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School boards were public bodies in
England and Wales England and Wales () is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, parts of the United Kingdom. England and Wales forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows ...

England and Wales
between 1870 and 1902, which established and administered elementary schools. School boards were created in boroughs and parishes under the Elementary Education Act 1870 following campaigning by George Dixon,
Joseph Chamberlain Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal Party (UK), Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading new Imperialism, imp ...

Joseph Chamberlain
and the National Education League for elementary education free from
Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Western Christian tradition that has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called ''Anglicans''; th ...
doctrine. Education was still not free of fees. Members were directly elected, not appointed by borough councils or parishes. Each board could: *raise funds from a rate *build and run non-denominational schools where existing voluntary provision was inadequate *subsidise church schools where appropriate *pay the fees of the poorest children *if they deemed it necessary, create a
by-lawA by-law (bye-law, by(e)law, by(e) law) is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority. The higher authority, generally a legislature or some other government body ...
making attendance compulsory between ages 5–13 - until the Elementary Education Act 1880 when it became compulsory for all. *were not to impose any religious education, other than simple
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, ''tà biblía'', "the books") is a collection of religious texts or scriptures sacred to Christians, Jews, Samaritans, Rastafari and others. It appears in the form of an anthology, a compilati ...
reading Unusually for the time, women were eligible to win election to school boards. When the first elections were held, in 1870, seven women were elected across the country:
Anne AshworthAnne Frances Ashworth (1842 – 1921) was a British people, British feminist activist. Ashworth grew up in a Quaker family in Bath, Somerset. Her father, Thomas Ashworth, was a friend of Richard Cobden, while Jacob Bright and John Bright were h ...
and Caroline Shum in Bath, Catherine Ricketts in Brighton,
Lydia Becker
Lydia Becker
in Manchester, Mrs Heath in Huddersfield, Eleanor Smith in Oxford, and Miss Temple in Exeter.Patricia Hollis, ''Ladies Elect: Women in English Local Government 1865-1914'', p.132 School boards were abolished by the Education Act 1902, which replaced them with local education authorities.


See also

*
Joseph Chamberlain Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal Party (UK), Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading new Imperialism, imp ...
*History of education in England * National Education League *Birmingham board schools *London School Board *List of former board schools in Brighton and Hove *Board of education - US


References


Sources

*''Educational Documents, England and Wales 1816 to the present day'', J Stuart MacLure, 1965, 1979, 370.942 *''Education in Britain 1750–1914'', W B Stephens, 1998, School boards in the United Kingdom, England and Wales History of education in England History of education in Wales Educational organisations based in England Educational organisations based in Wales {{UK-hist-stub