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Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of mostly aromatic
flowering plants The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species. Like gymnosperms, angiosperms are seed ...
named after the
type genus Type may refer to: Science and technology Computing * Typing, producing text via a keyboard, typewriter, etc. * Data type, collection of values used for computations. * File type * TYPE (DOS command), a command to display contents of a file. * Type ...
''
Apium ''Apium'' (including celery and the marshworts) is a genus of about 20 species of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, with a subcosmopolitan distribution in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and Australia. They are medium to tall biennials ...
'' and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or simply as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexe ...
in 434
genera Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms as well as viruses, in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial ...
Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards)
Angiosperm Phylogeny Website
Version 9, June 2008.
including such well-known and economically important plants such as
ajwain Ajwain, ajowan (), or ''Trachyspermum ammi''—also known as ajowan caraway, thymol seeds, bishop's weed, or carom—is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Both the leaves and the seed‑like fruit (often mistakenly called seeds) of the plant ...
,
angelica 220px, Wild angelica (''Angelica sylvestris'') from Thomé, ''Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz'' 1885 ''Angelica'' is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and ...
,
anise Anise (, ; '), also called aniseed or rarely anix, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. The flavor and aroma of its seeds have similarities with some other spices, such as s ...
,
asafoetida Asafoetida (; also spelled asafetida) is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the rhizome or tap root of several species of ''Ferula'' (''F. foetida'' and ''F. assa-foetida''), perennial herbs growing tall. They are part of the celery fam ...

asafoetida
,
caraway Caraway, also known as meridian fennel and Persian cumin (''Carum carvi''), is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,USDA PlantClassification Report: Apiaceae native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa. The plant is similar in appearanc ...
,
carrot The carrot (''Daucus carota'' subsp. ''sativus'') is a root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. They are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, ''Daucus carota'', native to Europe ...
,
celery Celery (''Apium graveolens'') is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves ...
,
chervil Chervil (; ''Anthriscus cerefolium''), sometimes called French parsley or garden chervil (to distinguish it from similar plants also called chervil), is a delicate annual herb related to parsley. It is commonly used to season mild-flavoured dish ...
,
coriander Coriander (;
coriander
,
cumin Cumin ( or , or ) (''Cuminum cyminum'') is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including the Middle East and stretching east to India. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are ...
,
dill Dill (''Anethum graveolens'') is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae. It is the only species in the genus ''Anethum''. Dill is grown widely in Eurasia, where its leaves and seeds are used as a herb or spice for flavouring food. Growth ...
,
fennel Fennel (''Foeniculum vulgare'') is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in ...
,
lovage Lovage (), ''Levisticum officinale'', is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus ''Levisticum'' in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae. It has been long cultivated in Europe, the leaves being used as a herb, the roots as a vege ...
, cow parsley, parsley, parsnip and Eryngium maritimum, sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct. The family Apiaceae includes a significant number of phototoxic species, such as giant hogweed, and a smaller number of highly poisonous species, such as water hemlock, poison hemlock, water dropwort and spotted cowbane.


Description

Most Apiaceae are annual plant, annual, biennial plant, biennial or perennial herbaceous plant, herbs (frequently with the leaves aggregated toward the base), though a minority are woody shrubs or small trees such as ''Bupleurum fruticosum''. Their leaves are of variable size and phyllotaxis, alternately arranged, or with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. The leaves may be petiole (botany), petiolate or sessile. There are no stipules but the petioles are frequently sheathing and the leaves may be Glossary_of_leaf_morphology#perfoliate, perfoliate. The leaf blade is usually dissected, Glossary_of_leaf_morphology#ternate, ternate, or Glossary_of_leaf_morphology#pinnatifid, pinnatifid, but simple and entire in some genera, e.g. ''Bupleurum''. Commonly, their leaves emit a marked smell when crushed, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some species. The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence, the flowers nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, that may be simple or more commonly compound, often umbelliform Cyme_(botany), cymes. The flowers are usually perfect (hermaphroditic) and actinomorphic, but there may be zygomorphic flowers at the edge of the umbel, as in
carrot The carrot (''Daucus carota'' subsp. ''sativus'') is a root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. They are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, ''Daucus carota'', native to Europe ...
(''Daucus carota'') and
coriander Coriander (;
coriander
, with petals of unequal size, the ones pointing outward from the umbel larger than the ones pointing inward. Some are plant sexual morphology, andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or even dioecious (as in ''Acronema''), with a distinct calyx (botany), calyx and corolla (flower), corolla, but the calyx is often highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, yellow, pink or purple. The flowers are nearly perfectly Merosity, pentamerous, with five petals, sepals, and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is often variation in the functionality of the stamens even within a single inflorescence. Some flowers are functionally staminate (where a pistil may be present but has no ovules capable of being fertilized) while others are functionally pistillate (where stamens are present but their anthers do not produce viable pollen). Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant (geitonogamy) is common. The gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. Glossary of botanical terms#stylopodium, Stylopodia support two styles and secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, mosquitoes, gnats, beetles, moths, and bees. The fruit is a schizocarp consisting of two fused carpels that separate at maturity into two mericarps, each containing a single seed. The fruits of many species are dispersed by wind but others such as those of ''Daucus'' spp., are covered in bristles, which may be hooked in sanicle ''Sanicula europaea'' and thus catch in the fur of animals. The seeds have an oily endospermWatson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards
The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval
. Version: 4 March 2011.
and often contain essential oils, containing aromatic compounds that are responsible for the flavour of commercially important umbelliferous seed such as
anise Anise (, ; '), also called aniseed or rarely anix, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. The flavor and aroma of its seeds have similarities with some other spices, such as s ...
,
cumin Cumin ( or , or ) (''Cuminum cyminum'') is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including the Middle East and stretching east to India. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are ...
and
coriander Coriander (;
coriander
. The shape and details of the ornamentation of the ripe fruits are important for identification to species level.


Taxonomy

Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836. The name is derived from the type genus ''
Apium ''Apium'' (including celery and the marshworts) is a genus of about 20 species of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae, with a subcosmopolitan distribution in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and Australia. They are medium to tall biennials ...
'', which was originally used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a
celery Celery (''Apium graveolens'') is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves ...
-like plant. The alternative name for the family, Umbelliferae, derives from the inflorescence being generally in the form of a compound umbel. The family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 ''Historia generalis plantarum''. With Robert Morison, Robert Morison's 1672 ''Plantarum umbelliferarum distribution nova'' it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published. The family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III system. It is closely related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited largely based on fruit morphology (biology), morphology, and the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is currently in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic.


Genera

According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website , 434 genera are in the family Apiaceae. File:Chaerophyllum_bulbosum_-_Köhler–s_Medizinal-Pflanzen-177.jpg, ''Chaerophyllum bulbosum'' File:Apiaceae Pimpinella anisum.jpg, Anise (''Pimpinella anisum'')
from Woodville (1793) File:Angelica archangelica (1118596627).jpg, ''Angelica archangelica'' File:Coriandrum sativum 003.JPG, Umbel of ''Coriandrum sativum'' showing strong zygomorphy (asymmetry) in the outer flowers.


Ecology

The black swallowtail butterfly, ''Papilio polyxenes'', uses the family Apiaceae for food and host plants for oviposition. The 22-spot ladybird is also commonly found eating mildew on these shrubs.


Uses

Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. Parsnip (''Pastinaca sativa''),
carrot The carrot (''Daucus carota'' subsp. ''sativus'') is a root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. They are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, ''Daucus carota'', native to Europe ...
(''Daucus carota'') and Hamburg parsley#Root parsley, Hamburg parsley (''Petroselinum crispum'') produce tap roots that are large enough to be useful as food. Many species produce essential oils in their leaves or fruits and as a result are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley (''Petroselinum crispum''),
coriander Coriander (;
coriander
(''Coriandrum sativum''), culantro, and
dill Dill (''Anethum graveolens'') is an annual herb in the celery family Apiaceae. It is the only species in the genus ''Anethum''. Dill is grown widely in Eurasia, where its leaves and seeds are used as a herb or spice for flavouring food. Growth ...
(''Anethum graveolens''). The seeds may be used in cuisine, as with
coriander Coriander (;
coriander
(''Coriandrum sativum''),
fennel Fennel (''Foeniculum vulgare'') is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in ...
(''Foeniculum vulgare''),
cumin Cumin ( or , or ) (''Cuminum cyminum'') is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including the Middle East and stretching east to India. Its seeds – each one contained within a fruit, which is dried – are ...
(''Cuminum cyminum''), and
caraway Caraway, also known as meridian fennel and Persian cumin (''Carum carvi''), is a biennial plant in the family Apiaceae,USDA PlantClassification Report: Apiaceae native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa. The plant is similar in appearanc ...
(''Carum carvi''). Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include
chervil Chervil (; ''Anthriscus cerefolium''), sometimes called French parsley or garden chervil (to distinguish it from similar plants also called chervil), is a delicate annual herb related to parsley. It is commonly used to season mild-flavoured dish ...
(''Anthriscus cerefolium''),
angelica 220px, Wild angelica (''Angelica sylvestris'') from Thomé, ''Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz'' 1885 ''Angelica'' is a genus of about 60 species of tall biennial and perennial herbs in the family Apiaceae, native to temperate and ...
(''Angelica'' spp.),
celery Celery (''Apium graveolens'') is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves ...
(''Apium graveolens''), arracacha (''Arracacia xanthorrhiza''), Eryngium maritimum, sea holly (''Eryngium'' spp.),
asafoetida Asafoetida (; also spelled asafetida) is the dried latex (gum oleoresin) exuded from the rhizome or tap root of several species of ''Ferula'' (''F. foetida'' and ''F. assa-foetida''), perennial herbs growing tall. They are part of the celery fam ...

asafoetida
(''Ferula asafoetida''), galbanum (''Ferula gummosa''), cicely (''Myrrhis odorata''),
anise Anise (, ; '), also called aniseed or rarely anix, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. The flavor and aroma of its seeds have similarities with some other spices, such as s ...
(''Pimpinella anisum''),
lovage Lovage (), ''Levisticum officinale'', is a tall perennial plant, the sole species in the genus ''Levisticum'' in the family Apiaceae, subfamily Apioideae. It has been long cultivated in Europe, the leaves being used as a herb, the roots as a vege ...
(''Levisticum officinale''), and Hacquetia epipactis, hacquetia (''Hacquetia epipactis'').


Cultivation

Generally, all members of this family are best cultivated in the cool-season garden; indeed, they may not grow at all if the soils are too warm. Almost every widely cultivated plant of this group is a considered useful as a companion plant. One reason is because the tiny flowers clustered into umbels, are well suited for ladybugs, parasitic wasps, and predatory flies, which actually drink nectar when not reproducing. They then prey upon insect pests on nearby plants. Some of the members of this family considered "herbs" produce scents that are believed to ...mask the odours of nearby plants, thus making them harder for insect pests to find.


Other uses

The poisonous members of the Apiaceae have been used for a variety of purposes globally. The poisonous ''Water dropwort, Oenanthe crocata'' has been used to stupefy fish, ''Cicuta douglasii'' has been used as an aid in suicides, and arrow poisons have been made from various other family species. ''Daucus carota'' has been used as coloring for butter. ''Dorema ammoniacum'', ''Ferula galbaniflua'', and ''Muskroot, Ferula sumbul'' are sources of incense. The woody Yareta, ''Azorella compacta'' Phil. has been used in South America for fuel.


Toxicity

There are highly poisonous species, such as water hemlock, poison hemlock, water dropwort and spotted cowbane. Many species in the family Apiaceae produce phototoxic substances (called furanocoumarins) that sensitize human skin to sunlight. Contact with plant parts that contain furanocoumarins, followed by exposure to sunlight, may cause phytophotodermatitis, a serious skin inflammation. Of all the plant species that have been reported to induce phytophotodermatitis, approximately half belong to the family Apiaceae. Phototoxic species include ''Ammi majus'', the parsnip (''Pastinaca sativa'') and numerous species of the genus ''Heracleum (plant), Heracleum'', especially the giant hogweed (''Heracleum mantegazzianum''). The family Apiaceae also includes a smaller number of poisonous species, including Conium maculatum, poison hemlock, Cicuta, water hemlock, and Aethusa cynapium, fool's parsley. Some members of the family Apiaceae, including
carrot The carrot (''Daucus carota'' subsp. ''sativus'') is a root vegetable, usually orange in color, though purple, black, red, white, and yellow cultivars exist. They are a domesticated form of the wild carrot, ''Daucus carota'', native to Europe ...
,
celery Celery (''Apium graveolens'') is a marshland plant in the family Apiaceae that has been cultivated as a vegetable since antiquity. Celery has a long fibrous stalk tapering into leaves. Depending on location and cultivar, either its stalks, leaves ...
,
fennel Fennel (''Foeniculum vulgare'') is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a hardy, perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in ...
, parsley and parsnip, contain polyynes, an unusual class of organic compounds that exhibit cytotoxic effects.


References


Further reading

* Constance, L. (1971). "History of the classification of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 1–11. Academic Press, London. * Cronquist, A. (1968). The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. * * French, D. H. (1971). "Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 385–412. Academic Press, London. * Hegnauer, R. (1971) "Chemical Patterns and Relationships of Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 267–277. Academic Press, London. * Heywood, V. H. (1971). "Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 31–41. Academic Press, London. * Judd, W. S. et al. (1999). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc. * * * * Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Jury, Stephen Leonard & Herrero Nieto, Alberto (eds.) ''Flora iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares.'
Vol. X. "Araliaceae-Umbelliferae"
(2003) Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC (in Spanish). *


External links

*

at ''The Families of Flowering Plants (DELTA)''
Apiaceae
at ''Discover Life''

at the ''Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh''
Umbellifer Information Server
at ''Moscow State University'' {{Authority control Apiaceae, Asterid families