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''Acacia'', commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large
genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial ...
of shrubs and trees in the subfamily
Mimosoideae The Mimosoideae are trees, herbs, lianas, and shrubs that mostly grow in tropical and subtropical climates. They comprise a clade, previously placed at the subfamily or family level in the flowering plant family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). In previous ...
of the pea family
Fabaceae The Fabaceae or Leguminosae,International Code of Nomencla ...
. Initially, it comprised a group of plant species native to Africa and Australasia, but it has now been limited to contain only the Australasian species. The genus name is
New Latin New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) is the revival of Latin used in original, scholarly, and scientific works since about 1500. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and internati ...
, borrowed from the Greek (), a term used by
Dioscorides Pedanius Dioscorides ( grc-gre, Πεδάνιος Διοσκουρίδης, ; 40–90 AD) was a Greek physician, pharmacologist, botanist, and author of ''De materia medica'' (, On Medical Material) —a 5-volume Greek encyclopedia about herbal med ...
for a preparation extracted from the leaves and fruit pods of ''
Vachellia nilotica ''Vachellia nilotica'' (commonly known as gum arabic tree, babul, thorn mimosa, Egyptian acacia or thorny acacia) is a flowering plant tree in the family Fabaceae. It is native to Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. It is also a ...
'', the original type of the genus. In his ''Pinax'' (1623),
Gaspard Bauhin Gaspard Bauhin or Caspar Bauhin ( la, Casparus Bauhinus; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss botanist whose ''Pinax theatri botanici'' (1623) described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the ...
mentioned the Greek from Dioscorides as the origin of the Latin name. In the early 2000s it had become evident that the genus as it stood was not
monophyletic 300px, A cladogram of the primates, showing a ''monophyletic'' taxon: ''the simians'' (in yellow); a ''paraphyletic'' taxon: ''the prosimians'' (in cyan, including the red patch); and a ''polyphyletic'' group: ''the night-active primates, i.e., ...
and that several divergent lineages needed to be placed in separate genera. It turned out that one lineage comprising over 900 species mainly native to Australia, New Guinea, and Indonesia was not closely related to the much smaller group of African lineage that contained ''A. nilotica''—the
type species Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
. This meant that the Australasian lineage (by far the most prolific in number of species) would need to be renamed. Botanist
Leslie Pedley Leslie Pedley (19 May 1930 – 27 November 2018)IPNILeslie Pedley/ref> was an Australian botanist who specialised in the genus ''Acacia''. He is notable for bringing into use the generic name ''Racosperma'', creating a split in the genus with some 9 ...
named this group ''Racosperma'', which received little acclaim in the botanical community. Australian botanists proposed a less disruptive solution setting a different type species for ''Acacia'' ( ''A. penninervis'') and allowing this largest number of species to remain in ''Acacia'', resulting in the two Pan-Tropical lineages being renamed ''
Vachellia ''Vachellia'' is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, commonly known as thorn trees or acacias. It belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae. Its species were considered members of genus ''Acacia'' until 2009. ''Vachellia'' can b ...
'' and ''
Senegalia ''Senegalia'' (from Senegal and ''Acacia senegal'' (L.) Willd.) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. It belongs to the Mimosoid clade. Until 2005, its species were considered members of ''Acacia.'' The genus was considered poly ...
'', and the two endemic American lineages renamed ''
Acaciella ''Acaciella'' is a Neotropical genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae, and its subfamily Mimosoideae. Its centre of diversity is along the Mexican Pacific coast. They are unarmed, have no extrafloral nectaries and the polyads of ...
'' and ''
Mariosousa ''Mariosousa'' is a genus of 13 species of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the subfamily Mimosoideae. Members of this genus were formerly considered to belong to the genus ''Acacia''. Restricted in range to Central ...
''. Although many botanists still disagreed that this was necessary, this solution was eventually officially adopted at the Melbourne International Botanical Congress in 2011. Acacia remains a widely used common name across genera. A number of species have been introduced to various parts of the world, and two million hectares of commercial plantations have been established. The heterogeneous group varies considerably in habit, from mat-like
subshrub A subshrub (Latin ''suffrutex'') or dwarf shrub is a short woody plant. Prostrate shrub is a related term. "Subshrub" is often used interchangeably with "bush".Jackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and Accen ...
s to canopy trees in a forest.


Taxonomy

The genus was first validly named in 1754 by
Philip Miller Philip Miller FRS (1691 – 18 December 1771) was an English botanist of Scottish descent. Born in Deptford or Greenwich Miller was chief gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1722 until he was pressured to retire shortly before his death ...
. In 1913
Nathaniel Lord Britton Nathaniel Lord Britton (January 15, 1859 – June 25, 1934) was an American botanist and taxonomist who co-founded the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx, New York. Early life Britton was born in New Dorp in Staten Island, New York to Jasper A ...
and
Addison Brown Addison C. Brown (February 21, 1830 – April 9, 1913) was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, a botanist, and a serious amateur astronomer. Early life, education and career Ad ...
selected ''Mimosa scorpioides'' (≡ ''Acacia scorpioides'' () = ''
Acacia nilotica ''Vachellia nilotica'' (commonly known as gum arabic tree, babul, thorn mimosa, Egyptian acacia or thorny acacia) is a flowering plant tree in the family Fabaceae. It is native to Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. It is also a ...
'' () ), a species from Africa, as the
lectotype In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached. In other words, a type is an example that serves to anchor or centralize the de ...
of the name. The genus as recognized in 1986 contained 1352 species. That year however, Pedley published a paper in which he questioned the
monophyletic 300px, A cladogram of the primates, showing a ''monophyletic'' taxon: ''the simians'' (in yellow); a ''paraphyletic'' taxon: ''the prosimians'' (in cyan, including the red patch); and a ''polyphyletic'' group: ''the night-active primates, i.e., ...
nature of the genus, and proposed a split into three genera: ''Acacia''
sensu stricto ''Sensu'' is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology, geology, linguistics, semiotics, and law. Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular co ...
(161 species), ''Senegalia'' (231 species) and ''Racosperma'' (960 species), the last name first proposed in 1829 by
Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius Carl Friedrich Philipp (Karl Friedrich Philipp) von Martius (17 April 1794 – 13 December 1868) was a German botanist and explorer. Life Martius was born at Erlangen, the son of Prof Ernst Wilhelm Martius, court apothecary. He graduated Ph.D. f ...
as the name of a section in ''Acacia'', but raised to generic rank in 1835. In 2003, Pedley published a paper with 834 new combinations in ''Racosperma'' for species, most of which were formerly placed in ''Acacia''. All but 10 of these species are native to
Australasia Australasia is a region which comprises Australia, New Zealand, and some neighbouring islands. The term is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiogeographically, and ecologically where the term covers several sl ...
, where it constitutes the largest plant genus. In 2003, Anthony Orchard and Bruce Maslin filed a proposal to conserve the name ''Acacia'' with a different
type Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
in order to retain the Australasian group of species in the genus ''Acacia''. Following a controversial decision to choose a new type for ''Acacia'' in 2005, the Australian component of ''Acacia s.l.'' now retains the name ''Acacia''. At the 2011
International Botanical Congress International Botanical Congress (IBC) is an international meeting of botanists in all scientific fields, authorized by the International Association of Botanical and Mycological Societies (IABMS) and held every six years, with the location rotatin ...
held in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of , comprising a metropolitan area with ...
, the decision to use the name ''Acacia'', rather than the proposed ''Racosperma'' for this genus, was upheld. Other '' Acacia s.l.'' taxa continue to be called ''Acacia'' by those who choose to consider the entire group as one genus. Australian species of the genus ''
Paraserianthes ''Paraserianthes'' is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae. It belongs to the mimosoid clade of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Taxonomy ''Paraserianthes'' includes only one species: * ''Paraserianthes lophantha'' (Willd.) I ...
'' '' s.l.'' are deemed its closest relatives, particularly '' P. lophantha''. The nearest relatives of ''Acacia'' and ''Paraserianthes s.l.'' in turn include the Australian and
South East Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are geographically south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north b ...
n genera ''
Archidendron ''Archidendron'' is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae.http://www.theplantlist.org/browse/A/Leguminosae/Archidendron/ Image:Archidendron lucyii foliage.jpg, ''Archidendron lucyii'' leaves Image:Pithecellobium jiringa.JPG, ''Ar ...
'', ''
Archidendropsis ''Archidendropsis'' is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae. File:Archidendropsis thozetiana.jpg, ''Archidendropsis thozetiana'' tree File:'Archidendropsis basaltica habit.jpg , ''Archidendropsis basaltica'' habit References ...
'', '' Pararchidendron'' and '' Wallaceodendron'', all of the tribe
Ingeae The Mimosoideae are trees, herbs, lianas, and shrubs that mostly grow in tropical and subtropical climates. They comprise a clade, previously placed at the subfamily or family level in the flowering plant family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). In previous ...
.


Etymology

The origin of "
wattle Wattle or wattles may refer to: Plants *''Acacia'', large genus of shrubs and trees, native to Australasia *''Acacia sensu lato'', genus of plants and shrubs commonly known as wattle, especially in Australia and South Africa *Black wattle, common ...
" may be an Old Teutonic word meaning "to weave". From around 700 A.D. ''watul'' was used in
Old English Old English (, ), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th centur ...
to refer to the interwoven branches and sticks which formed fences, walls and roofs. Since about 1810 it refers to the Australian legumes that provide these branches.


Species

One species of ''Acacia'' (''
sensu stricto ''Sensu'' is a Latin word meaning "in the sense of". It is used in a number of fields including biology, geology, linguistics, semiotics, and law. Commonly it refers to how strictly or loosely an expression is used in describing any particular co ...
'') is native to
Madagascar Madagascar (; mg, Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar ( mg, Repoblikan'i Madagasikara, links=no, ; french: République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, app ...
, one to
Reunion island A reunion is a gathering of individuals who have met previously or share ancestry, such as: * Class reunion * Family reunion Reunion, Reunions or The Reunion may also refer to: Geography * Réunion, a French overseas department and island in t ...
, 12 to
Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres. It shares the continental landmass of Eurasia with the continent of Europe and the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with b ...
, and the remaining species (over 900) are native to
Australasia Australasia is a region which comprises Australia, New Zealand, and some neighbouring islands. The term is used in a number of different contexts including geopolitically, physiogeographically, and ecologically where the term covers several sl ...
and the
Pacific Islands This is a list of islands in the Pacific Ocean, collectively called the Pacific Islands. Three major groups of islands in the Pacific Ocean are Melanesia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Depending on the context, ''Pacific Islands'' may refer to countrie ...
. These species were all given combinations by Pedley when he erected the genus ''Racosperma'', hence '' Acacia pulchella'', for example, became '' Racosperma pulchellum''. However, these were not upheld with the retypification of ''Acacia''.


Evolution

Acacias in Australia probably evolved their fire resistance about 20 million years ago when fossilised charcoal deposits show a large increase, indicating that fire was a factor even then. With no major mountain ranges or rivers to prevent their spread, the wattles began to spread all over the continent as it dried and fires became more common. They began to form dry, open forests with species of the genera ''
Allocasuarina ) Image:Allocasuarina inophloia 01 Pengo.jpg, ''Allocasuarina inophloia'' ''Allocasuarina'' is a genus of trees in the flowering plant family Casuarinaceae. They are endemic to Australia, occurring primarily in the south. Like the closely related ...
'', ''
Eucalyptus ''Eucalyptus'' () is a genus of over seven hundred species of flowering trees, shrubs or mallees in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Along with several other genera in the tribe Eucalypteae, including ''Corymbia'', they are commonly known as eucalypts ...
'' and ''
Callitris ''Callitris'' is a genus of coniferous trees in the Cupressaceae (cypress family). There are 16 recognized species in the genus, of which 13 are native to Australia and the other three (''C. neocaledonica, C. sulcata'' and ''C. pa ...
'' (cypress-pines). The southernmost species in the genus are ''
Acacia dealbata ''Acacia dealbata'', the silver wattle, blue wattle or mimosa, is a species of flowering plant in the legume family Fabaceae, native to southeastern Australia in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory and widely ...

Acacia dealbata
'' (silver wattle), ''
Acacia longifolia ''Acacia longifolia'' is a species of ''Acacia'' native to southeastern Australia, from the extreme southeast of Queensland, eastern New South Wales, eastern and southern Victoria, and southeastern South Australia. Common names for it include long ...
'' (coast wattle or Sydney golden wattle), ''
Acacia mearnsii ''Acacia mearnsii'', commonly known as black wattle, late black wattle or green wattle, is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae and is endemic to south-eastern Australia. It is usually an erect tree with smooth bark, bipinnate leav ...
'' (black wattle), and ''
Acacia melanoxylon ''Acacia melanoxylon'', commonly known as the Australian blackwood, is an ''Acacia'' species native in South eastern Australia. The species is also known as Blackwood, hickory, mudgerabah, Tasmanian blackwood, or blackwood acacia. The tree belong ...
'' (blackwood), reaching 43°30' S in
Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main i ...
, Australia.


Fossil record

An ''Acacia''-like 14 cm long
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or ...
seed pod A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering. The formation of the seed is part of the process of reproduction in seed plants, the spermatophytes, including the gymnosperm and angiosperm plants. Seeds are the product of ...
has been described from the
Eocene The Eocene ( ) Epoch is a geological epoch that lasted from about 56 to 33.9 million years ago (mya). It is the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the modern Cenozoic Era. The name ''Eocene'' comes from the Ancient Greek (''ēṓs'', "dawn") ...
of the
Paris Basin The Paris Basin is one of the major geological regions of France. It developed since the Triassic over remnant uplands of the Variscan orogeny (Hercynian orogeny). The sedimentary basin, no longer a single drainage basin is a large sag in the crat ...
. ''Acacia'' like
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or ...
pods under the name ''Leguminocarpon'' are known from late
Oligocene The Oligocene ( ) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present ( to ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the ...
deposits A deposit account is a bank account maintained by a financial institution in which a customer can deposit and withdraw money. Deposit accounts can be savings accounts, current accounts or any of several other types of accounts explained below. Tr ...
at different sites in
Hungary Hungary ( hu, Magyarország ) is a country in Central Europe. It borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. H ...
. Seed pod
fossils A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or ...
of †''Acacia parschlugiana'' and †''Acacia cyclosperma'' are known from
Tertiary Tertiary ( ) is a widely used, but obsolete term for the geologic period from 66 million to 2.6 million years ago. The period began with the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs in the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, at the start o ...

Tertiary
deposits in
Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federal semi-direct democracy under a multi-party assembly-independent directorial republic , leader_title1 = Federal Council , leader_name ...
,. †''Acacia colchica'' has been described from the
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma). The Miocene was named by Scottish author Charles Lyell; its name comes from the Greek words (', "less") and (', "new") and means "less recent" becaus ...
of West
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Kingdom of Georgia ...
.
Pliocene The Pliocene ( ; also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58pollen Pollen Tube Diagram Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gamet ...
of an ''Acacia'' sp. has been described from West
Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country), a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia * Georgia (U.S. state), one of the states of the United States of America Georgia may also refer to: Historical states and entities * Kingdom of Georgia ...
and
Abkhazia Abkhazia, , ka, აფხაზეთი, , rus, Абха́зия, r=Abkhaziya, p=ɐˈpxazʲɪjə xmf, აბჟუა, or , ( or ) is a partially recognized state in the South Caucasus, recognised by most countries as part of Georgia, which view ...
. Oldest records of
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin: , literally "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or ...
''Acacia''
pollen Pollen Tube Diagram Pollen is a powdery substance consisting of pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells). Pollen grains have a hard coat made of sporopollenin that protects the gamet ...
in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
are from the late
Oligocene epoch The Oligocene ( ) is a geologic epoch of the Paleogene Period and extends from about 33.9 million to 23 million years before the present ( to ). As with other older geologic periods, the rock beds that define the epoch are well identified but the ...
, 25 million years ago.


Distribution and habitat

They are present in all terrestrial habitats, including alpine settings, rainforests, woodlands, grasslands, coastal dunes and deserts. In drier woodlands or forests they are an important component of the understory. Elsewhere they may be dominant, as in the Brigalow Belt, Myall woodlands and the Eremaean province, eremaean Acacia aneura, Mulga woodlands. In Australia, ''Acacia'' forest is the second most common forest type after Eucalyptus, eucalypt forest, covering or 8% of total forest area. ''Acacia'' is also the nation's largest genus of flowering plants with almost 1,000 species found.


Description

Several of its species bear vertically oriented Petiole (botany), phyllodes, which are green, broadened leaf petioles that function like leaf blades, an adaptation to hot climates and droughts. Some phyllodinous species have a colourful aril on the seed. A few species have Phylloclade, cladodes rather than leaves.


Uses

Aboriginal Australians have traditionally harvested the seeds of some species, to be ground into flour and eaten as a paste or baked into a cake. The seeds contain as much as 25% more protein than common cereals, and they store well for long periods due to the hard seed coats. In addition to utilizing the edible seed and gum, the people employed the timber for implements, weapons, fuel and musical instruments. A number of species, most notably ''Acacia mangium, A. mangium'' (hickory wattle), ''Acacia mearnsii, A. mearnsii'' (black wattle) and ''Acacia saligna, A. saligna'' (coojong), are economically important and are widely planted globally for wood products, tannin, firewood and fodder. ''Acacia melanoxylon, A. melanoxylon'' (blackwood) and ''Acacia aneura, A. aneura'' (mulga) supply some of the most attractive timbers in the genus. Black wattle bark supported the Tanning (leather), tanning industries of several countries, and may supply tannins for production of waterproof adhesives. Acacia is a common food source and host plant for butterflies of the genus ''Jalmenus.'' The imperial hairstreak, ''Jalmenus evagoras,'' feeds on at least 25 acacia species. Wattle bark collected in Australia in the 19th century was exported to Europe where it was used in the tanning (leather), tanning process. One ton of wattle or mimosa bark contained about of pure tannin. In ancient Egypt, an ointment made from the ground leaves of an Acacia (sensu lato) was used to treat hemorrhoids. Acacia (sensu lato) is repeatedly mentioned in the Book of Exodus, perhaps referring to ''Vachellia tortilis'' (previously known as ''Acacia raddiana''), in regards to the construction of the Tabernacle. In Book of Exodus, Exodus 25:10, acacia wood is mentioned as the construction material for the Ark of the Covenant. The hardened sap of various species of the acacia tree (sensu lato) are known as acacia gum. Acacia gum is used as an emulsifier in food, a binder for watercolour painting, an additive to ceramic glazes, a binding in gum printing, gum bichromate photography, a protective layer in the lithography, lithographic processes and as a binder to bind together fireworks. Acacia honey is not collected from plants in the acacia family, but rather from ''Robinia pseudoacacia'', known as black locust in North America. Honey collected from ''Caragana arborescens'' is sometimes also called (yellow) acacia honey. See also Monofloral honey. Acacia is mentioned in an ancient Egyptian proverb referred to by Amenhotep II, "If you lack a gold battle-axe inlaid with bronze, a heavy club of acacia wood will do?".


Cultivation

Some species of acacia - notably Acacia baileyana, ''A. baileyana'', Acacia dealbata, ''A. dealbata'' and Acacia pravissima, ''A. pravissima'' - are cultivated as ornamental garden plants. The 1889 publication 'Useful native plants of Australia' describes various uses for eating.


Toxicity

Some species of acacia contain List of Acacia species known to contain psychoactive alkaloids, psychoactive alkaloids, and some contain Sodium fluoroacetate#Occurrence, potassium fluoroacetate, a rodent poison.


References

* Pedley, L. (2002). "A conspectus of ''Acacia'' subgen. ''Acacia'' in Australia". ''Austrobaileya'' 6(2): 177–186. * Pedley, L. (2003). A synopsis of ''Racosperma'' C.Mart". ''Austrobaileya'' 6(3): 445–496.


External links


WATTLE Acacias of Australia Lucid Web Player (multi-access key for identifying Australian Acacias)
{{Taxonbar, from=Q81666 Acacia, Fabaceae genera Mimosoids