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United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining
League of Nations mandate A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war origi ...
s and came into being when the
League of Nations The League of Nations, abbreviated as LON (french: Société des Nations , abbreviated as SDN or SdN), was the first worldwide Intergovernmental organization, intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. ...
ceased to exist in 1946. All of the trust territories were administered through the United Nations Trusteeship Council. The concept is distinct from a territory temporarily and directly governed by the United Nations. The one League of Nation mandate not succeeded by a trust territory was
South-West Africa South West Africa ( af, Suidwes-Afrika; german: Südwestafrika; nl, Zuidwest-Afrika) was the name for modern-day Namibia when it was under South African administration, from 1915 to 1990. Previously the colony of German South West Africa from 1 ...
, at
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the world's List of countries by population, 23rd-most populous nation a ...
's insistence. South Africa's apartheid regime refused to commit to preparing the territory for independence and
majority rule Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes. It is the binary decision rule used most often in influential decision-making bodies, including all the legislatures of dem ...
, as required by the trust territory guidelines, among other objections. South-West Africa eventually gained independence in 1990 as
Namibia Namibia (, ), officially the Republic of Namibia, is a country in Southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean; it shares land borders with Zambia and Angola to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and eas ...
. All trust territories have either attained self-government or
independence upright=1.0, Pedro I of Brazil, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in São Paulo after breaking the news of Independence of Brazil, Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or Sovereign state ...
. The last was
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. The country contains approximately 340 islands, and togethe ...
, formerly part of the
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory in Micronesia administered by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a ...
, which became a member state of the United Nations in December 1994.


Trust territories (and administering powers)

Modern successor states of UN trust territories


Former German

All these territories previously were League of Nations mandates. * The French Cameroons, Trust Territory of the Cameroons under French administration (French Cameroons): Achieved independence as the Republic of Cameroon in 1960. * The Cameroons, Trust Territory of the Cameroons under British administration (British Cameroons): Somewhat smaller than the French Cameroons, this territory was administered in two parts (Northern Cameroons and Southern Cameroons). Following a plebiscite, Northern Cameroons became part of Nigeria in May 1961 and Southern Cameroons joined the Republic of Cameroon in October 1961. * The Territory of New Guinea (Australia): The north-eastern section of this island had been a League of Nations mandate, the south-eastern section had been Australian before World War I; after World War II, the two were combined into a unified Territory of Papua and New Guinea, entity for administrative purposes, although the legal distinction between the Papua (Australian territory), Territory of Papua and the Territory of New Guinea was maintained. In 1975, the two entities were legally unified and granted independence as Papua New Guinea. The Western New Guinea, western half of the New Guinea, island, formerly Dutch and now part of Indonesia, was never part of either territory. * The Ruanda-Urundi, Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi (Belgium, effectively linked to the Belgian Congo): Separately gained independence in 1962 as Rwanda and Burundi. * The Tanganyika Territory, Trust Territory of Tanganyika (United Kingdom): Granted independence in 1961. Federated with the former British protectorate Zanzibar in 1964 to form Tanzania. * The French Togoland, Trust Territory of Togoland under French administration (French Togoland): Became independent as Togo in 1960. * The British Togoland, Trust Territory of Togoland under British administration (British Togoland): This territory was merged in 1956 with the British colony of the Gold Coast (British colony), Gold Coast, which was granted independence as Ghana in 1957. * The Western Samoa Trust Territory, Trust Territory of Western Samoa (New Zealand): Granted independence in 1962, known since 1997 simply as Samoa.


Former German and Japanese colonies

These territories were also former League of Nations mandates. * The History of Nauru#World War II, Trust Territory of Nauru (Australia (in effective administrative control), New Zealand and United Kingdom): Granted independence in 1968. * The
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (TTPI) was a United Nations trust territory in Micronesia administered by the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a ...
(United States) split into: ** The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (1978): Became an American commonwealth (United States insular area), commonwealth in 1986. ** The Republic of the Marshall Islands (1979): Became an associated state of America after signing a Compact of Free Association in 1986. ** The Federated States of Micronesia (1979): Became an associated state of America after signing a Compact of Free Association in 1986. ** The Republic of Palau (1981): Became an associated state of America after signing and ratifying a Compact of Free Association going into effect in 1994.


Former Italian possessions

* The Trust Territory of Somaliland, Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration: Italy was appointed U.N. trustee of the former Italian Somaliland in 1950. In 1960, the Trust Territory merged with the former British Somaliland protectorate to form the Somali Republic (Somalia).


Proposed trust territories

* Korea: In wartime talks, Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed that Korea be placed under an American–Soviet Union, Soviet trust administration. The plan was eclipsed after Roosevelt's death on 12 April 1945, although it was expressed in the December Moscow Conference (1945), Moscow Conference, and caused considerable civil unrest in Korea. * Italian Libya: Between 1945 and 1947 the Soviet Union made various proposals that Tripolitania be placed under Soviet trusteeship for ten years, or a joint trusteeship with the United Kingdom and the United States, or that Libya as a whole become an Italian trusteeship. * Mandatory Palestine: United States government under Harry Truman American trusteeship proposal for Palestine, proposed a UN trusteeship status for the Mandatory Palestine in 1948. * Ryukyu Islands and Bonin Islands: the Treaty of San Francisco included provisions which provided the United States the right to convert its administration over the Ryukyu and Bonin Islands into a trust territory, but it never did so before sovereignty was voluntarily reverted to Japan.https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20136/volume-136-I-1832-English.pdf


References


Bibliography

* The United Nations and Decolonization
Trust Territories that Have Achieved Self-Determination



External links

* {{Authority control Decolonisation League of Nations mandates, * United Nations trust territories, * States and territories established in 1946 States and territories disestablished in 1994 20th century in international relations Governance of the British Empire Former polities of the Cold War