and vice mayors) are ''ex officio'' presiding officers of their respective legislatures, but Casting vote, can only vote when there is a tie. In Congress of the Philippines, Congress, the presiding officers and their deputies, and the majority and minority leaders are ''ex officio'' members of all committees. The chairman on each chamber's committee on rules is the majority leader. The President of the Senate of the Philippines, Senate President is the ''ex officio'' chairman of Commission on Appointments. In the Judicial and Bar Council, several positions are due to occupying another office.


United Kingdom

In the House of Lords, the bishops of the five Great Sees of Canterbury, York, London, Durham, England, Durham and Winchester, and the 21 next most senior bishops of the Church of England, are ''ex officio'' members, and are entitled to vote just as any other member.


Scotland

The Lord President of the Court of Session is by virtue of office appointed as Lord Justice General of Scotland. As such, he is both head of the judiciary of Scotland, president of the Court of Session (the most senior civil law (common law), civil court in Scotland), and president of the High Court of Justiciary (the most senior criminal justice, criminal court in Scotland).


United States


Federal government

The United States Vice President of the United States, Vice President, who also serves as President of the United States Senate, Senate, may vote in the Senate on matters decided by a majority vote (as opposed to a three-fifths vote or two-thirds vote), if the votes for passage and rejection are equally divided. Also the leader of the parties in both houses are ''ex officio'' members of the United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, House and United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, Senate intelligence committees. Many committee chairs in the House of Representatives are United States congressional subcommittee#Service_on_subcommittees, ''ex officio'' members of subcommittees.


Colorado

In most Colorado counties, the county Sheriffs_in_the_United_States#Colorado, sheriff is elected by the citizens of the county. However, in the City and County of Denver, the mayor of Denver appoints a "Manager of Safety" who oversees the Department of Safety (including the Fire, Police, and Sheriff Departments) and is the ''ex officio'' sheriff of the jurisdiction. Similarly, in the City and County of Broomfield, Colorado, near Denver, the police chief (an appointed position) also acts ''ex officio'' as the county sheriff.


New York City

The Speaker of the New York City Council, and its Majority and Minority Leaders, are all ''ex officio'' members of each of its committees. Furthermore, each member of the Council is a non-voting ''ex officio'' member of each Community boards of New York City, community board whose boundaries include any of the council member's constituents.


References

{{reflist Meetings