United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau.svg
Location(s)4600 Silver Hill Rd.
Suitland, Maryland 20746
CountryUnited States
InauguratedAugust 2, 1790; 230 years ago (1790-08-02)
Most recentApril 1, 2020; 7 months ago (2020-04-01)
Next eventApril 1, 2030; 9 years' time (2030-04-01)

The United States Census (plural censuses or census) is a census that is legally mandated by the US Constitution, and takes place every 10 years. The first census after the American Revolution was taken in 1790, under Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson; there have been 22 federal censuses since that time.[1]

The current national census has been in progress since 2020; the next census is scheduled for 2030. Since 2013, the Census Bureau began discussions on using technology to aid data collection starting with the 2020 census.[2] In 2020, every household will receive an invitation to complete the census over the Internet, by phone or by paper questionnaire.[3][4] For years between the decennial censuses, the Census Bureau issues estimates made using surveys and statistical models, in particular, the Population Estimates Program and American Community Survey.

The United States Census is a population census, which is distinct from the U.S. Census of Agriculture, which is no longer the responsibility of the Census Bureau. It is also distinct from local censuses conducted by some states or local jurisdictions.