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XS4ALL is the sixth-oldest
Internet service provider#REDIRECT Internet service provider#REDIRECT Internet service provider {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
(ISP) in the
Netherlands The Netherlands ( nl, Nederland ), informally referred to as Holland, is a country primarily located in Western Europe and partly in the Caribbean. It is the largest of four constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. In Europe, the ...

Netherlands
, after
NLnet The NLnet Foundation supports organizations and people that contribute to an open information society. It was influential in spreading the Internet throughout Europe in the 1980s. In 1997, the foundation sold off its commercial networking operati ...
,
SURFnet SURFnet is an organisation that develops, implements and maintains the national research and education network (NREN) of the Netherlands, and is also the name of the network it operates. SURFnet's executives have been founders of or occupied board ...
, HCC!hobbynet, Knoware and IAF. The name is a play on the English pronunciation of ''access for all''. XS4ALL was the second company to offer Internet access to private individuals, since 1993. Founded in 1993 as an offshoot of the
hackers A computer hacker is a computer expert who uses their technical knowledge to achieve a goal or overcome an obstacle, within a computerized system by non-standard means. Though the term "hacker" has become associated in popular culture with a "s ...
club Hack-Tic by Felipe Rodriquez,
Rop Gonggrijp Robbert (Rop) Valentijn Gonggrijp (born 14 February 1968) is a Dutch hacker and one of the founders of XS4ALL. Biography Gonggrijp was born in Amsterdam. While growing up in Wormer in the Dutch Zaanstreek area, he became known as a teenage hacker a ...
, Paul Jongsma and Cor Bosman, while based in
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area. Found within the province of North Holland, Ams ...
. Initially only offering dial-in services via modem and ISDN, today it offers
dial-up access Dial-up Internet access is a form of Internet access that uses the facilities of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) to establish a connection to an Internet service provider (ISP) by dialing a telephone number on a conventional telephone ...
as well as
ADSL Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) is a type of digital subscriber line (DSL) technology, a data communications technology that enables faster data transmission over copper telephone lines than a conventional voiceband modem can provide. A ...
, (bonded)
VDSL Very high-speed digital subscriber line (VDSL) and very high-speed digital subscriber line 2 (VDSL2) are digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies providing data transmission faster than asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL). VDSL offers spee ...
, and fiber-optic (
FTTH Fiber to the ''x'' (FTTX; also spelled "Fibre") or fiber in the loop is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using optical fiber to provide all or part of the local loop used for last mile telecommunications. As fiber optic c ...
) services as well as mobile internet (but no calling or texting). As of 2007, XS4ALL was one of the larger ISPs in The Netherlands. In 2005, the company had a turnover of 86.1 million euro, realising a 15.4 million euro profit before taxes. Also in 2005, XS4ALL employed 327 people (325 FTE) and served 265,000 private subscribers. The company is known for its willingness to take on controversial issues; has taken legal action against
spammers This is a list of individuals and organizations noteworthy for engaging in bulk electronic spamming, either on their own behalf or on behalf of others. It is not a list of all spammers, only those whose actions have attracted substantial independent ...
, and fought over other legal issues in court, such as Scientology vs. the Internet. XS4ALL was sold to
KPN KPN (in full Koninklijke KPN N.V., also Royal KPN N.V.) is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company. KPN originated from a government-run postal, telegraph and telephone service and is based in Rotterdam, Netherlands. History Until ...
in December 1998, but remained an independent subsidiary. In January 2019, KPN announced that it would eventually phase out the XS4ALL brand and continue operations under the KPN brand. A petition and a special action commission was started to try to revert this decision, th
petition
has been signed over 50,000 times, signatories include ex-board members and founders of XS4ALL. In November 2019 the committee launched a new company named Freedom Internet, meant to serve as an ideological successor to XS4ALL, and supported by a
crowdfunding Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising small amounts of money from a large number of people, typically via the Internet. Crowdfunding is a form of crowdsourcing and alternative finance. In 2015, over was raised wo ...
action that raised 2.5 million euro. Freedom Internet initially offers e-mail hosting, and is meant to roll out its first DSL connections in early 2020.


Activism and controversies


Scientology

In 1995 members of the
Church of Scientology The Church of Scientology is a group of interconnected corporate entities and other organizations devoted to the practice, administration and dissemination of Scientology, which is variously defined as a cult, a business or a new religious mov ...
caused a raid on the servers of Dutch Internet provider XS4ALL as part of a and sued it and
Karin Spaink Karin Spaink (born December 20, 1957 in Amsterdam) is a journalist, writer and feminist. Spaink is a free speech advocate and social critic. Some of her subjects are: * New-age writers who assert all diseases are only a psychological phenomenon ...

Karin Spaink
for copyright violations because of citing out of some confidential materials of Scientology. A summary judgment followed in 1995, full proceedings in 1999, an appeal in 2001 which has been upheld by the Supreme Court of Netherlands in December 2005, all in favor of the provider and Karin Spaink, putting freedom of speech above copyright in some cases.About XS4All
History
(Dutch), visited: 16 June 2012
From these days there is also a relationship with
NGO upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase ...
Bits of FreedomBits Of Freedom is an independent Dutch digital rights foundation, which focuses on privacy and communications freedom in the digital age. The foundation protects the right for privacy and the right to communications freedom in the Netherlands. Bits ...
, an organisation promoting Freedom of Speech: BoF was a strong supporter for Karin in her fight with Scientology. A video appeared from anonymous
anonymous video featuring the XS4ALL offcie building, Eekholt 42.
featuring the office building of XS4ALL.


Station B92

In December 1996, XS4ALL put the
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and th ...
radio Radio is the technology of signaling and communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device called a transmitte ...
station B92 online using streaming audio technology in response to the jamming of its broadcasts by the regime of
Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević ( sr-Cyrl, Слободан Милошевић, ; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituen ...
. XS4ALL installed a leased line to the radio station in response to a request from Adriënne van Heteren, a Dutch citizen who went to Belgrade to set up various cultural activities. After XS4ALL had launched the online broadcast of Radio B92, its signal was picked up by the
Voice of America Voice of America (VOA) is an American international broadcaster funded by the United States Congress. It is the largest and oldest U.S. funded international broadcaster. VOA produces digital, TV, and radio content in 47 languages which it distri ...
and
BBC World Service The BBC World Service is an international broadcaster owned and operated by the BBC. It is the world's largest of any kind. It broadcasts radio news, speech and discussions in more than 40 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and ...
and transmitted back into Serbia, where it was then also transmitted via several local radio-stations.


Radikal Magazine

In September 1996, members of the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language * Germanic peoples * Ger ...
InternetContentTaskForce ( ICTF) blocked XS4ALL for about a month because one of its subscribers had put an issue of ' magazine on his homepage. ''radikal'' is illegal in Germany, and to prevent its publication the German ''Bundesanwaltschaft'' (prosecutor's office) ordered commercial ISPs in Germany to block its website. They ended up blocking the entire XS4ALL site, which at the time had about 6,000 personal and commercial homepages. XS4ALL insisted that the case be settled by the courts, because it did not want to infringe on its customers' rights of free expression; however, the requests to follow traditional legal paths were ignored by the German ICTF. On 11 April 1997 one of the largest German ISPs, the
Deutsches Forschungsnetz Deutsches Forschungsnetz ("German Research Network"), usually abbreviated to DFN, is the German national research and education network (NREN) used for academic and research purposes. It is managed by the scientific community organized in the volun ...
(DFN) academic backbone network, started an
IP IP or Ip may refer to: Businesses and organizations * IP College (Indraprastha College for Women), a constituent college of the University of Delhi, New Delhi, India * Imperial Police, a former Indian police agency * International Paper, an America ...
-filtering blockade against XS4ALL. Many protest letters were sent, mirrors were once again set up around the world, and the complete issue of ''radikal 154'' was posted in the
newsgroup A Usenet newsgroup is a repository usually within the Usenet system, for messages posted from users in different locations using Internet. They are discussion groups and are not devoted to publishing news. Newsgroups are technically distinct from, ...
"de.soc.zensur". As a result, the blockade only lasted a few days. The founders of XS4ALL were interrogated as suspects of publication of terrorist propaganda, but no legal actions were initiated against them. XS4ALL then implemented several technologies to
sabotage Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort, or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption, or destruction. One who engages in sabotage is a ''saboteur''. Saboteurs typically try to conceal their identities ...
the censorship attempt, such as automatically rotating the IP address of its
website A website (also written as web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Notable examples are wikipedia.org, google.com, and amazon.com. All publ ...
. The ICTF ended up censoring all IP traffic to the XS4ALL domain, including e-mail. After a couple of weeks this became untenable; a global protest against the
censorship Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient." Censorship can be conducted by governments ...
emerged, and a global network of mirror sites was created by the online community. The ICTF abandoned its efforts after several weeks.


Arab Spring in Egypt and Libya

In early 2011 the government in
Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean count ...
blocked (initially international, later all) internet-access hoping to thwart organizers of protests against the government and also to control the news leaving the country. On an incoming requests XS4All opened up their—still existing—dial-in modems to give people from Egypt direct access to the open internet. Because international telephone connections from Egypt to the rest of the world were not blocked, people could dial into the modems in
Amsterdam Amsterdam (, , ) is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands with a population of 872,680 within the city proper, 1,558,755 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area. Found within the province of North Holland, Ams ...
and from there subsequently log into the internet using username and password ''xs4all''. When later that year a similar situation arose in Libya, the possibilities of such connections were brought to the attention of protesters in that country.


NSA FiveEyes Surveillance

In 2014 it became clear that at least one XS4ALL server () has the attention of the NSA program
XKEYSCORE XKeyscore (XKEYSCORE or XKS) is a secret computer system used by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) for searching and analyzing global Internet data, which it collects continually. The NSA has shared XKeyscore with other intelligence ...
, which is set up by the American
NSA The National Security Agency (NSA) is a national-level intelligence agency of the United States Department of Defense, under the authority of the Director of National Intelligence. The NSA is responsible for global monitoring, collection, and pr ...
, in concerted effort with the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, to track and sabotage users of the
Tor#REDIRECT Tor {{R from ambiguous page ...
encrypted security network. It is one among five servers being targeted as such.


Corporate culture

In December 1998, XS4ALL was sold to the Dutch incumbent phone company
KPN KPN (in full Koninklijke KPN N.V., also Royal KPN N.V.) is a Dutch landline and mobile telecommunications company. KPN originated from a government-run postal, telegraph and telephone service and is based in Rotterdam, Netherlands. History Until ...
. Many of the original employees, especially system managers, still work there. XS4ALL also sponsors and hosts the sites of many
free software Free software (or libre software) is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty, n ...
projects, like
Python PYTHON was a Cold War contingency plan of the British Government for the continuity of government in the event of nuclear war. Background Following the report of the Strath Committee in 1955, the British government developed contingency plans for ...
,
Squirrelmail SquirrelMail is a project that aims to provide both a web-based email client and a proxy server for the IMAP protocol. The latest stable version 1.4.23-svn is tested with PHP up to version 7.3 and replaces version 1.4.22 which can only run on PHP ...
and
Debian Debian (), also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a Linux distribution composed of free and open-source software, developed by the community-supported Debian Project, which was established by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993. The first version of Debi ...
. It sponsors the data traffic of ScriptumLibre, and thereby indirectly helps projects like
Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure The Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure (FFII) is a non-profit organisation based in Munich, Germany, dedicated to establishing a free market in information technology, by the removal of barriers to competition. The FFII played a key o ...
(FFII) and the Free Software Translation Project.


References


External links

*
Schneier on NSA TargetsSnowden Leaks on NSA Digital Surveillance
{{DEFAULTSORT:Xs4all KPN Internet service providers of the Netherlands