BackgroundThe was first colonised by Europeans in 1652, under the auspices of the (also known by its Dutch initials ''VOC''), which established a victualling station there that year to give its outward-bound fleets fresh provisions and a harbour for refuge during the long sea journey from Europe to Asia. Within a few decades, the Cape had become home to a large population of former Company employees who remained there after completing their contracts. This came about because the VOC released some employees from their contracts to save on their wages, instead offering them grants of farmland in exchange for their commitment that they would stay on the African continent for at least 20 years, and would cultivate grain on their land for the Company warehouses. To qualify for this arrangement, they had to be married, be considered "of good character" by the company, and, except under special circumstances, be Dutch citizens. These colonists were known as or ('free citizens'). were granted tax-exempt status for 12 years and were lent all the necessary seeds and farming implements they requested. Due to the multinational character of the VOC's workforce, some German soldiers and sailors were also granted status, and in 1688 the Dutch government sponsored the recolonisation of over a hundred French As a result, by 1691, more than a quarter of the colony's European population was not ethnically Dutch.Entry: Cape Colony. ''Encyclopædia Britannica Volume 4 Part 2: Brain to Casting''. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 1933. James Louis Garvin, editor. Nevertheless, there was significant cultural assimilation through intermarriage and the almost universal adoption of the Dutch language. Cleavages were likelier to occur along social and economic lines than along national-origin lines. Broadly speaking, the Cape colonists fell into two categories: the rural '' Boers'', poor farmers who directly colonised the frontier, and the '' Cape Dutch'', who were more affluent and predominantly urban. In the late 1790s, following the Flanders Campaign and the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam, the Dutch opened the Cape to French warships because France had helped establish a pro-French client state, the Batavian Republic, on Dutch soil. Great Britain, seeing this as a threat to its own prosperous maritime shipping operations, seized control of the fledgling colony and occupied it by force until 1803. From 1806 to 1814, the Cape was governed as a British military dependency, whose sole importance to the Royal Navy was its strategic relation to Indian maritime traffic. Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1815), 1815 Treaty of Paris, the British formally assumed permanent administrative control of the colony.
CausesAt the start of British rule, the Cape Colony encompassed and was populated by about 26,720 people of European descent. A majority of these were of Dutch origin, just over a quarter were of German ancestry, and about one-sixth were the descendants of French Huguenots, most of whom had stopped speaking French by around 1750. The colony's population also included about 30,000 people of native African and Asian origin who were being held in slavery by the Continental European colonists, and another 17,000 non-enslaved people who were indigenous Khoisan — the descendants of those who had had the region to themselves before the coming of the Europeans. Relations between the new British administrators and many colonists of Continental European origin – especially the Boers – were sour from the beginning. Another point of tension was the British government's insistence that the Cape finance its own affairs through self-taxation, an approach which was alien both to the Boers and to the Dutch merchants in Cape Town. Tensions escalated further in 1815, when the British police arrested a Boer farmer after multiple allegations that he assaulted a Khoekhoe servant, provoking outrage among the Boers which resulted in the short-lived Slachter's Nek Rebellion. The British responded to the rebellion by hanging at least five Boers for insurrection. The colony's Boer and merchant populations became further alienated from their British rulers in 1828, when the Cape's governor decreed that all members of the indigenous African population who were not enslaved would henceforth have the same citizenship rights, with respect to security and property ownership, as the descendants of European colonists. Boer resentment of successive British administrators continued to grow throughout the late 1820s and early 1830s. Particularly difficult, from the Boers' point of view, was Great Britain's decision to change the colony's official language from Dutch to English. This change meant that English replaced Dutch as the language used in conducting the Cape's judicial and political affairs, which put the Boers at a disadvantage, since most of them spoke little or no English. Great Britain's alienation of the Boers was further amplified by its decision to abolish slavery in all its colonies in 1834. As a result of this decision, all 35,000 of the people registered with the Cape governor as enslaved were required to be freed and accorded the same rights as other citizens, although in most cases their former enslavers were permitted to retain them as apprentices (under conditions barely better than slavery) until 1838. Many Boers, especially those involved with grain and wine production, had become economically dependent on labour stolen from enslaved people. For example, 94% of all farmers of Continental European descent who lived in the vicinity of Stellenbosch kept people in slavery, and there was a close correlation between the number of people each farmer enslaved and the size of their farm's production output. The British government offered to pay compensation to former enslavers, but required them to travel to London to collect payment, and few Boers had enough money to make the trip. Boers who did not own farms, but pursued a semi-nomadic pastoral way of life, were known as ''trekboers''. They too were becoming increasingly frustrated by British rule, including with the British government's apparent unwillingness or inability to extend the borders of the Cape Colony eastward to give them access to more prime pasture and economic opportunities. In response to these British intrusions into their way of life, and lack of responsiveness to their concerns, some members of the Boer community began migrating out of the colony and into South Africa's unmapped interior, to avoid further disputes and live independently of British rule.
OppositionBritish officials viewed the Great Trek with trepidation. They worried that the migration of Boers far into the interior of Southern Africa would inevitably result in conflict between the migrants and the Bantu peoples already living there. However, the ostensible expression of these concerns at the time were likely more inspired by a latent desire to capture those territories for themselves in the near future, than for any sincere consideration of the well-being of the Bantus, as the British authorities themselves were engaged in gradually capturing Xhosa territory by lethal force during 68 years of the Xhosa Wars in the decades leading up to, and following after, the Great Trek. Some worried that the migrants would enslave these indigenous people or otherwise reduce them to a state of penury. But in the end, they decided that any intervention would be both costly and ineffective. Pursuing the migrants before such conflicts or harms could arise, and trying to re-impose an unpopular system of government on the migrants after they had deliberately rejected it, would come at a huge human and material cost; and intervening in conflicts between migrants and indigenous peoples would require the British government to launch a costly military operation. Around 12,000 people took part in the Great Trek migration, which was about one-fifth of the colony's Dutch-speaking white population at the time. As a rule, members of the largely urban, relatively affluent Cape Dutch community remained. They were less likely to feel oppressed by British policies because, economically and culturally, they were not affected by them in the way the rural, farming-dependent Boers were. They were more likely to have made their peace with British rule; indeed, many of them considered themselves loyal British subjects and had a special affection for English culture. However, many Boers also chose to remain in the Cape rather than participate in the Great Trek, despite their dislike of British rule, and the Dutch Reformed Church, to which most of the Boers belonged, explicitly refused to endorse the Great Trek.
Exploratory treks to NatalIn January 1832, Dr. Andrew Smith (an Englishman) and William Berg (a Boer farmer) scouted Early history of Natal, Natal as a potential colony. On their return to the Cape, Smith waxed very enthusiastic, and the impact of discussions Berg had with the Boers proved crucial. Berg portrayed Natal as a land of exceptional farming quality, well watered, and nearly devoid of inhabitants. In June 1834, the Boer leaders of Uitenhage and Grahamstown discussed a ('Commission Trek') to visit Natal and to assess its potential as a new homeland for the Cape Boers who were disenchanted with British rule at the Cape. Piet Uys, Petrus Lafras Uys was chosen as trek leader. In early August 1834, Jan Gerritze set off with some travellers headed for Grahamstown away, a three-week journey from Graaff-Reinet. Sometime around late August 1834 Jan Bantjes arrived in Grahamstown, contacted Uys and made his introductions. In June 1834 at Graaff-Reinet, Jan Bantjes, Jan Gerritze Bantjes heard about the exploratory trek to Port Natal and, encouraged by his father Bernard Louis Bantjes, sent word to Uys of his interest in partaking in this great adventure. Bantjes wanted to help re-establish Dutch independence over the Boers and to get away from British law at the Cape. Bantjes was already well known in the area as an educated young man fluent both in spoken and written Dutch and in English. Because of these skills, Uys invited Bantjes to join him. Bantjes's writing skills would prove invaluable in recording events as the journey unfolded. On 8 September 1834, the of 20 men and one woman, as well as a retinue of coloured servants, set off from Grahamstown for Natal with 14 wagons. Moving through the Eastern Cape, they were welcomed by the Xhosa people, Xhosa who were in dispute with the neighbouring Zulu Dingane kaSenzangakhona, King Dingane kaSenzangakhona, and they passed unharmed into Natal. They travelled more or less the same route that Smith and Berg had taken two years earlier. The trek avoided the coastal route, keeping to the flatter inland terrain. The approached Port Natal from East Griqualand and Ixopo, crossing the upper regions of the Mtamvuna River, Mtamvuna and Umkomazi River, Umkomazi rivers. Travel was slow due to the rugged terrain, and since it was the summer, the rainy season had swollen many of the rivers to their maximum. Progress required days of scouting to locate the most suitable tracks to negotiate. Eventually, after weeks of incredible toil, the small party arrived at Port Natal, crossing the Congela River and weaving their way through the coastal forest into the bay area. They had travelled a distance of about from Grahamstown. This trip would have taken about 5 to 6 months with their slow moving wagons. The Drakensberg route via Kerkenberg into Natal had not yet been discovered. They arrived at the sweltering hot bay of Port Natal in February 1835, exhausted after their long journey. There, the trek was soon welcomed with open arms by the few British hunters and ivory traders there such as James Collis, including Reverend Allen Francis Gardiner, an ex-commander of the Royal Navy ship ''Clinker'', who had decided to start a mission station there. After congenial exchanges between the Boers and British sides, the party joined them and invited Dick King to become their guide. The Boers set up their ('wagon fort') camp in the area of the present-day Greyville Racecourse in Durban, chosen because it had suitable grazing for the oxen and horses and was far from the foraging hippos in the bay. Several small streams running off the Berea, Durban, Berea ridge provided fresh water. Biggar family, Alexander Biggar was also at the bay as a Professional hunter, professional elephant-hunter and provided the trekkers with information regarding conditions at Port Natal. Bantjes made notes suggested by Uys, which later formed the basis of his more comprehensive report on the positive aspects of Natal. Bantjes also made rough maps of the bay - although this journal is now missing - showing the potential for a harbour which could supply the Boers in their new homeland. At Port Natal, Uys sent Dick King, who could speak Zulu, to uMgungundlovu to investigate with King Dingane the possibility of granting them land. When Dick King returned to Port Natal some weeks later, he reported that King Dingane insisted they visit him in person. Johannes Uys, brother of Piet Uys, and a number of comrades with a few wagons travelled toward King Dingane's capital at uMgungundlovu, and after making a camp at the mouth of the Mvoti River, they proceeded on horseback, but were halted by a flooded Tugela River and forced to return to the . The left Port Natal for Grahamstown with a stash of ivory in early June 1835, following more or less the same route back to the Cape, and arrived at Grahamstown in October 1835. On Piet Uys's recommendation, Bantjes set to work on the first draft of the Natalialand Report. Meetings and talks took place in the main church to much approval, and the first sparks of Trek Fever began to take hold. From all the information accumulated at Port Natal, Bantjes drew up the final report on "Natalia or Natal Land" that acted as the catalyst which inspired the Boers at the Cape to set in motion the Great Trek.
First waveThe first wave of Voortrekkers lasted from 1835 to 1840, during which an estimated 6,000 people (roughly 20% of the Cape Colony's total population or 10% of the white population in the 1830s) trekked. The first two parties of Voortrekkers left in September 1835, led by Louis Tregardt and Lang Hans van Rensburg, Hans van Rensburg. These two parties crossed the Vaal river at Robert's Drift in January 1836, but in April 1836 the two parties split up, just seventy miles from the Zoutpansberg mountains, following differences between Tregardt and van Rensburg. A party led by Hendrik Potgieter trekked out of the Tarka area in either late 1835 or early 1836, and in September 1836 a party led by Gerrit Maritz began their trek from Graaff-Reinet. There was no clear consensus amongst the trekkers on where they were going to settle, but they all had the goal of settling near an outlet to the sea. In late July 1836 van Rensburg's entire party of 49, except two children who were saved by a Zulu warrior, were massacred at Inhambane by an impi (a force of warriors) of Soshangane, Manukosi. Those of Tregardt's party that had set up around Soutpansberg moved on to colonise Delagoa Bay, with most of the party, including Tregardt, perishing from fever.
Conflict with the MatebeleIn August 1836, despite pre-existing peace agreements with local black leaders, a Northern Ndebele people, Ndebele (Matebele) patrol attacked the Liebenberg family part of Potgieter's party, killing six men, two women and six children. It is thought that their primary aim was to plunder the Voortrekkers' cattle. On 20 October 1836, Potgieter's party was attacked by an army of 4,600 Ndebele warriors at the Battle of Vegkop. Thirty-five armed trekkers repulsed the Ndebele assault on their with the loss of two men and almost all the trekkers' cattle. Potgieter, Uys and Maritz mounted two punitive commando raids. The first resulted in the sacking of the Ndebele colony at Mosega, the death of 400 Ndebele, and the taking of 7,000 cattle. The second commando forced Mzilikazi and his followers to flee to what is now modern day Zimbabwe. By spring 1837, five to six large Voortrekker colonies had been established between the Vaal River, Vaal and Orange Rivers with a total population of around 2,000 trekkers.
Conflict with the ZuluIn October 1837 Piet Retief, Retief met with Zulu people, Zulu Dingane kaSenzangakhona, King Dingane to negotiate a treaty for land in what is now Kwa-Zulu Natal. King Dingane, suspicious and untrusting because of previous Voortrekker influxes from across the Drakensberg, Piet Retief Delegation massacre, had Retief and seventy of his followers killed. Various interpretations of what transpired exist, as only the missionary Francis Owen (priest), Francis Owen's written eye-witness account survived. Retief's written request for land contained veiled threats by referring to the Voortrekker's defeat of indigenous groups encountered along their journey. The Voortrekker demand for a written contract guaranteeing private property ownership was incompatible with the contemporaneous Zulu oral culture which prescribed that a chief could only temporarily dispense land as it was communally owned. Most versions agree that the following happened: King Dingane's authority extended over some of the land in which the Boers wanted to settle. As prerequisite to granting the Voortrekker request, he demanded that the Voortrekkers return some cattle stolen by Sekonyela, a rival chief. After the Boers retrieved the cattle, King Dingane invited Retief to his residence at uMgungundlovu to finalise the treaty, having either planned the massacre in advance, or deciding to do so after Retief and his men arrived. King Dingane's reputed instruction to his warriors, "" (Zulu for "kill the wizards") may indicate that he considered the Boers to wield evil supernatural powers. After killing Retief's delegation, a Zulu army of 7,000 impis were sent out and immediately attacked Voortrekker encampments in the Drakensberg foothills at what later was called Blaauwkrans and Weenen, leading to the Weenen massacre in which 282 Voortrekkers, of whom 185 children were killed. In contrast to earlier conflicts with the Xhosa people, Xhosa on the eastern Cape frontier, the Zulus killed women and children along with men, wiping out half of the Natal contingent of Voortrekkers. The Voortrekkers retaliated with a 347-strong punitive raid against the Zulu (later known as the Flight Commando), supported by new arrivals from the Orange Free State. The Voortrekkers were roundly defeated by about 7,000 warriors at Battle of Italeni, Ithaleni, southwest of uMgungundlovu. The well-known reluctance of Afrikaner leaders to submit to one another's leadership, which later hindered sustained success in the Anglo-Boer Wars, was largely to blame. In November 1838 Andries Pretorius arrived with a commando of 60 armed trekkers and two cannon to assist in the defence. A few days later on 16 December 1838, a force of 468 trekkers, 3 Britons, and 60 black allies fought against 10,000 to 12,000 Zulu impis at the Battle of Blood River. Pretorius's victory over the Zulu army led to a civil war within the Zulu nation as King Dingane's half-brother, Mpande kaSenzangakhona, aligned with the Voortrekkers to overthrow the king and impose himself. Mpande sent 10,000 impis to assist the trekkers in follow-up expeditions against Dingane. After the defeat of the Zulu forces and the recovery of the treaty between Dingane and Retief from Retief's body, the Voortrekkers proclaimed the Natalia Republic. After Dingane's death, Mpande was proclaimed king, and the Zulu nation allied with the short-lived Natalia Republic until its annexation by the British Empire in 1843. The Voortrekkers' guns offered them a technological advantage over the Zulu's traditional weaponry of short stabbing spears, fighting sticks, and cattle-hide shields. The Boers attributed their victory to a vow they made to God before the battle: if victorious, they and future generations would commemorate the day as a ''Sabbath''. Thereafter, 16 December was celebrated by Boers as a public holiday, first called Dingane's Day, later changed to the Day of the Vow. Post-apartheid, the name was changed to the Day of Reconciliation by the South African government, in order to foster reconciliation between all South Africans.
ImpactConflict amongst the Voortrekkers was a problem because the trek leveled out the pre-existing class hierarchy which had previously enforced discipline, and thus social cohesion broke down. Instead the trek leaders became more reliant on patriarchal family structure and military reputation to maintain control over their parties. This had a large and lasting impact on Afrikaners, Afrikaans culture and society.
Centenary celebrationsThe celebration of the Great Trek in the 1930s play a major role in the growth of Afrikaners, Afrikaans nationalism. It is thought that the experiences of the Second Boer War and the following period, between 1906 and 1934, of a lack of public discussion about the war within the Afrikaans community helped set the scene for a large increase in interest in Afrikaans national identity. The celebration of the centenary of the Great Trek along with a new generation of Afrikaners interested in learning about the Afrikaans experiences of the Boer War catalyzed a surge of Afrikaans nationalism. The centenary celebrations began with a re-enactment of the trek beginning on 8 August 1938 with nine ox wagons at the statue of Jan van Riebeeck in Cape Town and ended at the newly completed Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria and attended by over 100,000 people. A second re-enactment trek starting at the same time and place ended at the scene of the Battle of Blood River. The commemoration sparked mass enthusiasm amongst Afrikaners as the re-enactment trek passed through the small towns and cities of South Africa. Both participants and spectators participated by dressing in Voortrekker clothing, renaming streets, holding ceremonies, erecting monuments, and laying wreaths at the graves of Afrikaner heroes. Cooking meals over an open fire in the same way the Voortrekkers did became fashionable amongst urbanites, giving birth to the South African tradition of braaing. An Afrikaans language Epic film, epic was made to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Great Trek,
Political impactThe Great Trek was used by Afrikaner nationalism, Afrikaner nationalists as a core symbol of a common Afrikaans history. It was used to promote the idea of an Afrikaans nation and a narrative that promoted the ideals of the National Party (South Africa), National Party. In 1938, celebrations of the centenary of the Battle of Blood River and the Great Trek mobilized behind an Afrikaans nationalist theses. The narrative of Afrikaner nationalism was a significant reason for the National Party's victory in the South African general election, 1948, 1948 elections. This in turn allowed the party to implement its stated program of apartheid. A year later the Voortrekker Monument was completed and opened in Pretoria by the newly elected South African Prime Minister and National Party member Daniel Malan in 1949. A few years later, "" ('The Voice of South Africa'), a poem written by Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven referring to the Great Trek, was chosen to be the words of the pre-1994 South African national anthem. The post-1997 national anthem of South Africa incorporates a section of "" but it was decided to omit the section in "reference to the Great Trek (''), since this was the experience of only one section of our community". When apartheid in South Africa ended and the country transitioned to majority rule, President F. W. de Klerk invoked the measures as a new Great Trek.
Literature* H. Rider Haggard, ''Swallow (novel), Swallow'' (1899) and ''Marie (novel), Marie'' (1912) * Stuart Cloete, ''Turning Wheels'' (1937) * Helga Moray, ''Untamed'' (1950) - a 1955 movie of the same name is based on this book. * James A. Michener, ''The Covenant (novel), The Covenant'' (1980) * Zakes Mda, ''The Madonna of Excelsior'' (2002) * Robin Binckes, ''Canvas under the Sky'' (2011) - a controversial novel about a promiscuous drug-using Voortrekker set during the Great Trek.
Film* ''Untamed (1955 film), Untamed'' (1955), an adventure/love story set in the later part of the trek about an Irish woman seeking a new life in South Africa after the Great Famine (Ireland), Great Famine. Based on a 1950 novel of the same name by Helga Moray. * ''The Fiercest Heart'' (1961), an adventure/love story about two British soldiers who desert the military and join a group of Boers heading north on the Great Trek.
Literature* Jeanette Ferreira : (2007; 'The sun comes up over the sea') * F.A. Venter, : ( en, Afflicted land) (1960) : ( en, Land of sacrifice) (1963) : ( en, Land of the covenant) (1966) : ( en, Intended land) (1968)
Literature* C. W. H. Van der Post, , novel, 1918.
See also* Dorsland Trek * History of South Africa
Further reading* Benyon, John. "The necessity for new perspectives in South African history with particular reference to the Great Trek." ''Historia Archive'' 33.2 (1988): 1-10