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William Wordsworth (7 April 177023 April 1850) was an English Romantic poet who, with
Samuel Taylor Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge (; 21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets ...
, helped to launch the Romantic Age in
English literature This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, the Crown dependencies, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of t ...
with their joint publication ''
Lyrical Ballads ''Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems'' is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature. ...

Lyrical Ballads
'' (1798). Wordsworth's ''
magnum opus 's ''The Creation of Adam'' (c. 1512), part of the Sistine Chapel ceiling, is considered an archetypal masterpiece of painting. Masterpiece, ''magnum opus'' (Latin, ''great work'') or ''chef-d’œuvre'' (French, ''master of work'', plural ''chef ...
'' is generally considered to be ''
The Prelude ''The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem '' is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. Intended as the introduction to the more philosophical poem ''The Recluse,'' which Wordsworth ...
'', a semi-autobiographical poem of his early years that he revised and expanded a number of times. It was posthumously titled and published by his wife in the year of his death, before which it was generally known as "the poem to Coleridge". Wordsworth was
Poet Laureate#REDIRECT Poet laureate#REDIRECT Poet laureate {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
from 1843 until his death from
pleurisy Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae). This can result in a sharp chest pain while breathing. Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache. Other symp ...

pleurisy
on 23 April 1850.


Early life

The second of five children born to John Wordsworth and Ann Cookson, William Wordsworth was born on 7 April 1770 in what is now named Wordsworth House in
Cockermouth Cockermouth is an ancient market town and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England, so named because it is at the confluence of the River Cocker as it flows into the River Derwent. The mid-2010 census estimates state that ...
, Cumberland, part of the scenic region in northwestern England known as the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...
. William's sister, the poet and diarist
Dorothy Wordsworth Dorothy Mae Ann Wordsworth (25 December 1771 – 25 January 1855) was an English author, poet, and diarist. She was the sister of the Romantic poet William Wordsworth, and the two were close all their adult lives. Wordsworth had no ambitions t ...
, to whom he was close all his life, was born the following year, and the two were baptised together. They had three other siblings: Richard, the eldest, who became a lawyer; John, born after Dorothy, who went to sea and died in 1805 when the ship of which he was captain, the ''
Earl of Abergavenny Earl () is a rank of the nobility in Britain. The title originates in the Old English word ''eorl'', meaning "a man of noble birth or rank". The word is cognate with the Scandinavian form ''jarl'', and meant "chieftain", particularly a chieftain ...
'', was wrecked off the south coast of England; and
Christopher Christopher is the English version of a Europe-wide name derived from the Greek name Χριστόφορος (''Christóforos''). The constituent parts are Χριστός (''Christós''), "Christ" or "Anointed", and φέρειν (''férein''), "bear ...
, the youngest, who entered the Church and rose to be Master of
Trinity College, Cambridge Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. The college was founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII. Trinity is one of the oldest, largest and most prestigious colleges in Cambridge with the largest financial ...
. Wordsworth's father was a legal representative of
James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale James Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale (5 August 173624 May 1802) was an English country landowner and politician who sat in the House of Commons for 27 years from 1757 to 1784, when he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Earl of Lonsdal ...
, and, through his connections, lived in a large mansion in the small town. He was frequently away from home on business, so the young William and his siblings had little involvement with him and remained distant from him until his death in 1783. However, he did encourage William in his reading, and in particular set him to commit large portions of verse to memory, including works by
Milton Milton may refer to: Names * Milton (surname), a surname (and list of people with that surname) ** John Milton (1608–1674), English poet * Milton (given name) Places Australia * Milton, New South Wales * Milton, Queensland, a suburb of Bris ...
,
Shakespeare William Shakespeare (bapt. 26 April 1564 – 23 April 1616) was an English playwright, poet, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and one of the world's greatest dramatists. He is often called England' ...
and Spenser. William was also allowed to use his father's library. William also spent time at his mother's parents' house in Penrith, Cumberland, where he was exposed to the moors, but did not get along with his grandparents or his uncle, who also lived there. His hostile interactions with them distressed him to the point of contemplating suicide. Wordsworth was taught to read by his mother and attended, first, a tiny school of low quality in Cockermouth, then a school in Penrith for the children of upper-class families, where he was taught by Ann Birkett, who insisted on instilling in her students traditions that included pursuing both scholarly and local activities, especially the festivals around Easter, May Day and
Shrove Tuesday Shrove Tuesday is the day before Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent), observed in many Christian countries through participating in confession and absolution, the ritual burning of the previous year's Holy Week palms, finalizing one's Lenten sa ...
. Wordsworth was taught both the Bible and the ''
Spectator ''Spectator'' or ''The Spectator'' may refer to: *Spectator sport, a sport that is characterized by the presence of spectators, or watchers, at its matches *Audience Publications Canada * ''The Hamilton Spectator'', a Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, n ...
'', but little else. It was at the school in Penrith that he met the Hutchinsons, including Mary, who later became his wife. After the death of Wordsworth's mother, in 1778, his father sent him to
Hawkshead Grammar School Hawkshead Grammar School in Hawkshead, Cumbria, England was founded in 1585 by Archbishop Edwin Sandys, of York, who petitioned a charter from Queen Elizabeth I to set up a governing body. The early School taught Latin, Greek and sciences, including ...
in
Lancashire Lancashire ( ; abbreviated Lancs.) is a ceremonial county and geographical area in North West England. The ceremonial county's administrative centre is Preston, while Lancaster is still the county town. The borders of the ceremonial county wer ...
(now in
Cumbria Cumbria ( ) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's county town is ...
) and sent Dorothy to live with relatives in
Yorkshire Yorkshire (; abbreviated Yorks), formally known as the County of York, is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in the United Kingdom. Because of its great size in comparison to other English counties, functions have been undert ...
. She and William did not meet again for nine years. Wordsworth made his debut as a writer in 1787 when he published a sonnet in ''
The European Magazine The ''European Magazine'' was a monthly magazine published in London. Eighty-nine semi-annual volumes were published from 1782 until 1826. It was launched as the ''European Magazine, and London Review'' in January 1782, promising to offer "the Lit ...
''. That same year he began attending
St John's College, Cambridge St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge (the full, formal name of the college is the College of St John the Evangelist in the University of Cambridge) founded by the Tudor matriarch Lady Margaret Beaufort. In con ...
. He received his BA degree in 1791. He returned to Hawkshead for the first two summers of his time at Cambridge, and often spent later holidays on walking tours, visiting places famous for the beauty of their
landscape A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms, and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of geophysically defined landforms su ...

landscape
. In 1790 he went on a walking tour of Europe, during which he toured the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries (from west to east): France, Switzerland ...

Alps
extensively, and visited nearby areas of France, Switzerland, and Italy.


Relationship with Annette Vallon

In November 1791, Wordsworth visited
Revolutionary France The French Revolution ( ) refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. Many of its ideas are considered fundamental principles of Western liberal de ...
and became enchanted with the Republican movement. He fell in love with a French woman, Annette Vallon, who, in 1792, gave birth to their daughter Caroline. Financial problems and
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands * Great Britain, the largest island in the United Kingdom * Ro ...

Britain
's tense relations with France forced him to return to England alone the following year.Everett, Glenn
"William Wordsworth: Biography"
at The Victorian Web, accessed 7 January 2007.
The circumstances of his return and his subsequent behaviour raised doubts as to his declared wish to marry Annette. However, he supported her and his daughter as best he could in later life. The
Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror, commonly The Terror (french: link=no, la Terreur), was a period of the French Revolution when, following the creation of the First French Republic, a series of massacres and numerous public executions took place in respons ...
left Wordsworth thoroughly disillusioned with the French Revolution and the outbreak of armed hostilities between Britain and France prevented him from seeing Annette and his daughter for some years. With the
Peace of Amiens The Treaty of Amiens (French: ''la paix d'Amiens'') temporarily ended hostilities between France and the United Kingdom at the end of the War of the Second Coalition. It marked the end of the French Revolutionary Wars; after a short peace it se ...
again allowing travel to France, in 1802 Wordsworth and his sister Dorothy visited Annette and Caroline in
Calais Calais ( , , traditionally , ; pcd, Calés; vls, Kales) is a city and major ferry port in northern France in the department of Pas-de-Calais, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Although Calais is by far the largest city in Pas-de-Calais, the de ...
. The purpose of the visit was to prepare Annette for the fact of his forthcoming marriage to Mary Hutchinson. Afterwards he wrote the sonnet " It is a beauteous evening, calm and free", recalling a seaside walk with the 9-year-old Caroline, whom he had never seen before that visit. Mary was anxious that Wordsworth should do more for Caroline. Upon Caroline's marriage, in 1816, Wordsworth settled £30 a year on her (equivalent to £2,313 as of 2019), payments which continued until 1835, when they were replaced by a capital settlement.


First publication and ''Lyrical Ballads''

The year 1793 saw the first publication of poems by Wordsworth, in the collections ''An Evening Walk'' and ''Descriptive Sketches''. In 1795 he received a legacy of £900 from Raisley Calvert and became able to pursue a career as a poet. It was also in 1795 that he met
Samuel Taylor Coleridge Samuel Taylor Coleridge (; 21 October 177225 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic, philosopher and theologian who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets ...
in Somerset. The two poets quickly developed a close friendship. For two years from 1795, William and his sister Dorothy lived at Racedown House in Dorset—a property of the Pinney family—to the west of
Pilsdon Pen Pilsdon Pen is a 277-metre (909 ft) hill in Dorset in South West England, situated at the north end of the Marshwood Vale, approximately west of Beaminster. It is Dorset's second highest point and has panoramic views extending for many miles ...
. They walked in the area for about two hours every day, and the nearby hills consoled Dorothy as she pined for the fells of her native Lakeland. She wrote,
"We have hills which, seen from a distance almost take the character of mountains, some cultivated nearly to their summits, others in their wild state covered with furze and broom. These delight me the most as they remind me of our native wilds."
In 1797, the pair moved to
Alfoxton House Alfoxton House, also known as Alfoxton Park or Alfoxden, was built as an 18th-century country house in Holford, Somerset, England, within the Quantock Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The present house was rebuilt in 1710 after the previou ...
, Somerset, just a few miles away from Coleridge's home in
Nether Stowey Nether Stowey is a large village in the Sedgemoor district of Somerset, South West England. It sits in the foothills of the Quantock Hills (England's first Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty), just below Over Stowey. The parish of Nether Stowey cov ...
. Together Wordsworth and Coleridge (with insights from Dorothy) produced ''
Lyrical Ballads ''Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems'' is a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature. ...

Lyrical Ballads
'' (1798), an important work in the English
Romantic movement Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe towards the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1 ...
. The volume gave neither Wordsworth's nor Coleridge's name as author. One of Wordsworth's most famous poems, "
Tintern Abbey Tintern Abbey ( cy, Abaty Tyndyrn ) was founded on 9 May 1131 by Walter de Clare, Lord of Chepstow. It is situated adjacent to the village of Tintern in Monmouthshire, on the Welsh bank of the River Wye, which at this location forms the border ...
", was published in this collection, along with Coleridge's "
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" (originally "The Rime of the Ancyent Marinere") is the longest major poem by the English poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge, written in 1797–98 and published in 1798 in the first edition of ''Lyrical Ballads''. So ...
". The second edition, published in 1800, had only Wordsworth listed as the author, and included a preface to the poems. It was augmented significantly in the next edition, published in 1802. In this preface, which some scholars consider a central work of Romantic literary theory, Wordsworth discusses what he sees as the elements of a new type of verse, one that is based on the ordinary language "really used by men" while avoiding the poetic diction of much 18th-century verse. Wordsworth also gives his famous definition of poetry as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility", and calls his own poems in the book "experimental". A fourth and final edition of ''Lyrical Ballads'' was published in 1805.


''The Borderers''

Between 1795–1797, Wordsworth wrote his only play, ''The Borderers'', a verse tragedy set during the reign of
King Henry III of England Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland, and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death in 1272. The son of King John and Isabella of Angoulême, Henry assu ...
, when Englishmen in the North Country came into conflict with Scottish
border reivers#REDIRECT Border reivers {{R from move ...

border reivers
. He attempted to get the play staged in November 1797, but it was rejected by
Thomas Harris William Thomas Harris III (born September 22, 1940) is an American writer, best known for a series of suspense novels about his most famous character, Hannibal Lecter. The majority of his works have been adapted into films and television, the mo ...

Thomas Harris
, the manager of the Covent Garden Theatre, who proclaimed it "impossible that the play should succeed in the representation". The rebuff was not received lightly by Wordsworth and the play was not published until 1842, after substantial revision.


Germany and move to the Lake District

Wordsworth, Dorothy and Coleridge travelled to Germany in the autumn of 1798. While Coleridge was intellectually stimulated by the journey, its main effect on Wordsworth was to produce homesickness. During the harsh winter of 1798–99 Wordsworth lived with Dorothy in Goslar, and, despite extreme stress and loneliness, began work on the autobiographical piece that was later titled ''The Prelude''. He wrote a number of other famous poems in Goslar, including "The Lucy poems". In the Autumn of 1799, Wordsworth and his sister returned to England and visited the Hutchinson family at Sockburn. When Coleridge arrived back in England he travelled to the North with their publisher Joseph Cottle to meet Wordsworth and undertake a proposed tour of the Lake District. This was the immediate cause of the brother and sister's settling at Dove Cottage in Grasmere (village), Grasmere in the Lake District, this time with another poet, Robert Southey, nearby. Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey came to be known as the "Lake Poets". Throughout this period many of Wordsworth's poems revolved around themes of death, endurance, separation and grief.


Marriage and children

In 1802, Lowther's heir, William Lowther, 1st Earl of Lonsdale, paid the £4,000 owed to Wordsworth's father through Lowther's failure to pay his aide. It was this repayment that afforded Wordsworth the financial means to marry. On 4 October, following his visit with Dorothy to France to arrange matters with Annette, Wordsworth married his childhood friend Mary Hutchinson. Dorothy continued to live with the couple and grew close to Mary. The following year Mary gave birth to the first of five children, three of whom predeceased her and William: * Rev. John Wordsworth MA (18 June 180325 July 1875). Vicar of Brigham, Cumberland and Rector of Plumbland, Cumberland. Buried at Highgate Cemetery (west side). Married four times: *# Isabella Curwen (died 1848) had six children: Jane, Henry, William, John, Charles and Edward. *# Helen Ross (died 1854). No children. *# Mary Ann Dolan (died after 1858) had one daughter Dora (born 1858). *# Mary Gamble. No children. * Dora Wordsworth (16 August 18049 July 1847). Married Edward Quillinan in 1841. * Thomas Wordsworth (15 June 18061 December 1812). * Catherine Wordsworth (6 September 18084 June 1812). * William "Willy" Wordsworth (12 May 18101883). Married Fanny Graham and had four children: Mary Louisa, William, Reginald, Gordon


Autobiographical work and ''Poems, in Two Volumes''

Wordsworth had for years been making plans to write a long philosophical poem in three parts, which he intended to call ''The Recluse''. In 1798–99 he started an autobiographical poem, which he referred to as the "The Prelude, poem to Coleridge" and which he planned would serve as an appendix to a larger work called ''The Recluse''. In 1804 he began expanding this autobiographical work, having decided to make it a prologue rather than an appendix. He completed this work, now generally referred to as the first version of ''
The Prelude ''The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem '' is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. Intended as the introduction to the more philosophical poem ''The Recluse,'' which Wordsworth ...
'', in 1805, but refused to publish such a personal work until he had completed the whole of ''The Recluse''. The death of his brother John, also in 1805, affected him strongly and may have influenced his decisions about these works. Wordsworth's philosophical allegiances as articulated in ''
The Prelude ''The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem '' is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. Intended as the introduction to the more philosophical poem ''The Recluse,'' which Wordsworth ...
'' and in such shorter works as "Lines written a few miles above Tintern Abbey" have been a source of critical debate. It was long supposed that Wordsworth relied chiefly on Coleridge for philosophical guidance, but more recently scholars have suggested that Wordsworth's ideas may have been formed years before he and Coleridge became friends in the mid-1790s. In particular, while he was in revolutionary Paris in 1792, the 22-year-old Wordsworth made the acquaintance of the mysterious traveller John "Walking" Stewart (1747–1822), who was nearing the end of his thirty years of wandering, on foot, from Madras, India, through Persia and Arabia, across Africa and Europe, and up through the fledgling United States. By the time of their association, Stewart had published an ambitious work of original materialist philosophy entitled ''The Apocalypse of Nature'' (London, 1791), to which many of Wordsworth's philosophical sentiments may well be indebted. In 1807 Wordsworth published ''Poems, in Two Volumes'', including "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood". Up to this point, Wordsworth was known only for ''Lyrical Ballads'', and he hoped that this new collection would cement his reputation. Its reception was lukewarm, however. In 1810, Wordsworth and Coleridge were estranged over the latter's opium addiction, and in 1812, his son Thomas died at the age of 6, six months after the death of 3-year-old Catherine. The following year he received an appointment as Distributor of Stamps for Westmorland, and the stipend of £400 a year made him financially secure, albeit at the cost of political independence. In 1813, he and his family, including Dorothy, moved to Rydal Mount, Ambleside (between Grasmere and Rydal Water), where he spent the rest of his life.


The Prospectus

In 1814 Wordsworth published ''The Excursion'' as the second part of the three-part work ''The Recluse'', even though he had not completed the first part or the third part, and never did. He did, however, write a poetic Prospectus to ''The Recluse'' in which he laid out the structure and intention of the whole work. The Prospectus contains some of Wordsworth's most famous lines on the relation between the human mind and nature: Some modern critics suggest that there was a decline in his work beginning around the mid-1810s, perhaps because most of the concerns that characterised his early poems (loss, death, endurance, separation and abandonment) had been resolved in his writings and his life. By 1820, he was enjoying considerable success accompanying a reversal in the contemporary critical opinion of his earlier works. The poet William Blake, who knew of Wordsworth's work, was struck by Wordsworth's boldness in centering his poetry on the human mind. In response to Wordsworth's poetic program that, “when we look / Into our Minds, into the Mind of Man- / My haunt, and the main region of my song” (The Excursion), William Blake wrote to his friend Henry Crabb Robinson that the passage "“caused him a bowel complaint which nearly killed him”. Following the death of his friend the painter William Green (painter), William Green in 1823, Wordsworth also mended his relations with Coleridge. The two were fully reconciled by 1828, when they toured the Rhineland together. Dorothy suffered from a severe illness in 1829 that rendered her an invalid for the remainder of her life. Coleridge and Charles Lamb both died in 1834, their loss being a difficult blow to Wordsworth. The following year saw the passing of James Hogg. Despite the death of many contemporaries, the popularity of his poetry ensured a steady stream of young friends and admirers to replace those he lost.


Religious beliefs

Wordsworth's youthful political radicalism, unlike Coleridge's, never led him to rebel against his religious upbringing. He remarked in 1812 that he was willing to shed his blood for the established Church of England, reflected in his ''Ecclesiastical Sketches'' of 1822. This religious conservatism also colours ''The Excursion'' (1814), a long poem that became extremely popular during the nineteenth century. It features three central characters: the Wanderer; the Solitary, who has experienced the hopes and miseries of the French Revolution; and the Pastor, who dominates the last third of the poem.


Laureateship and other honours

Wordsworth remained a formidable presence in his later years. In 1837, the Scottish poet and playwright Joanna Baillie reflected on her long acquaintance with Wordsworth. "He looks like a man that one must not speak to unless one has some sensible thing to say. However he does occasionally converse cheerfully & well; and when one knows how benevolent & excellent he is, it disposes one to be very much pleased with him." In 1838, Wordsworth received an honorary doctorate in Civil Law from the University of Durham and the following year he was awarded the same honorary degree by the University of Oxford, when John Keble praised him as the "poet of humanity", praise greatly appreciated by Wordsworth. (It has been argued that Wordsworth was a great influence on Keble's immensely popular book of devotional poetry, ''The Christian Year'' (1827).) In 1842, the government awarded him a Civil List pension of £300 a year. Following the death of Robert Southey in 1843 Wordsworth became
Poet Laureate#REDIRECT Poet laureate#REDIRECT Poet laureate {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. He initially refused the honour, saying that he was too old, but accepted when the Prime Minister, Robert Peel, assured him that "you shall have nothing required of you". Wordsworth thus became the only poet laureate to write no official verses. The sudden death of his daughter Dora in 1847 at age 42 was difficult for the aging poet to take and in his depression, he completely gave up writing new material.


Death

William Wordsworth died at home at Rydal Mount from an aggravated case of
pleurisy Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae). This can result in a sharp chest pain while breathing. Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache. Other symp ...

pleurisy
on 23 April 1850, and was buried at St Oswald's Church, Grasmere. His widow, Mary, published his lengthy autobiographical "Poem to Coleridge" as ''
The Prelude ''The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem '' is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. Intended as the introduction to the more philosophical poem ''The Recluse,'' which Wordsworth ...
'' several months after his death. Though it failed to interest people at the time, it has since come to be widely recognised as his masterpiece.


In popular culture

Wordsworth has appeared as a character in works of fiction, including: * William Kinsolving – ''Mister Christian''. 1996 * Jasper Fforde – ''The Eyre Affair''. 2001 * Val McDermid – ''The Grave Tattoo''. 2006 * Sue Limb – ''The Wordsmiths at Gorsemere''. 2008 Isaac Asimov's 1966 Fantastic Voyage#Novelization, novelisation of the 1966 film ''Fantastic Voyage'' sees Dr. Peter Duval quoting Wordsworth's ''
The Prelude ''The Prelude or, Growth of a Poet's Mind; An Autobiographical Poem '' is an autobiographical poem in blank verse by the English poet William Wordsworth. Intended as the introduction to the more philosophical poem ''The Recluse,'' which Wordsworth ...
'' as the miniaturised submarine sails through the cerebral fluid surrounding a human brain, comparing it to the "strange seas of thought". Taylor Swift's 2020 album ''Folklore (Taylor Swift album), Folklore'' mentions Wordsworth in her bonus track "The Lakes (song), The Lakes", which is thought to be about the
Lake District The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous for its lakes, forests and mountains (or ''fells''), and its associations with William Wordsworth ...
.


Major works


References


Further reading

* Juliet Barker. ''Wordsworth: A Life'', HarperCollins, New York, 2000, * Hunter Davies, ''William Wordsworth: A Biography'', Frances Lincoln, London, 2009, * Stephen Gill, ''William Wordsworth: A Life'', Oxford University Press, 1989, * Emma Mason, ''The Cambridge Introduction to William Wordsworth'' (Cambridge University Press, 2010) * * Mary Moorman, ''William Wordsworth, A Biography: The Early Years, 1770–1803 v. 1'', Oxford University Press, 1957, * Mary Moorman, ''William Wordsworth: A Biography: The Later Years, 1803–1850 v. 2'', Oxford University Press, 1965, * M. R. Tewari, ''One Interior Life—A Study of the Nature of Wordsworth's Poetic Experience'' (New Delhi: S. Chand & Company Ltd, 1983) * ''Report to Wordsworth,'' Written by Boey Kim Cheng, as a direct reference to his poems "Composed Upon Westminster Bridge" and "The World Is Too Much with Us"


External links


Internet archive of Volume 1 of Christopher Wordsworth's 1851 biography

Internet archive of Volume 2 of Christopher Wordsworth's 1851 biography
* * * * hdl:10079/fa/beinecke.wordsworth, William Wordsworth Collection. General Collection, Beinecke Rare Book andManuscript Library, Yale University. {{DEFAULTSORT:Wordsworth, William William Wordsworth, 1770 births 1850 deaths 18th-century Christian mystics 18th-century English poets 18th-century English writers 18th-century male writers 19th-century Christian mystics 19th-century English poets 19th-century English writers 19th-century male writers Alumni of St John's College, Cambridge Anglican poets Anglican writers Burials in Cumbria English Anglicans English male poets Mystics People associated with Durham University People educated at Hawkshead Grammar School People from Cockermouth People from Grasmere (village) Protestant mystics Romantic poets Sonneteers Wordsworth family, William