HOME
TheInfoList



Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the
social behavior Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms within the same species, and encompasses any behavior in which one member affects the other. This is due to an interaction among those members. Social behavior can be seen as similar to an e ...
and norms found in
human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and intelligence allowing the use of culture, language and tools. They are the only extant members ...

human
societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societi ...

societies
, as well as the
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts (descriptive knowledge), skills (procedural knowledge), or objects (acquaintance knowledge). By most accounts, knowledge can be acquired in many diff ...
,
belief A belief is an attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes about the world which can be either true or false. To believe somethi ...
s,
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and ideas ...
s,
law Law is a system of rules created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior,Robertson, ''Crimes against humanity'', 90. with its precise definition a matter of longstanding debate. It has been variously descr ...
s,
customs Customs is an authority or agency in a country responsible for collecting tariffs and for controlling the flow of goods, including animals, transports, personal effects, and hazardous items, into and out of a country. Traditionally, customs has b ...
, capabilities, and
habit A habit (or wont as a humorous and formal term) is a routine of behavior that is repeated regularly and tends to occur subconsciously.
s of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). Primitive Culture. Vol 1. New York: J.P. Putnam's Son Humans acquire culture through the
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines; there is also evidence for some kind of learning i ...

learning
processes of
enculturation Enculturation is the process by which people learn the dynamics of their surrounding culture and acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary to that culture and its worldviews.Grusec, Joan E.; Hastings, Paul D. ''Handbook of Socialization: T ...

enculturation
and
socialization In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus "the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained".Clausen, John A. (e ...

socialization
, which is shown by the diversity of cultures across societies. A
cultural norm Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). ...

cultural norm
codifies acceptable conduct in society; it serves as a guideline for behavior, dress, language, and demeanor in a situation, which serves as a template for expectations in a social group. Accepting only a
monoculture Monoculture is the agricultural practice of growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time. Polyculture, where more than one crop species is grown in the same space at the same time, ...

monoculture
in a social group can bear risks, just as a single species can wither in the face of environmental change, for lack of functional responses to the change. Thus in military culture,
valor
valor
is counted a typical behavior for an individual and duty, honor, and loyalty to the social group are counted as virtues or functional responses in the
continuum of conflict A conflict continuum is a model or concept various social science researchers use when modeling conflict on a continuum from low to high-intensity, such as from aggression to irritation to explosiveness. The mathematical model of game theory orig ...

continuum of conflict
. In the practice of religion, analogous attributes can be identified in a social group.


Description

Culture is considered a central concept in
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and societies, in both the present and past, including past human species. Social anthropology studies patterns of behaviour, while cultur ...

anthropology
, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social
learning Learning is the process of acquiring new understanding, knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, attitudes, and preferences. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals, and some machines; there is also evidence for some kind of learning i ...

learning
in human
societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations. Societi ...

societies
.
Cultural universals A cultural universal (also called an anthropological universal or human universal), as discussed by Emile Durkheim, George Murdock, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Donald Brown and others, is an element, pattern, trait, or institution that is common to all ...

Cultural universals
are found in all human societies. These include expressive forms like
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and ideas ...
,
music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common e ...

music
,
dance Dance is a performing art form consisting of sequences of movement, either improvised or purposefully selected. This movement has aesthetic and often symbolic value. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repert ...

dance
,
ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed in a sequestered place and according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious community. Rit ...

ritual
,
religion Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, beliefs, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, and spiritual elem ...

religion
, and
technologies Technology ("science of craft", from Greek , ''techne'', "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and , ''-logia'') is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectiv ...

technologies
like
tool usage
tool usage
,
cooking Cooking or cookery is the art, science, and craft of using heat to prepare food for consumption. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, from grilling food over an open fire to using electric stoves, to baking in various ...

cooking
,
shelter Shelter often refers to: * Shelter (building), a basic architectural structure or building that provides cover * Animal shelter, a facility that houses homeless, lost, or abandoned animals; mostly dogs and cats * Homeless shelter, a temporary resid ...

shelter
, and
clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over time has included garments made from animal ski ...

clothing
. The concept of
material culture Material culture is the aspect of social reality grounded in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes the usage, consumption, creation, and trade of objects as well as the behaviors, norms, and rituals that the objects create ...

material culture
covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of
social organization In sociology, a social organization is a pattern of relationships between and among individuals and social groups. Characteristics of social organization can include qualities such as sexual composition, spatiotemporal cohesion, leadership, struc ...

social organization
(including practices of
political organization A political organization is any organization that involves itself in the political process, including political parties, non-governmental organizations, advocacy groups and special interest groups. Political organizations are those engaged in po ...

political organization
and social
institutions Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanisms which govern the behavior of a set of individuals within a given community, and are identified with a soc ...

institutions
),
mythology Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are usually gods, demigods, or supernatural humans.Simpson, Jacqueline, and Ste ...

mythology
,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was proba ...

philosophy
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to incl ...

literature
(both
written Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. Writing systems are not themselves human languages (with the debatable exception of computer languages); they are means of renderin ...

written
and
oral The word oral may refer to: Relating to the mouth * Relating to the mouth, the first portion of the alimentary canal that primarily receives food and liquid **Oral administration of medicines ** Oral examination (also known as an oral exam or oral ...

oral
), and
science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a discovery as w ...

science
comprise the
intangible cultural heritage An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage. Buildings, historic places, monuments, and artifacts are physical intellectual we ...

intangible cultural heritage
of a society. In the
humanities Humanities are academic disciplines that study aspects of human society and culture. In the Renaissance, the term contrasted with divinity and referred to what is now called classics, the main area of secular study in universities at the time. ...

humanities
, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in
the arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...

the arts
, sciences,
education Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include teaching, training, storytelling, discussion and directed research. Education fr ...

education
, or manners. The level of cultural sophistication has also sometimes been used to distinguish
civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbolic systems of communication (such as writing). Civilizations are intimately associat ...

civilization
s from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are also found in
class-based
class-based
distinctions between a
high culture High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, technology and economics * Height * High (atmospheric), a high-pressure area * High (computability), a quality of a Turing degree, in computability theory * High (technical analys ...

high culture
of the social
elite In political and sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a soc ...

elite
and a
low culture "Low culture" is a derogatory term for forms of popular culture that have mass appeal. Its contrast is "high culture", which can also be derogatory. It has been said by culture theorists that both high culture and low culture are subcultures. Popul ...

low culture
,
popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

popular culture
, or
folk culture Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material ...

folk culture
of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to
cultural capital In the field of sociology, cultural capital comprises the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech, style of dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society. Cultural capital functions as a social relatio ...

cultural capital
. In common parlance, culture is often used to refer specifically to the symbolic markers used by
ethnic groups An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, ...

ethnic groups
to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as
body modification Body modification (or body alteration) is the deliberate altering of the human anatomy or human physical appearance. It is often done for aesthetics, sexual enhancement, rites of passage, religious beliefs, to display group membership or affiliati ...

body modification
,
clothing A kanga, worn throughout the African Great Lakes region Clothing (also known as clothes, apparel and attire) are items worn on the body. Clothing is typically made of fabrics or textiles but over time has included garments made from animal ski ...

clothing
or
jewelry Jewellery or jewelry consists of decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks. Jewellery may be attached to the body or the clothes. From a western perspective, the ...

jewelry
.
Mass culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ... {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from ...

Mass culture refers to the
mass-produced Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch product ...

mass-produced
and
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets. Broadcast media transmit information el ...

mass media
ted forms of
consumer cultureIn cultural studies, media culture refers to the current Western capitalist society that emerged and developed from the 20th century, under the influence of mass media. The term alludes to the overall impact and intellectual guidance exerted by the m ...

consumer culture
that emerged in the 20th century. Some schools of philosophy, such as
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...

Marxism
and
critical theory#REDIRECT critical theory#REDIRECT critical theory {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

critical theory, have argued that culture is often used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the [[proletariat and create a [[false consciousness. Such perspectives are common in the discipline of [[cultural studies. In the wider [[social sciences, the theoretical perspective of [[cultural materialism (cultural studies)|cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, and that the basis of culture is found in [[human evolution|evolved biological dispositions. When used as a [[count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs, [[traditions, and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time. In this sense, [[multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is also used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a [[subculture (e.g. "[[bro culture"), or a [[counterculture. Within [[cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of [[cultural relativism hold that cultures cannot easily be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is necessarily situated within the value system of a given culture.


Etymology

The modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the [[Ancient Rome|ancient Roman orator [[Cicero in his ''[[Tusculanae Disputationes'', where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or ''"cultura animi,"'' using an [[agriculture|agricultural [[metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood [[teleology|teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. [[Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection. His use, and that of many writers after him, "''refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original [[Barbarian|barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human."'' In 1986, philosopher [[Edward S. Casey wrote, "The very word ''culture'' meant 'place tilled' in Middle English, and the same word goes back to Latin ''colere'', 'to inhabit, care for, till, worship' and ''cultus'', 'A cult, especially a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensely to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by [[Richard Velkley:
... originally meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its later modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing [[Rousseau's criticism of "[[modernity|modern [[liberalism and [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment." Thus a contrast between "culture" and "
civilization A civilization (or civilisation) is any complex society that is characterized by urban development, social stratification, a form of government, and symbolic systems of communication (such as writing). Civilizations are intimately associat ...

civilization
" is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such.
In the words of anthropologist [[Edward Burnett Tylor|E.B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses and material expressions, which, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common. The ''[[Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary|Cambridge English Dictionary'' states that culture is "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." [[Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person[s] of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the merely physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that ''Homo sapiens'' became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with [[symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively. This ability arose with the evolution of [[behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago and is often thought to be unique to humans. However, some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complicated, abilities for social learning. It is also used to denote the complex networks of practices and accumulated knowledge and ideas that are transmitted through social [[interaction and exist in specific human groups, or cultures, using the plural form.


Change

It has been estimated from archaeological data that the human capacity for cumulative culture emerged somewhere between 500,000–170,000 years ago. [[Raimon Panikkar identified 29 ways in which [[cultural change can be brought about, including growth, development, evolution, [[Involution (esoterism)|involution, renovation, [[reconception, reform, [[social innovation|innovation, revivalism, [[social revolution|revolution, [[mutation, [[social progress|progress, [[diffusion, [[Social osmosis|osmosis, borrowing, [[eclecticism, [[syncretism, modernization, [[indigenization, and transformation. In this context, modernization could be viewed as adoption of Enlightenment era beliefs and practices, such as science, rationalism, industry, commerce, democracy, and the notion of progress. [[Rein Raud, building on the work of [[Umberto Eco, [[Pierre Bourdieu and [[Jeffrey C. Alexander, has proposed a model of cultural change based on claims and bids, which are judged by their [[cognitive adequacy and endorsed or not endorsed by the symbolic authority of the cultural community in question. [[Cultural invention has come to mean any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior but which does not exist as a physical object. Humanity is in a global "accelerating culture change period," driven by the expansion of international commerce, the mass media, and above all, the [[World population|human population explosion, among other factors. [[Culture change|Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the cultural concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change. These forces are related to both [[social structures and natural events, and are involved in the perpetuation of cultural ideas and practices within [[structuration|current structures, which themselves are subject to change. Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new [[schema (psychology)|cultural models, and spurring or enabling [[generative actor|generative action. These social shifts may accompany [[ideology|ideological shifts and other types of cultural change. For example, the U.S. [[feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may also enter as factors. For example, after tropical forests returned at the end of the last [[ice age, plants suitable for domestication were available, leading to the invention of [[agriculture, which in turn brought about many cultural innovations and shifts in social dynamics. Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may also produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices. War or competition over resources may impact technological development or social dynamics. Additionally, cultural ideas may transfer from one society to another, through diffusion or acculturation. In [[diffusion (anthropology)|diffusion, the form of something (though not necessarily its meaning) moves from one culture to another. For example, Western restaurant chains and culinary brands sparked curiosity and fascination to the Chinese as China opened its economy to international trade in the late 20th-century. "Stimulus diffusion" (the sharing of ideas) refers to an element of one culture leading to an invention or propagation in another. "Direct borrowing," on the other hand, tends to refer to technological or tangible diffusion from one culture to another. [[Diffusion of innovations theory presents a research-based model of why and when individuals and cultures adopt new ideas, practices, and products.Stephen Wolfram (May 16, 2017) A New Kind of Science: A 15-Year View
As applied to the computational universe
[[Acculturation has different meanings. Still, in this context, it refers to the replacement of traits of one culture with another, such as what happened to certain [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native American tribes and many indigenous peoples across the globe during the process of [[colonization. Related processes on an individual level include [[cultural assimilation|assimilation (adoption of a different culture by an individual) and [[transculturation. The transnational flow of culture has played a major role in merging different cultures and sharing thoughts, ideas, and beliefs.


Early modern discourses


German Romanticism

[[Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) formulated an individualist definition of "enlightenment" similar to the concept of ''[[bildung'': "Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-incurred immaturity." He argued that this immaturity comes not from a lack of understanding, but from a lack of courage to think independently. Against this intellectual cowardice, Kant urged: ''Sapere Aude'', "Dare to be wise!" In reaction to Kant, German scholars such as [[Johann Gottfried Herder (1744–1803) argued that human creativity, which necessarily takes unpredictable and highly diverse forms, is as important as human rationality. Moreover, Herder proposed a collective form of ''Bildung'': "For Herder, Bildung was the totality of experiences that provide a coherent identity, and sense of common destiny, to a people." In 1795, the Prussian linguist and philosopher [[Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835) called for an anthropology that would synthesize Kant's and Herder's interests. During the [[Romanticism|Romantic era, scholars in [[Germany, especially those concerned with [[nationalism|nationalist movements—such as the nationalist struggle to create a "Germany" out of diverse principalities, and the nationalist struggles by ethnic minorities against the [[Austro-Hungarian Empire—developed a more inclusive notion of culture as "[[world view|worldview" (''Weltanschauung''). According to this school of thought, each ethnic group has a distinct worldview that is incommensurable with the worldviews of other groups. Although more inclusive than earlier views, this approach to culture still allowed for distinctions between "civilized" and "primitive" or "tribal" cultures. In 1860, [[Adolf Bastian (1826–1905) argued for "the psychic unity of mankind." He proposed that a scientific comparison of all human societies would reveal that distinct worldviews consisted of the same basic elements. According to Bastian, all human societies share a set of "elementary ideas" (''Elementargedanken''); different cultures, or different "folk ideas" (''Völkergedanken''), are local modifications of the elementary ideas. This view paved the way for the modern understanding of culture. [[Franz Boas (1858–1942) was trained in this tradition, and he brought it with him when he left Germany for the United States.


English Romanticism

In the 19th century, [[Humanism|humanists such as [[English people|English poet and essayist [[Matthew Arnold (1822–1888) used the word "culture" to refer to an ideal of individual human refinement, of "the best that has been thought and said in the world." This concept of culture is also comparable to the [[German people|German concept of ''bildung'': "...culture being a pursuit of our total [[perfection by means of getting to know, on all the matters which most concern us, the best which has been thought and said in the world." In practice, ''culture'' referred to an
elite In political and sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a soc ...

elite
ideal and was associated with such activities as
art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities involving creative imagination to express technical proficiency, beauty, emotional power, or conceptual ideas. There is no generally agreed definition of what constitutes art, and ideas ...
, [[European classical music|classical music, and [[haute cuisine. As these forms were associated with urban life, "culture" was identified with "civilization" (from lat. ''civitas'', city). Another facet of the [[Romanticism|Romantic movement was an interest in [[folklore, which led to identifying a "culture" among non-elites. This distinction is often characterized as that between
high culture High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, technology and economics * Height * High (atmospheric), a high-pressure area * High (computability), a quality of a Turing degree, in computability theory * High (technical analys ...

high culture
, namely that of the [[Ruling class|ruling [[social group, and
low culture "Low culture" is a derogatory term for forms of popular culture that have mass appeal. Its contrast is "high culture", which can also be derogatory. It has been said by culture theorists that both high culture and low culture are subcultures. Popul ...

low culture
. In other words, the idea of "culture" that developed in Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries reflected inequalities within European societies. Matthew Arnold contrasted "culture" with [[anarchy; other Europeans, following [[philosophy|philosophers [[Thomas Hobbes and [[Jean-Jacques Rousseau, contrasted "culture" with "the state of nature." According to Hobbes and Rousseau, the [[Indigenous peoples of the Americas|Native Americans who were being conquered by Europeans from the 16th centuries on were living in a state of nature; this opposition was expressed through the contrast between "civilized" and "uncivilized." According to this way of thinking, one could classify some countries and nations as more civilized than others and some people as more cultured than others. This contrast led to [[Herbert Spencer's theory of [[Social Darwinism and [[Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of [[cultural evolution. Just as some critics have argued that the distinction between high and low cultures is an expression of the conflict between European elites and non-elites, other critics have argued that the distinction between civilized and uncivilized people is an expression of the conflict between European colonial powers and their colonial subjects. Other 19th-century critics, following Rousseau, have accepted this differentiation between higher and lower culture, but have seen the refinement and [[sophistication of high culture as corrupting and unnatural developments that obscure and distort people's essential nature. These critics considered [[folk music (as produced by "the folk," i.e., rural, illiterate, peasants) to honestly express a natural way of life, while classical music seemed superficial and decadent. Equally, this view often portrayed [[indigenous peoples as "[[noble savages" living [[authenticity (philosophy)|authentic and unblemished lives, uncomplicated and uncorrupted by the highly stratified [[capitalism|capitalist systems of [[Western culture|the West. In 1870 the anthropologist [[Edward Burnett Tylor|Edward Tylor (1832–1917) applied these ideas of higher versus lower culture to propose a theory of the [[evolution of religion. According to this theory, religion evolves from more polytheistic to more monotheistic forms. In the process, he redefined culture as a diverse set of activities characteristic of all human societies. This view paved the way for the modern understanding of religion.


Anthropology

Although anthropologists worldwide refer to Tylor's definition of culture, in the 20th century "culture" emerged as the central and unifying concept of American
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and societies, in both the present and past, including past human species. Social anthropology studies patterns of behaviour, while cultur ...

anthropology
, where it most commonly refers to the universal human capacity to classify and encode human [[experiences [[symbolically, and to communicate symbolically encoded experiences socially. American anthropology is organized into four fields, each of which plays an important role in research on culture: [[biological anthropology, [[linguistic anthropology, [[cultural anthropology, and in the United States and Canada, [[archaeology. The term ''Kulturbrille'', or "culture glasses," coined by German American anthropologist [[Franz Boas, refers to the "lenses" through which we see our own countries. Martin Lindstrom asserts that ''Kulturbrille'', which allow us to make sense of the culture we inhabit, also "can blind us to things outsiders pick up immediately."


Sociology

The [[sociology of culture concerns culture as manifested in [[society. For sociologist [[Georg Simmel (1858–1918), culture referred to "the cultivation of individuals through the agency of external forms which have been objectified in the course of history." As such, culture in the [[sociology|sociological field can be defined as the ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together shape a people's way of life. Culture can be any of two types, [[non-material culture or
material culture Material culture is the aspect of social reality grounded in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes the usage, consumption, creation, and trade of objects as well as the behaviors, norms, and rituals that the objects create ...

material culture
. Non-material culture refers to the non-physical ideas that individuals have about their culture, including values, belief systems, rules, norms, morals, language, organizations, and institutions, while material culture is the physical evidence of a culture in the objects and architecture they make or have made. The term tends to be relevant only in archeological and anthropological studies, but it specifically means all material evidence which can be attributed to culture, past or present. Cultural sociology first emerged in [[Weimar Republic|Weimar Germany (1918–1933), where sociologists such as [[Alfred Weber used the term ''Kultursoziologie'' (cultural sociology). Cultural sociology was then "reinvented" in the English-speaking world as a product of the "[[cultural turn" of the 1960s, which ushered in [[structuralism (sociology)|structuralist and [[postmodern philosophy|postmodern approaches to social science. This type of cultural sociology may be loosely regarded as an approach incorporating [[cultural analysis and
critical theory#REDIRECT critical theory#REDIRECT critical theory {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

critical theory. Cultural sociologists tend to reject scientific methods, instead [[Hermeneutics|hermeneutically focusing on words, artifacts and symbols. "Culture" has since become an important concept across many branches of sociology, including resolutely scientific fields like [[social stratification and [[social network|social network analysis. As a result, there has been a recent influx of quantitative sociologists to the field. Thus, there is now a growing group of sociologists of culture who are, confusingly, not cultural sociologists. These scholars reject the abstracted postmodern aspects of cultural sociology, and instead, look for a theoretical backing in the more scientific vein of [[social psychology and [[cognitive science.


Early researchers and development of cultural sociology

The sociology of culture grew from the intersection between sociology (as shaped by early theorists like [[Karl Marx|Marx, [[Émile Durkheim|Durkheim, and [[Max Weber|Weber) with the growing discipline of
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and societies, in both the present and past, including past human species. Social anthropology studies patterns of behaviour, while cultur ...

anthropology
, wherein researchers pioneered ethnographic strategies for describing and analyzing a variety of cultures around the world. Part of the legacy of the early development of the field lingers in the methods (much of cultural, sociological research is qualitative), in the theories (a variety of critical approaches to sociology are central to current research communities), and in the substantive focus of the field. For instance, relationships between
popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

popular culture, political control, and [[social class were early and lasting concerns in the field.


Cultural studies

In the United Kingdom, sociologists and other scholars influenced by
Marxism Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict as well as a dialectical perspective to vi ...

Marxism
such as [[Stuart Hall (cultural theorist)|Stuart Hall (1932–2014) and [[Raymond Williams (1921–1988) developed [[cultural studies. Following nineteenth-century Romantics, they identified "culture" with consumption goods and leisure activities (such as art, music, film, [[food, sports, and clothing). They saw patterns of consumption and leisure as determined by [[relations of production, which led them to focus on class relations and the organization of production. In the United States, cultural studies focuses largely on the study of
popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

popular culture; that is, on the social meanings of mass-produced consumer and leisure goods. [[Richard Hoggart coined the term in 1964 when he founded the Birmingham [[Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies or CCCS. It has since become strongly associated with [[Stuart Hall (cultural theorist)|Stuart Hall, who succeeded Hoggart as Director. Cultural studies in this sense, then, can be viewed as a limited concentration scoped on the intricacies of consumerism, which belongs to a wider culture sometimes referred to as "[[Western culture|Western civilization" or "[[globalism." From the 1970s onward, Stuart Hall's pioneering work, along with that of his colleagues [[Paul Willis (cultural theorist)|Paul Willis, [[Dick Hebdige, Tony Jefferson, and [[Angela McRobbie, created an international intellectual movement. As the field developed, it began to combine [[political economy, [[communication, [[sociology, [[social theory, [[literary theory, [[Media influence|media theory, [[film theory|film/video studies, [[cultural anthropology,
philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, existence, knowledge, values, mind, and language. Such questions are often posed as problems to be studied or resolved. The term was proba ...

philosophy
, [[museum studies, and [[art history to study cultural phenomena or cultural texts. In this field researchers often concentrate on how particular phenomena relate to matters of [[ideology, [[nationality, [[ethnicity, [[social class, and/or [[gender. Cultural studies is concerned with the [[Value (personal and cultural)|meaning and practices of everyday life. These practices comprise the ways people do particular things (such as watching television or eating out) in a given culture. It also studies the meanings and uses people attribute to various objects and practices. Specifically, culture involves those meanings and practices held independently of reason. Watching television to view a public perspective on a historical event should not be thought of as culture unless referring to the medium of television itself, which may have been selected culturally; however, schoolchildren watching television after school with their friends to "fit in" certainly qualifies since there is no grounded reason for one's participation in this practice. In the context of cultural studies, the idea of a ''text'' includes not only [[written language, but also [[films, [[photography|photographs, [[fashion or [[hairstyles: the texts of cultural studies comprise all the meaningful artifacts of culture. Similarly, the discipline widens the concept of "culture." "Culture" for a cultural-studies researcher not only includes traditional
high culture High may refer to: People with the name * High (surname) Science, technology and economics * Height * High (atmospheric), a high-pressure area * High (computability), a quality of a Turing degree, in computability theory * High (technical analys ...

high culture
(the culture of [[Ruling class|ruling [[social groups) and
popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

popular culture, but also everyday meanings and practices. The last two, in fact, have become the main focus of cultural studies. A further and recent approach is [[comparative cultural studies, based on the disciplines of [[comparative literature and cultural studies. Scholars in the United Kingdom and the United States developed somewhat different versions of cultural studies after the late 1970s. The British version of cultural studies had originated in the 1950s and 1960s, mainly under the influence of Richard Hoggart, [[E.P. Thompson, and [[Raymond Williams, and later that of Stuart Hall and others at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at the [[University of Birmingham. This included overtly political, [[Left-wing politics|left-wing views, and criticisms of
popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

popular culture as "capitalist" [[mass culture; it absorbed some of the ideas of the [[Frankfurt School critique of the "[[culture industry" (i.e. mass culture). This emerges in the writings of early British cultural-studies scholars and their influences: see the work of (for example) Raymond Williams, Stuart Hall, Paul Willis, and [[Paul Gilroy. In the United States, Lindlof and Taylor write, "Cultural studies [were] grounded in a pragmatic, liberal-pluralist tradition." The American version of cultural studies initially concerned itself more with understanding the subjective and appropriative side of audience reactions to, and uses of, [[mass culture; for example, American cultural-studies advocates wrote about the liberatory aspects of [[fandom. The distinction between American and British strands, however, has faded. Some researchers, especially in early British cultural studies, apply a [[Marxist model to the field. This strain of thinking has some influence from the [[Frankfurt School, but especially from the [[structuralism|structuralist Marxism of [[Louis Althusser and others. The main focus of an orthodox Marxist approach concentrates on the ''production'' of [[Value (personal and cultural)|meaning. This model assumes a mass production of culture and identifies [[power (social and political)|power as residing with those producing [[cultural artifacts. In a Marxist view, the [[mode of production|mode and [[relations of production form the economic base of society, which constantly interacts and influences [[base and superstructure|superstructures, such as culture. Other approaches to cultural studies, such as [[feminist cultural studies and later American developments of the field, distance themselves from this view. They criticize the Marxist assumption of a single, dominant meaning, shared by all, for any cultural product. The non-Marxist approaches suggest that different ways of consuming cultural artifacts affect the meaning of the product. This view comes through in the book ''Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman'' (by Paul du Gay ''et al.''), which seeks to challenge the notion that those who produce commodities control the meanings that people attribute to them. Feminist cultural analyst, theorist, and art historian [[Griselda Pollock contributed to cultural studies from viewpoints of [[art history and [[psychoanalysis. The writer [[Julia Kristeva is among influential voices at the turn of the century, contributing to cultural studies from the field of art and psychoanalytical [[French feminism. Petrakis and Kostis (2013) divide cultural background variables into two main groups: # The first group covers the variables that represent the "efficiency orientation" of the societies: performance orientation, [[future orientation, assertiveness, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. # The second covers the variables that represent the "social orientation" of societies, i.e., the attitudes and lifestyles of their members. These variables include gender egalitarianism, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, and human orientation. In 2016, a new approach to culture was suggested by [[Rein Raud, who defines culture as the sum of resources available to human beings for making sense of their world and proposes a two-tiered approach, combining the study of texts (all reified meanings in circulation) and cultural practices (all repeatable actions that involve the production, dissemination or transmission of purposes), thus making it possible to re-link anthropological and sociological study of culture with the tradition of textual theory.


Psychology

Starting in the 1990s, psychological research on culture influence began to grow and challenge the universality assumed in general psychology. Culture psychologists began to try to explore the relationship between [[emotions and culture, and answer whether the human mind is independent from culture. For example, people from collectivistic cultures, such as the Japanese, suppress their positive emotions more than their American counterparts. Culture may affect the way that people experience and express emotions. On the other hand, some researchers try to look for differences between people's [[Big Five personality traits and culture|personalities across cultures. As different cultures dictate distinctive [[Norms (sociology)|norms, [[culture shock is also studied to understand how people react when they are confronted with other cultures. Cognitive tools may not be accessible or they may function differently cross culture. For example, people that are raised in a culture with an [[abacus are trained with distinctive reasoning style. Cultural lenses may also make people view the same outcome of events differently. Westerners are more motivated by their successes than their failures, while East Asians are better motivated by the avoidance of failure. Culture is important for psychologists to consider when understanding the human mental operation.


Protection of culture

There are a number of international agreements and national laws relating to the protection of culture and [[cultural heritage. [[UNESCO and its partner organizations such as [[Blue Shield International coordinate international protection and local implementation. Basically, the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and the UNESCO Convention for the Protection of Cultural Diversity deal with the protection of culture. Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights deals with cultural heritage in two ways: it gives people the right to participate in cultural life on the one hand and the right to the protection of their contributions to cultural life on the other. The protection of culture and cultural goods is increasingly taking up a large area nationally and internationally. Under international law, the [[UN and [[UNESCO try to set up and enforce rules for this. The aim is not to protect a person's property, but rather to preserve the cultural heritage of humanity, especially in the event of war and armed conflict. According to [[Karl von Habsburg, President of Blue Shield International, the destruction of cultural assets is also part of psychological warfare. The target of the attack is the identity of the opponent, which is why symbolic cultural assets become a main target. It is also intended to affect the particularly sensitive cultural memory, the growing cultural diversity and the economic basis (such as tourism) of a state, region or municipality. Another important issue today is the impact of tourism on the various forms of culture. On the one hand, this can be physical impact on individual objects or the destruction caused by increasing environmental pollution and, on the other hand, socio-cultural effects on society.Jaafar, Mastura; Rasoolimanesh, S Mostafa; Ismail, Safura (2017). "Perceived sociocultural impacts of tourism and community participation: A case study of Langkawi Island". Tourism and Hospitality Research. 17 (2): 123–134.


See also

* [[Animal culture * [[Anthropology * [[Cultural area * [[Cultural studies * [[Cultural tourism * [[Culture 21 – United Nations plan of action * * [[Outline of culture * [[Recombinant culture * [[Semiotics of culture


References


Further reading


Books

* * * * * * * * * "Adolf Bastian"
Encyclopædia Britannica Online
January 27, 2009 * * Arnold, Matthew. 1869

[[New York City|New York: [[Macmillan Publishers (United States)|Macmillan. Third edition, 1882, available online. Retrieved: 2006-06-28. * [[Bakhtin, M.M. (1981)
The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays
'. Ed. Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Press. . * Barzilai, Gad. 2003. ''Communities and Law: Politics and Cultures of Legal Identities'' University of Michigan Press. * * Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. ''Outline of a Theory of Practice.'' Cambridge University Press. * Michael C. Carhart, ''The Science of Culture in Enlightenment Germany'', Cambridge, [[Harvard University Press|Harvard University press, 2007. * Cohen, Anthony P. 1985. ''The Symbolic Construction of Community.'' Routledge: New York, * Dawkins, R. 1982. ''[[The Extended Phenotype|The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene.'' Paperback ed., 1999. Oxford Paperbacks. * Findley & Rothney. ''Twentieth-Century World'' (Houghton Mifflin, 1986) * Geertz, Clifford. 1973. ''The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays''. New York. . * * Goodall, J. 1986. ''The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. * Hoult, T.F., ed. 1969. ''Dictionary of Modern Sociology''. Totowa, New Jersey, United States: Littlefield, Adams & Co. * Jary, D. and J. Jary. 1991. ''The HarperCollins Dictionary of Sociology.'' New York: HarperCollins. * Keiser, R. Lincoln 1969. ''The Vice Lords: Warriors of the Streets''. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. . * Kroeber, A.L. and C. Kluckhohn, 1952. ''Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions.'' Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum * Kim, Uichol (2001). "Culture, science and indigenous psychologies: An integrated analysis." In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), ''Handbook of culture and psychology.'' Oxford: [[Oxford University Press * McClenon, James. "Tylor, Edward B(urnett)". ''Encyclopedia of Religion and Society''. Ed. William Swatos and Peter Kivisto. Walnut Creek: AltaMira, 1998. 528–29. * Middleton, R. 1990. ''Studying Popular Music''. Philadelphia: Open University Press. . * O'Neil, D. 2006
Cultural Anthropology Tutorials
Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marco, California. Retrieved: 2006-07-10. * [[Ronald Reagan|Reagan, Ronald
"Final Radio Address to the Nation"
January 14, 1989. Retrieved June 3, 2006. * Reese, W.L. 1980. ''Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought.'' New Jersey U.S., Sussex, U.K: Humanities Press. * * [[UNESCO. 2002
Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity
issued on [[International Mother Language Day, February 21, 2002. Retrieved: 2006-06-23. * White, L. 1949. ''The Science of Culture: A study of man and civilization.'' New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. * Wilson, Edward O. (1998). ''[[Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge.'' Vintage: New York. . * Wolfram, Stephen. 2002
A New Kind of Science
'' Wolfram Media, Inc. .


Articles


The Meaning of "Culture"
(2014-12-27), Joshua Rothman, ''[[The New Yorker''


External links

*
''Cultura: International Journal of Philosophy of Culture and Axiology''


{{Authority control [[Category:Culture| [[Category:Social concepts [[Category:Social constructionism [[Category:Main topic articles