EtymologyThe English name of Turkey (from Medieval Latin ''Turchia''/''Turquia'') means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of ''Turkye'' is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called ''The Book of the Duchess'' (c. 1369). The phrase ''land of Torke'' is used in the 15th-century The Digby Conversion of Saint Paul, Digby Mysteries. Later usages can be found in the William Dunbar, Dunbar poems, the 16th century ''Manipulus Vocabulorum'' ("Turkie, Tartaria") and Francis Bacon's ''Sylva Sylvarum'' (Turky). The modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish language, Turkish name ''Türkiye'' was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage.
Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, capital of the Hittites, Hittite Empire. The city's history dates back to the 6th millennium BC. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various Ancient Anatolians, ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic until the Hellenistic civilization, Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family: and, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite language, Hittite and Luwian language, Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolian hypothesis, Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, and is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age. The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who inhabited central and eastern Anatolia, respectively, as early as c. 2300 BC. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians c. 2000–1700 BC. The first major empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BC. The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC until the year 612 BC, although they Assyrian continuity, have remained a minority in the region, namely in Hakkari, Şırnak Province, Şırnak and Mardin province, Mardin. Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC as a powerful northern rival of Assyria. Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. Starting from 714 BC, Urartu shared the same fate and dissolved in 590 BC, when it was conquered by the Medes. The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.
Antiquityin Ephesus was built by the Roman Empire, Romans in 114–117. The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, built by king Croesus of Lydia in the 6th century BC, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolians, Aeolian and Ionians, Ionian Ancient Greece, Greeks. Numerous important cities were founded by these colonists, such as Miletus, Ephesus, Smyrna (now İzmir) and Byzantium (now Istanbul), the latter founded by Greeks, Greek colonists from Megara in 657 BC. The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenians, Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. In Northwest Turkey, the most significant tribal group in Thrace was the Odrysian kingdom, Odyrisians, founded by Teres I. All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th century BC.Joseph Roisman, Ian Worthington
Early Christian and Byzantine periodAccording to Acts of Apostles 11, Antioch (now Antakya), a city in southern Turkey, is the birthplace of the Early Christianity, first Christian community. In 324, Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome. Following the death of Theodosius I in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, the city, which would popularly come to be known as Constantinople, became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. This empire, which would later be branded by historians as the Byzantine Empire, ruled most of the territory of present-day Turkey until the Late Middle Ages; although the eastern regions remained firmly in Sasanian hands up to the first half of the seventh century. The frequent Byzantine-Sassanid Wars, as part of the centuries long-lasting Roman-Persian Wars, fought between the neighbouring rivalling Byzantines and Sasanians, took place in various parts of present-day Turkey and decided much of the latter's history from the fourth century up to the first half of the seventh century. Several ecumenical councils of the early Church were held in cities located in present-day Turkey including the First Council of Nicaea (Iznik) in 325, the First Council of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon (Kadıköy) in 451.
Seljuks and the Ottoman EmpireThe Seljuq dynasty, House of Seljuk originated from the ''Kınık (tribe), Kınık'' branch of the Oghuz Turks who resided on the periphery of the Muslim history#Abbasids - "Islamic Golden Age", Muslim world, in the Oghuz Yabgu State, Yabgu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy, to the north of the Caspian Sea, Caspian and Aral Seas, in the 9th century. In the 10th century, the Seljuks started migrating from their ancestral homeland into Persia, which became the administrative core of the Seljuk Empire, Great Seljuk Empire, after its foundation by Tughril. In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and the eastern regions of Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuks defeated the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert, starting the Turkification process in the area; the Turkish language and Islam were introduced to Armenia and Anatolia, gradually spreading throughout the region. The slow transition from a predominantly Christians, Christian and Greek language, Greek-speaking Anatolia to a predominantly Muslim and Turkish-speaking one was underway. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. Thus, alongside the Turkification of the territory, the Persianate society, culturally Persianized Seljuks set the basis for a Turko-Persian tradition, Turko-Persian principal culture in Anatolia, which their eventual successors, Culture of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans, would take over. In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongol Empire, Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ, causing the Seljuk Empire's power to slowly disintegrate. In its wake, one of the Anatolian beyliks, Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans completed their conquest of the Byzantine Empire by Fall of Constantinople, capturing its capital, Constantinople, in 1453: their commander thenceforth being known as Mehmed the Conqueror. In 1514, Sultan Selim I (1512–1520) successfully expanded the empire's southern and eastern borders by defeating Shah Ismail I of the Safavid dynasty in the Battle of Chaldiran. In 1517, Selim I expanded Ottoman rule into Ottoman Algeria, Algeria and Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517), Egypt, and created a naval presence in the Red Sea. Subsequently, a contest started between the Ottoman and Portuguese Empire, Portuguese empires to become the dominant sea power in the Indian Ocean, with Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean, a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat to the Ottoman monopoly over the Silk Road, ancient trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe. Despite the increasingly prominent European presence, the Ottoman Empire's trade with the east continued to flourish until the second half of the 18th century. The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law. The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues, such as those in Holy League (1538), 1538, Holy League (1571), 1571, Holy League (1684), 1684 and Holy League (1717), 1717 (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights Hospitaller, Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy), for the control of the . In the east, the Ottomans were often at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts stemming from territorial disputes or religious differences between the 16th and 18th centuries. The Ottoman-Persian Wars, Ottoman wars with Persia continued as the Zand dynasty, Zand, Afsharid dynasty, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasty, Qajar dynasties succeeded the Safavids in Iran, until the Ottoman–Persian War (1821–1823), first half of the 19th century. Even further east, there was an extension of the Habsburg-Ottoman conflict, in that the Ottomans also had to Ottoman expedition to Aceh, send soldiers to their farthest and easternmost vassal and territory, the Aceh Sultanate in Southeast Asia, to defend it from European colonizers as well as the Juan de Salcedo, Latino invaders who had crossed from Latin America and had Christianized the formerly Muslim-dominated Islam in the Philippines, Philippines. From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also Russo-Turkish Wars, fought twelve wars with the Tsardom of Russia, Russian Tsardom and Russian Empire, Empire. These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), they became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea coast to the advancing Russians. From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the Decline of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Empire began to decline. The Tanzimat reforms, initiated by Mahmud II just before his death in 1839, aimed to modernise the Ottoman state in line with the progress that had been made in Western Europe. The efforts of Midhat Pasha during the late Tanzimat era led the Ottoman Ottoman constitution of 1876, constitutional movement of 1876, which introduced the First Constitutional Era, but these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the Dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, dissolution of the empire. As the empire gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth; especially after the Great Eastern Crisis, Ottoman economic crisis and default in 1875 which led to uprisings in the Balkan provinces that culminated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878); many Balkan Muslims migrated to the Empire's heartland in Anatolia, along with the Circassians fleeing the Russian–Circassian War, Russian conquest of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus, Caucasus. The decline of the Ottoman Empire led to a Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians. The loss of Rumelia (Ottoman territories in Europe) with the First Balkan War (1912–1913) was followed by the arrival of millions of Muslim refugees (''muhacir'') to Istanbul and Anatolia. Historically, the Rumelia Eyalet and Anatolia Eyalet had formed the administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire, administrative core of the Ottoman Empire, with their governors titled Beylerbeyi participating in the Sultan's Imperial Council (Ottoman Empire), Divan, so the loss of all Balkan provinces beyond the Kıyıköy, Midye-Enez border line according to the London Conference of 1912–13 and the Treaty of London (1913) was a major shock for the Ottoman society and led to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. In the Second Balkan War (1913) the Ottomans managed to recover their former capital Edirne (Adrianople) and its surrounding areas in East Thrace, which was formalised with the Treaty of Constantinople (1913). The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, making sultans Mehmed V and Mehmed VI largely symbolic figureheads with no real political power. The Ottoman Empire entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers and was ultimately defeated. The Ottomans successfully defended the Dardanelles strait during the Gallipoli campaign (1915–1916) and achieved initial victories against British forces in the first two years of the Mesopotamian campaign, such as the Siege of Kut (1915–1916); but the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) turned the tide against the Ottomans in the Middle East. In the Caucasus campaign, however, the Russian forces had the upper hand from the beginning, especially after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915). Russian forces advanced into northeastern Anatolia and controlled the major cities there until retreating from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk following the Russian Revolution (1917). During the war, the empire's Armenians were Tehcir Law, deported to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide. As a result, an estimated 800,000 to 1,500,000 Armenians were killed. The Turkish government has Armenian Genocide denial, refused to acknowledge the events as genocide and states that Armenians were only Population transfer, relocated from the eastern war zone. Genocidal campaigns were also committed against the empire's other minority groups such as the Assyrian genocide, Assyrians and Greek genocide, Greeks. Following the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918, the victorious Allies of World War I, Allied Powers sought to partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, partition the Ottoman state through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres.
Republic of TurkeyThe occupation of Constantinople, occupation of Istanbul (1918) and Occupation of Smyrna, İzmir (1919) by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish National Movement. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920). By 18 September 1922 the Greek, Armenian and French armies had been expelled, and the Turkish Provisional Government in Ankara, which had declared itself the legitimate government of the country on Grand National Assembly of Turkey, 23 April 1920, started to formalise the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system. On 1 November 1922, the Turkish Parliament in Ankara formally Abolition of the Ottoman Sultanate, abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923, which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres, led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital. The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey, whereby 1.1 million Greeks left Turkey for Greece in exchange for 380,000 Muslims transferred from Greece to Turkey. Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first President of Turkey, President and subsequently introduced Atatürk's Reforms, many reforms. The reforms aimed to transform the old Millet (Ottoman Empire), religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman constitutional monarchy into a Turkish nation state that would be governed as a parliamentary republic under a Turkish Constitution of 1924, secular constitution. With the Surname Law of 1934, the Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (''Father Turk''). The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits, Montreux Convention (1936) restored Turkey's control over the Turkish Straits, including the right to militarise the coastlines of the Dardanelles and Bosporus straits and the Sea of Marmara, and to block maritime traffic in wartime. Following the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, some Kurds, Kurdish and Zazas, Zaza tribes, which were feudalism, feudal (manorialism, manorial) communities led by tribal chief, chieftains (''agha (title), agha'') during the Ottoman period, became discontent about certain aspects of Atatürk's Reforms, Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernise the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925) and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938), and staged armed revolts that were put down with military operations. İsmet İnönü became Turkey's second President following Atatürk's death on 10 November 1938. On 29 June 1939, the Hatay State, Republic of Hatay voted in favour of joining Turkey with a referendum. Turkey Second Cairo Conference, remained neutral during most of World War II, but entered the closing stages of the war on the side of the Allies of World War II, Allies on 23 February 1945. On 26 June 1945, Turkey became a United Nations Charter, charter member of the United Nations. In the following year, the One-party period of the Republic of Turkey, single-party period in Turkey came to an end, with the 1946 Turkish general election, first multiparty elections in 1946. In 1950 Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe. The Democrat Party (Turkey, 1946–61), Democratic Party established by Celâl Bayar won the 1950 Turkish general election, 1950, 1954 Turkish general election, 1954 and 1957 Turkish general election, 1957 general elections and stayed in power for a decade, with Adnan Menderes as the Prime Minister and Bayar as the President. After fighting as part of the United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean Basin, Mediterranean. Turkey subsequently became a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD in 1961, and an Ankara Agreement, associate member of the European Economic Community, EEC in 1963. The country's tumultuous transition to Multi-party period of the Republic of Turkey, multiparty democracy was interrupted by military coup d'état, coups d'état in 1960 Turkish coup d'état, 1960 and 1980 Turkish coup d'état, 1980, as well as by military memorandums in 1971 Turkish coup d'état, 1971 and 1997 military memorandum (Turkey), 1997. Between 1960 and the end of the 20th century, the prominent leaders in Turkish politics who achieved multiple election victories were Süleyman Demirel, Bülent Ecevit and Turgut Özal. Following a decade of Cypriot intercommunal violence and the 1974 Cypriot coup d'état, coup in Cyprus on 15 July 1974 staged by the EOKA B paramilitary organisation, which overthrew President Makarios III, Makarios and installed the pro-Enosis (union with Greece) Nikos Sampson as dictator, Turkish invasion of Cyprus, Turkey invaded Cyprus on 20 July 1974 by unilaterally exercising Article IV in the Treaty of Guarantee (1960), but without restoring the status quo ante bellum, status quo ante at the end of the military operation. In 1983 the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is recognised only by Turkey, was established. The Annan Plan for Cyprus, Annan Plan for reunifying the island was supported by the majority of Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the majority of Greek Cypriots, in separate 2004 Cypriot Annan Plan referendums, referendums in 2004. However, negotiations for solving the Cyprus dispute are still ongoing between Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot political leaders. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present), conflict between Turkey and the Kurdistan Workers' Party, PKK (designated a list of designated terrorist groups, terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States, the European Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO) has been active since 1984, primarily in the southeast of the country. More than 40,000 people have died as a result of the conflict. In 1999 PKK's founder Abdullah Öcalan was arrested and sentenced for terrorism and treason charges. In the past, various Kurdish people, Kurdish groups have unsuccessfully sought ethnic separatism, separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, Kurdish state, while others have more recently pursued provincial autonomy and greater Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey, political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. In the 21st century some reforms have taken place to improve the cultural rights of ethnic minorities in Turkey, such as the establishment of TRT Kurdî, TRT Arabi and TRT Avaz by the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, TRT. Since the liberalisation of the Turkish economy in the 1980s, the country has enjoyed stronger economic growth and greater political stability. Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, joined the European Union Customs Union, EU Customs Union in 1995 and started Accession of Turkey to the European Union, accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2020. In 2013, 2013 protests in Turkey, widespread protests erupted in many Turkish provinces, sparked by a plan to demolish Gezi Park but soon growing into general anti-government dissent. On 15 July 2016, an 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government. As a reaction to the failed coup d'état, the government carried out 2016–17 Turkish purges, mass purges. Between 9 October – 25 November 2019, Turkey conducted a 2019 Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria, military offensive into north-eastern Syria.
Administrative divisionsTurkey has a unitary state, unitary structure in terms of administration and this aspect is one of the most important factors shaping the Turkish public administration. When three powers (executive, legislative and judiciary) are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations have little power. Turkey does not have a federalism, federal system, and the provinces are subordinate to the central government in Ankara. Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the province governors (''vali'') and town governors (''kaymakam''). Other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government instead of the mayors (''belediye başkanı'') or elected by constituents. Turkish municipalities have local legislative bodies (''belediye meclisi'') for decision-making on municipal issues. Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 Provinces of Turkey, provinces (''il'' or ''vilayet'') for administrative purposes. Each province is divided into Districts of Turkey, districts (''ilçe''), for a total of 973 districts. Turkey is also subdivided into 7 Geographical regions of Turkey, regions (''bölge'') and 21 subregions for geographic, demographic and economic purposes; this does not refer to an administrative division.
PoliticsBetween 1923 and 2018, Turkey was a parliamentary system, parliamentary representative democracy. A presidential system was adopted by 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum, referendum in 2017; the new system came into effect with the 2018 Turkish presidential election, presidential election in 2018 and gives the President complete control of the executive (government), executive, including the power to issue decrees, appoint his own cabinet, draw up the budget, dissolve parliament by calling early elections, and make appointments to the bureaucracy and the courts. The office of Prime Minister of Turkey, Prime Minister has been abolished and its powers (together with those of the Cabinet of Turkey, Cabinet) have been transferred to the President, who is the head of state and is elected for a five-year term by direct elections. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan is the first president elected by direct voting. Constitution of Turkey, Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralised state. Executive power is exercised by the President, while the legislature, legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, called the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is nominally independent from the executive and the legislature, but the constitutional changes that came into effect with the referendums in 2007 Turkish constitutional referendum, 2007, 2010 Turkish constitutional referendum, 2010 and 2017 gave larger powers to the President and the ruling party for appointing or dismissing judges and prosecutors. The Constitutional Court of Turkey, Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of Legal System in the Republic of Turkey, laws and decrees with the constitution. The Turkish Council of State, Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals of Turkey, High Court of Appeals for all others. Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933 and before most countries, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. There are 600 Member of Parliament, members of parliament who are elected for a four-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of List of political parties in Turkey, political parties that it deems secularism in Turkey, anti-secular or separatism, separatist, or ban their existence altogether. The electoral threshold is ten percent of the votes. Supporters of Atatürk's reforms are called Kemalism, Kemalists, as distinguished from Islamism, Islamists, representing the two diverging views regarding the role of religion in legislation, education and public life. The Kemalist view supports a form of democracy with a secular constitution and Western culture, Westernised culture, while maintaining the necessity of state intervention in the economy, education and other public services. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secular state, secularism. However, since the 1980s, issues such as income inequality and class distinction have given rise to Islamism, a movement that supports a larger role for religion in government policies, and in theory supports obligation to authority, communal solidarity and social justice; though what that entails in practice is often contested. Turkey under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and the AKP has been described as becoming increasingly authoritarianism, authoritarian.
LawJudicial system of Turkey, Turkey's judicial system has been wholly integrated with the Law in Europe, system of continental Europe. For instance, the Turkish civil code (1926), Turkish Civil Code has been modified by incorporating elements mainly of the Swiss Civil Code and Swiss Code of Obligations, Code of Obligations, and the Law of Germany, German Commercial Code. The Administrative Code bears similarities with its Law of France, French counterpart, and the Penal Code with its Italian law codes, Italian counterpart. Turkey has adopted the principle of the separation of powers. In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. The independence and organisation of the courts, the security of the tenure of judges and public prosecutors, the profession of judges and prosecutors, the supervision of judges and public prosecutors, the military courts and their organisation, and the powers and duties of the high courts are regulated by the Turkish Constitution. According to Article 142 of the Turkish Constitution, the organisation, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law. In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Constitution and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, Administrative Courts and Military Courts. Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system. Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments (such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command) and agencies, all acting under the command of the President of Turkey or mostly the Ministry of the Interior (Turkey), Minister of Internal Affairs. According to figures released by the Ministry of Justice (Turkey), Justice Ministry, there are 100,000 people in Turkish prisons as of November 2008, a doubling since 2000. In the years of government by the AKP and Erdoğan, particularly since 2013, the independence and integrity of the Turkish judiciary has increasingly been said to be in doubt by institutions, parliamentarians and journalists both within and outside of Turkey; due to political interference in the promotion of judges and prosecutors, and in their pursuit of public duty. The ''Turkey 2015 report'' of the European Commission stated that "the independence of the judiciary and respect of the principle of separation of powers have been undermined and judges and prosecutors have been under strong political pressure."
Foreign relationsTurkey is a founding member of the United Nations (1945), the OECD (1961), the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OIC (1969), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, OSCE (1973), the Economic Cooperation Organization, ECO (1985), the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, BSEC (1992), the Developing 8 Countries, D-8 (1997) and the G20 (1999). Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009–2010. In 2012 Turkey became a dialogue partner of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, SCO, and in 2013 became a member of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue, ACD. In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy. Turkey became Member states of the Council of Europe, one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the European Union) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the EU since 2005. Turkey's support for Northern Cyprus in the Cyprus dispute complicates Turkey's relations with the EU and remains a major stumbling block to the country's EU accession bid. The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy was the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the United States. The Truman Doctrine in 1947 enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece during the Cold War, and resulted in large-scale Turkey-United States relations, U.S. military and economic support. In 1948 both countries were included in the Marshall Plan and the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation, OEEC for rebuilding European economies. The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union. In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans. The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia, thus enabling the completion of a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline transport, pipeline from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe. However, in 1993, Turkey sealed its land border with Armenia in a gesture of support to Azerbaijan (a Turkic state in the Caucasus region) during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War, and it remains closed. Under the AKP government, Turkey's influence has grown in the formerly Ottoman territories of the Middle East and the Balkans, based on the "strategic depth" doctrine (a terminology that was coined by Ahmet Davutoğlu for defining Turkey's increased engagement in regional foreign policy issues), also called Neo-Ottomanism. Following the Arab Spring in December 2010, the choices made by the AKP government for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries have led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbour Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and Egypt after the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, ousting of President Mohamed Morsi. , Turkey does not have an ambassador in either Syria or Egypt. Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010, but were normalised following a deal in June 2016. These political rifts have left Turkey with few allies in the Levant, East Mediterranean, where rich natural gas fields have recently been discovered; in sharp contrast with the original goals that were set by the former Foreign Minister (later Prime Minister) Ahmet Davutoğlu in his "zero problems with neighbours" foreign policy doctrine. In 2015, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar formed a "strategic alliance" against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. However, following the Russia–Turkey relations#Normalisation of ties, rapprochement with Russia in 2016, Turkey revised its stance regarding the solution of the conflict in Syria. In January 2018, the Turkish military and the Turkish-backed forces, including the Turkish-backed Free Syrian Army, Free Syrian Army and Ahrar al-Sham, began an Turkish military operation in Afrin, intervention in Syria aimed at ousting U.S.-backed People's Protection Units, YPG from the enclave of Afrin, Syria, Afrin. In 2020, Turkey openly Turkish military intervention in the Second Libyan Civil War, intervened in Libya at the request of the Government of National Accord, GNA. There is a dispute over Turkey's Aegean dispute, maritime boundaries with Greece and Cyprus–Turkey maritime zones dispute, Cyprus and drilling rights in the eastern Mediterranean. Turkey recognizes and supports the Tripoli-based Government of National Accord (GNA) in Libya, which has been torn by a Libyan Civil War (2014–present), civil war since 2014.
MilitaryThe Turkish Armed Forces consist of the Turkish Land Forces, Land Forces, the Turkish Naval Forces, Naval Forces and the Turkish Air Force, Air Force. The Turkish Gendarmerie, Gendarmerie and the Turkish Coast Guard, Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law-enforcement and military functions. The Chief of the Turkish General Staff, Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament. Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to Conscription in Turkey, serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location. Turkey does not recognise conscientious objector, conscientious objection and does not offer a alternative civilian service, civilian alternative to military service. Turkey has the Member states of NATO#Military personnel, second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the United States Armed Forces, US Armed Forces, with an estimated strength of 495,000 deployable forces, according to a 2011 NATO estimate. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany and weapons of mass destruction, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands and weapons of mass destruction, Netherlands. A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO. Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since the Korean War, including peacekeeping missions in United Nations Operation in Somalia I, Somalia, United Nations Protection Force, Yugoslavia and the Operation Ocean Shield, Horn of Africa. Turkey supported the Coalition of the Gulf War, coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkish Armed Forces contribute military personnel to the International Security Assistance Force, Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups. Turkey maintains a force of Turkish military forces in Northern Cyprus, 36,000 troops in Northern Cyprus since 1974. In recent years, Turkey has assisted Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq and the Somali Armed Forces with security and training. Turkish Armed Forces have List of countries with overseas military bases, overseas military bases in Pasha Liman Base, Albania, Iraq–Turkey relations#Turkish military presence in Iraq, Iraq, Qatar–Turkey relations#Turkish military presence in Qatar, Qatar, and Camp TURKSOM, Somalia.
Human rightsThe Human rights in Turkey, human rights record of Turkey has been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. Between 1959 and 2011 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 2400 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations on issues such as Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey, Kurdish rights, women in Turkey, women's rights, LGBT rights in Turkey, LGBT rights, and media of Turkey, media freedom. Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to the country's Accession of Turkey to the European Union, membership of the EU. In the latter half of the 1970s, Turkey suffered from political violence in Turkey (1976–1980), political violence between far-left politics, far-left and far-right politics, far-right militant groups, which culminated in the 1980 Turkish coup d'état, military coup of 1980. The Kurdistan Workers' Party (designated a list of designated terrorist groups, terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States, the European Union and North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO) was founded in 1978 by a group of Kurdish militants led by Abdullah Öcalan, seeking the foundation of an independent, socialist state, Marxist-Leninist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan. The initial reason given by the PKK for this was the oppression of Kurds in Turkey. Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present), A full-scale insurgency began in 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. Following the arrest and imprisonment of Abdullah Öcalan in 1999, the PKK modified its demands into equal rights for ethnic Kurds and provincial autonomy within Turkey. Since the conflict began, more than 40,000 people have died, most of whom were Turkish Kurds. The European Court of Human Rights and other international human rights organisations have condemned Turkey for human rights abuses. Many judgments are related to cases such as civilian deaths in aerial bombardments, torturing, forced displacements, destroyed villages, arbitrary arrests, murdered and disappeared Kurdish journalists, activists and politicians. On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of Parliamentary immunity, immunity from prosecution, including 101 deputies from the pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (Turkey), HDP and the main opposition Republican People's Party (Turkey), CHP party. In reaction to the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, failed coup attempt on 15 July 2016, over 160,000 judges, teachers, police and civil servants have been suspended or dismissed, 77,000 have been formally arrested, and 130 media organisations, including 16 television broadcasters and 45 newspapers, have been closed by the government of Turkey. 160 journalists have been imprisoned. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, the Justice and Development Party (Turkey), AKP government has waged one of the world's biggest crackdowns on media freedom in Turkey, media freedom. Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities" such as the Ergenekon (organization), Ergenekon and Sledgehammer (coup plan), Balyoz cases, while thousands have been investigated on charges such as "denigrating Turkishness" or "insulting Islam" in an effort to sow self-censorship. In 2017, the CPJ identified 81 jailed journalists in Turkey (including the editorial staff of ''Cumhuriyet'', Turkey's oldest newspaper still in circulation), all directly held for their published work (the country ranked first in the world in that year, with more journalists in prison than in Iran, Eritrea or China); while in 2015 Freemuse identified nine musicians imprisoned for their work (ranking third after Russia and China). In 2015 Turkey's media was rated as Freedom of the Press (report), ''not free'' by Freedom House. In its resolution "The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey" on 22 June 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe warned that "recent developments in Turkey pertaining to freedom of the media and of expression, erosion of the rule of law and the human rights violations in relation to anti-terrorism security operations in south-east Turkey have (...) raised serious questions about the functioning of its democratic institutions." Renowned Turkish journalists who were murdered for their opinions include Abdi İpekçi (1929–1979, editor-in-chief of ''Milliyet''); Çetin Emeç (1935–1990, chief columnist and coordinator of ''Hürriyet''); Uğur Mumcu (1942–1993, columnist and investigative journalist of ''Cumhuriyet''); and Hrant Dink (1954–2007, founder and editor-in-chief of ''Agos''). During the October 2019 offensive into Syria, Turkish forces have been accused of war crimes, such as targeting civilians with white phosphorus and various other human rights violations. Turkey has officially rejected the claims, with the Minister of Defense Hulusi Akar stating that chemical weapons don't exist in the inventory of the Turkish Armed Forces. Amnesty International stated that it had gathered evidence of war crimes and other violations committed by Turkish and Turkey-backed Syrian forces who are said to "have displayed a shameful disregard for civilian life, carrying out serious violations and war crimes, including summary killings and unlawful attacks that have killed and injured civilians".
GeographyTurkey is a transcontinental country bridging Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. Asian Turkey, which includes 97 percent of the country's territory, is separated from East Thrace, European Turkey by the Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises only 3 percent of the country's territory. Turkey covers an area of , of which is in Asia and is in Europe. The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest. Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions: Marmara Region, Turkey, Marmara, Aegean Region, Turkey, Aegean, Black Sea Region, Turkey, Black Sea, Central Anatolia Region, Turkey, Central Anatolia, East Anatolia Region, Turkey, Eastern Anatolia, South Eastern Anatolia Region, Turkey, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean Sea Region, Turkey, Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward. East Thrace; the European portion of Turkey, is located at the easternmost edge the Balkans. It forms the border between Turkey and its neighbours Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country mostly consists of the peninsula of Anatolia, which consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köroğlu Mountains, Köroğlu and Pontic Mountains, Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. The Eastern Anatolia Region mostly corresponds to the western part of the Armenian Highlands (the plateau situated between the Anatolian Plateau in the west and the Lesser Caucasus in the north) and contains Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at , and Lake Van, the largest lake in the country. Eastern Turkey has a mountainous landscape and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras River, Aras. The Southeastern Anatolia Region includes the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia.
BiodiversityTurkey's extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. Anatolia is the homeland of many plants that have been cultivated for food since the advent of agriculture, and the wild ancestors of many plants that now provide staples for humankind still grow in Turkey. The diversity of Fauna of Turkey, Turkey's fauna is even greater than that of Flora and vegetation of Turkey, its flora. The number of animal species in the whole of Europe is around 60,000, while in Turkey there are over 80,000 (over 100,000 counting the subspecies). The Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests is an ecoregion which covers most of the Pontic Mountains in northern Turkey, while the Caucasus mixed forests extend across the eastern end of the range. The region is home to Eurasian wildlife such as the Eurasian sparrowhawk, golden eagle, eastern imperial eagle, lesser spotted eagle, Caucasian black grouse, red-fronted serin, and wallcreeper. The narrow coastal strip between the Pontic Mountains and the Black Sea is home to the Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests. The Turkish pine is mostly found in Turkey and other east Mediterranean countries. Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first Tulip#Introduction to Western Europe, introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. There are List of national parks of Turkey, 40 national parks, 189 nature parks, 31 nature preserve areas, 80 wildlife protection areas and 109 nature monuments in Turkey such as Gallipoli Peninsula Historical National Park, Mount Nemrut National Park, Ancient Troya National Park, Ölüdeniz Nature Park and Polonezköy Nature Park. The Anatolian leopard is still found in very small numbers in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Turkey.Can, O.E. (2004).
ClimateThe coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters. The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation (meteorology), precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. The eastern part of that coast averages annually which is the highest precipitation in the country. The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters. Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days. However snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 °C to −40 °C (−22 °F to −40 °F) do occur in northeastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground at least 120 days of the year and in the mountains almost the entire year. In central Anatolia the temperatures can drop below -20 °C ( -4 °F) with the mountains being even colder.
EconomyTurkey is a newly industrialized country, with an upper-middle income economy, which is the List of countries by GDP (nominal), twentieth-largest in the world by nominal GDP, and the List of countries by GDP (PPP), eleventh-largest by purchasing power parity, PPP. According to World Bank estimates, Turkey's GDP per capita by PPP is $32,278 in 2021, and approximately 14.4% of Turks lived Poverty by country, below the national poverty line in 2018. Unemployment in Turkey was 13.6% in 2019, and the middle class population in Turkey rose from 18% to 41% of the population between 1993 and 2010 according to the World Bank. , foreign reserves in Turkey are worth $51 billion. The European Union – Turkey Customs Union, EU–Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalisation of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy. The automotive industry in Turkey is sizeable, and produced over 1.3 million motor vehicles in 2015, ranking as the List of countries by motor vehicle production, 14th largest producer in the world. Turkish shipyards are highly regarded both for the production of chemical and oil tankers up to 10,000 Deadweight tonnage, dwt and also for their mega yachts. Turkish brands like Beko and Vestel are among the largest producers of consumer electronics and home appliances in Europe, and invest a substantial amount of funds for research and development in new technologies related to these fields. Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are list of banks in Turkey, banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry. However, agriculture still accounted for a quarter of employment. In 2004, it was estimated that 46 percent of total disposable income was received by the top 20 percent of income earners, while the lowest 20 percent received only 6 percent. Foreign direct investment (FDI) was $8.3 billion in 2012, a figure expected to rise to $15 billion in 2013. In the economic crisis of 2016 it emerged that the huge debts incurred for investment during the AKP government since 2002 had mostly been consumed in construction, rather than invested in sustainable economic growth. Turkey's gross external national debt of Turkey, debt reached $453.2 billion at the end of December 2017. Turkey's annual Current account (balance of payments), current account deficit was $47.3 billion at the end of December 2017, compared to the previous year's figure of $33.1 billion. In 2020, according to Carbon Tracker, money was being wasted constructing more List of active coal fired power stations in Turkey, coal-fired power stations in Turkey. Fatih Birol the head of the International Energy Agency said that Energy subsidy#Turkey, fossil fuel subsidies should be redirected, for example to the health in Turkey, health system. Fossil fuel subsidies were around 0.2% of GDP for the first two decades of the 21st century, and are higher than clean energy subsidies. The external costs of fossil fuel consumption in 2018 has been estimated as 1.5% of GDP. In 2020 the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development offered to support a just transition away from coal.
TourismTourism in Turkey has increased almost every year in the 21st century, and is an important part of the economy. The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism currently promotes Turkish tourism under the project Turkey Home. Turkey is one of the world's top ten destination countries, with the highest percentage of foreign visitors arriving from Europe; specially Germany and Russia in recent years. In 2019, Turkey World Tourism rankings#Most visited destinations by international tourist arrivals, ranked sixth in the world in terms of the number of international tourist arrivals, with 51.2 million foreign tourists visiting the country. Turkey has List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey, 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and List of World Heritage Sites in Turkey (Tentative list), 51 World Heritage Sites in tentative list
InfrastructureIn 2013 there were 98 List of airports in Turkey, airports in Turkey, including 22 international airports. İstanbul Airport is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers a year. As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, List of airlines of Turkey, several other airlines operate in the country. , the country has a roadway network of . Turkish State Railways started building High-speed rail in Turkey, high-speed rail lines in 2003. The Ankara-Konya high-speed railway, Ankara-Konya line became operational in 2011, while the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway, Ankara-Istanbul line entered service in 2014. Opened in 2013, the Marmaray, Marmaray tunnel under the Bosphorus connects the railway and Istanbul Metro, metro lines of Istanbul's European and Asian sides; while the nearby Eurasia Tunnel (2016) provides an undersea road connection for motor vehicles. The Bosphorus Bridge (1973), Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (2016) are the three suspension bridges connecting the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait. The Osman Gazi Bridge (2016) connects the northern and southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit. The Çanakkale 1915 Bridge on the Dardanelles strait, connecting Europe and Asia, will become the List of longest suspension bridge spans#Bridges under construction, longest suspension bridge in the world upon completion. Many natural gas pipelines span the country's territory. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline, the second longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated in 2005. The Blue Stream, a major trans- Black Sea gas pipeline, delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey. The undersea pipeline, Turkish Stream, with an annual capacity around , allows Turkey to resell Russian gas to the rest of Europe. Turkey consumes 1700 terawatt hours (TW/h) of primary energy per year, a little over 20 megawatt hours (MW/h) per person, mostly from imported fossil fuels. Although the energy policy of Turkey includes reducing fossil-fuel imports, coal in Turkey is the largest single reason why greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey amount to 1% of the global total. Renewable energy in Turkey is being increased and Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant is being built on the Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean coast: but despite Electricity sector in Turkey, national electricity generation overcapacity Fossil fuel subsidies, fossil fuels are still subsidized. Turkey has the fifth-highest direct utilisation and capacity of Geothermal power in Turkey, geothermal power in the world.
Science and technologyScientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, TÜBİTAK is the leading agency for developing Science and technology in Turkey, science, technology and innovation policies in Turkey. Turkish Academy of Sciences, TÜBA is an autonomous scholarly society acting to promote scientific activities in Turkey. TAEK is the official nuclear technology, nuclear energy institution of Turkey. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools. Turkish government companies for research and development in military technology, military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries, ASELSAN, HAVELSAN, ROKETSAN, Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation, MKE, among others. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (UMET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence (Turkey), Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). The Space Launch System (Turkey), Turkish Space Launch System (UFS) is a project to develop the satellite launch capability of Turkey. It consists of the construction of a spaceport, the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations. Türksat (company), Türksat is the sole communications satellite operator in Turkey and has launched the Turksat (satellite), Türksat series of satellites into orbit. Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are Turkey's Earth observation satellites for reconnaissance, operated by the Ministry of National Defense (Turkey), Turkish Ministry of National Defense. BILSAT-1 and RASAT are the scientific Earth observation satellites operated by the TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute. In 2015, Aziz Sancar, a Turkish professor at the University of North Carolina, won the Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, for their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. Other Turkish scientists include physician Hulusi Behçet who discovered Behçet's disease and mathematician Cahit Arf who defined the Arf invariant.
DemographicsAccording to the ''Address-Based Population Recording System'' of Turkey, the country's population was 74.7 million people in 2011, nearly three-quarters of whom lived in urban area, towns and cities. According to the 2011 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.35 percent each year. Turkey has an average population density of 97 people per km². People within the 15–64 age group constitute 67.4 percent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 25.3 percent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 7.3 percent. Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizenship, citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic group, ethnic definition. However approximately 70 to 80 percent of the country's citizens are ethnic Turks. It is estimated that there are at least 47 ethnic groups represented in Turkey. Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available, because Turkish census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity. Kurds in Turkey, Kurds are the largest non-Turkish ethnicity at anywhere from 12-25 per cent of the population. The exact figure remains a subject of dispute; according to Servet Mutlu, "more often than not, these estimates reflect pro-Kurdish or pro-Turkish sympathies and attitudes rather than scientific facts or erudition". Mutlu's 1990 study estimated Kurds made up around 12 per cent of the population, while Mehrdad Izady placed the figure around 25 per cent. The Kurds make up a majority in the provinces of Ağrı Province, Ağrı, Batman Province, Batman, Bingöl Province, Bingöl, Bitlis Province, Bitlis, Diyarbakır Province, Diyarbakır, Elâzığ Province, Elâzığ, Hakkari Province, Hakkari, Iğdır Province, Iğdır, Mardin Province, Mardin, Muş Province, Muş, Siirt Province, Siirt, Şırnak Province, Şırnak, Tunceli Province, Tunceli and Van Province, Van; a near majority in Şanlıurfa Province (47%); and a large minority in Kars Province (20%). In addition, due to internal migration, Kurdish diaspora communities exist in all of the major cities in central and western Turkey. In Istanbul, there are an estimated three million Kurds, making it the city with the largest Kurdish population in the world. Non-Kurdish minorities are believed to make up an estimated 7–12 percent of the population. The three "Millet (Ottoman Empire), Non-Muslim" minority groups recognised in the Treaty of Lausanne were Armenians in Turkey, Armenians, Greeks in Turkey, Greeks and Jews in Turkey, Jews. Other ethnic groups include Albanians in Turkey, Albanians, Arabs in Turkey, Arabs, Assyrians in Turkey, Assyrians, Bosniaks in Turkey, Bosniaks, Circassians in Turkey, Circassians, Georgians in Turkey, Georgians, Laz people, Laz, Pomaks, and Romani people, Roma. Turkey is also home to a Muslim community of Megleno-Romanians. Before the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the estimated number of Arabs in Turkey varied from 1 million to more than 2 million. As of April 2020, there are 3.6 million Refugees of the Syrian Civil War in Turkey, Syrian refugees in Turkey, who are mostly Arabs but also include Syrian Kurds, Syrian Turkmen, and other ethnic groups of Syria. The vast majority of these are living in Turkey with temporary residence permits. The Turkish government has granted Turkish citizenship to refugees who have joined the Syrian National Army.
ImmigrationImmigration to Turkey is the process by which people human migration, migrate to Turkey to reside in the country. Turkey's migrant crisis created after an estimated 2.5 percent of the population are human migration, international migrants. Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees in the world, including 3.6 million Refugees of the Syrian Civil War in Turkey, Syrian refugees, as of April 2020. As part of Turkey's migrant crisis, according to UNHCR, in 2018 Turkey was hosting 63.4% of all the refugees in the world, that is 3,564,919 registered refugees from Africa and the Middle East in total.
LanguagesThe official language is Turkish language, Turkish, which is the most widely spoken Turkic languages, Turkic language in the world. It is spoken by 85.54 percent of the population as a first language. 11.97 percent of the population speaks the Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish languages, Kurdish as their mother tongue. Arabic language, Arabic and Zaza language, Zaza are the mother tongues of 2.39 percent of the population, and several other languages are the mother tongues of smaller parts of the population. Endangered language, Endangered Languages of Turkey, languages in Turkey include Abaza language, Abaza, Abkhaz language, Abkhaz, Adyghe language, Adyghe, Cappadocian Greek, Gagauz language, Gagauz, Hértevin, Homshetsma, Kabard-Cherkes, Judaeo-Spanish, Ladino (Judesmo), Laz language, Laz, Mlahso, Pontic Greek, Romani language, Romani, Suret, Turoyo, Ubykh language, Ubykh, and Western Armenian. Megleno-Romanian language, Megleno-Romanian is also spoken.
ReligionTurkey is a secular state with no official state religion; the Turkish Constitution provides for freedom of religion and conscience. A 2016 survey by Ipsos, interviewing 17,180 adults across 22 countries, found that Islam was the dominant religion in Turkey, adhered to by 82% of the total population; religiously unaffiliated people comprised 13% of the population, while 2% were Christianity, Christians. According to religiosity poll conducted in Turkey in 2019 by OPTİMAR, 89.5% of the population identifies as Muslim, 4.5% believed in God but did not belong to an organized religion, 2.7% were Agnosticism, agnostic, 1.7% were Atheism, atheist, and 1.7% did not answer. Another poll conducted by Gezici Araştırma in 2020 interviewed 1,062 people in 12 provinces and found that 28.5% of the Generation Z in Turkey identify as Irreligion in Turkey, irreligious. The ''CIA World Factbook'' reports that Islam is the religion of 99.8% of the population, with Sunni Muslims as the largest sect, while 0.2% are Christians and Jews. However, there are no official governmental statistics specifying the religious beliefs of the Turkish people, nor is religious data recorded in the country's census. Academics suggest the Alevi population may be from 15 to 20 million, while the Alevi-Bektaşi Federation states that there are around 25 million. According to Aksiyon magazine, the number of Twelver Shia Islam, Shias (excluding Alevis) is three million (4.2%). Christianity has a long history in present-day Turkey, which is the birthplace of numerous Christian Twelve apostles, apostles and saints. Antioch (Antakya) is regarded by tradition as the spot where the Gospels were written, and where the followers of Jesus were called Christians for the first time. The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from 17.5% (three million followers) in a population of 16 million to 2.5% percent in the early 20th century. mainly as a result of the Armenian Genocide, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey, and the Christian emigration, emigration of Christians that began in the late 19th century and gained pace in the first quarter of the 20th century. Today, there are more than 120,000-320,000 people of various Christian denominations, representing less than 0.2% of Turkey's population, including an estimated 80,000 Oriental Orthodox, 35,000 Catholic Church, Roman Catholics, 18,000 Antiochian Greeks, 5,000 Greek Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodox and smaller numbers of Protestantism, Protestants. Currently there are 236 churches open for worship in Turkey. Modern-day Turkey continues to have a small Jewish population; with around 26,000 History of the Jews in Turkey, Jews, the vast majority of whom are Sephardi. In a mid-2010s poll, 2.9% of Turkish respondents identified as atheists. The Ateizm Derneği, Association of Atheism, the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans and the Middle East, was founded in 2014. Some religious and secular officials have claimed that atheism and deism are growing among Turkish people.
EducationThe Ministry of National Education (Turkey), Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education. This is compulsory and lasts twelve years: four years each of primary school, middle school and high school. Basic education in Turkey is said to lag behind other OECD countries, with significant differences between high and low performers. Access to high-quality school heavily depends on the performance in the secondary school entrance exams, to the point that some students begin taking private tutoring classes when they are ten years old. As of 2017, there are 190 universities in Turkey. Except for the Open Education Faculties (AÖF) at Anadolu University, Anadolu, Istanbul University, Istanbul and Atatürk University; entrance is regulated by the national Student Selection and Placement System (ÖSYS) examination, after which high school graduates are assigned to universities according to their performance. According to the 2012–2013 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the top university in Turkey is Middle East Technical University, followed by Bilkent University and Koç University, Istanbul Technical University and Boğaziçi University. All state and private universities are under the control of the Council of Higher Education (Turkey), Higher Education Board (YÖK), whose head is appointed by the President of Turkey; and since 2016 the President directly appoints all rectors of all state and private universities.
HealthThe Ministry of Health (Turkey), Ministry of Health has run a universal public healthcare system since 2003. Known as Universal Health Insurance (), it is funded by a tax surcharge on employers, currently at 5%. Public-sector funding covers approximately 75.2% of health expenditures. Despite the universal health care, total expenditure on health as a share of GDP in 2018 was the lowest among OECD countries at 6.3% of GDP, compared to the OECD average of 9.3%. Average life expectancy is 78.6 years (75.9 for males and 81.3 for females), compared with the EU average of 81 years. Turkey has one of the highest rates of obesity in the world, with nearly one third (29.5%) of its adult population having a body mass index (BMI) value that is 30 or above. Air pollution in Turkey is a major cause of early death.
CultureTurkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Turkic peoples, Turkic, Anatolian, Culture of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic culture, Islamic cultures) and Western culture and traditions, which started with the Tanzimat, Westernisation of the Ottoman Empire and still continues today. This mix originally began as a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during Turkic migration, their migration from Central Asia to the West. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.
Visual artsList of Turkish painters, Turkish painting, in the Western sense, developed actively starting from the mid 19th century. The first painting lessons were scheduled at what is now the Istanbul Technical University (then the ''Imperial Military Engineering School'') in 1793, mostly for technical purposes. In the late 19th century, human figure in the Western sense was being established in Turkish painting, especially with Osman Hamdi Bey. Impressionism, among the contemporary trends, appeared later on with Halil Pasha (painter), Halil Pasha. The young Turkish artists sent to Europe in 1926 came back inspired by contemporary trends such as Fauvism, Cubism and even Expressionism, still very influential in Europe. The later "Group D" of artists led by Abidin Dino, Cemal Tollu, Fikret Mualla, Princess Fahrelnissa Zeid, Fahrünnisa Zeid, Bedri Rahmi Eyuboglu, Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu, Adnan Coker, Adnan Çoker and Burhan Doğançay introduced some trends that had lasted in the West for more than three decades. Other important movements in Turkish painting were the "Yeniler Grubu" (The Newcomers Group) of the late 1930s; the "On'lar Grubu" (Group of Ten) of the 1940s; the "Yeni Dal Grubu" (New Branch Group) of the 1950s; and the "Siyah Kalem Grubu" (Black Pen Group) of the 1960s. Turkish carpet, Carpet weaving is a traditional art from pre-Islamic times. During its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has integrated different cultural traditions. Traces of Byzantine design can be detected; Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia, as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdish tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia, brought with them their traditional designs. The arrival of Islam and the development of Islamic art also influenced Turkish carpet design. The history of its designs, motifs and ornaments thus reflects the political and ethnic history and diversity of Asia minor. However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition. Ottoman miniature is linked to the Persian miniature tradition, as well as strong Chinese artistic influences. The words ''tasvir'' or ''nakış'' were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish. The studios the artists worked in were called ''nakkaşhane''. The miniatures were usually not signed, perhaps because of the rejection of individualism, but also because the works were not created entirely by one person; the head painter designed the composition of the scene, and his apprentices drew the contours (which were called ''tahrir'') with black or colored ink and then painted the miniature without creating an illusion of depth. The head painter, and much more often the scribe of the text, were indeed named and depicted in some of the manuscripts. The understanding of perspective was different from that of the nearby European Renaissance painting tradition, and the scene depicted often included different time periods and spaces in one picture. They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, more illustrations than standalone works of art. The earliest examples of Turkish paper marbling, called ''ebru'' in Turkish, are said to be a copy of the ''Hâlnâme'' by the poet Arifî. The text of this manuscript was rendered in a delicate cut paper découpage calligraphy by Mehmed bin Gazanfer and completed in 1540, and features many marbled and decorative paper borders. One early master by the pseudonym of ''Şebek'' is mentioned posthumously in the earliest Ottoman text on the art known as the ''Tertib-i Risâle-i Ebrî'', which is dated based on internal evidence to after 1615. The instructions for several ''ebru'' techniques in the text are accredited to this master. Another famous 18th-century master by the name of Hatip Mehmed Efendi (died 1773) is accredited with developing motifs and perhaps early floral designs, although evidence from India appears to contradict some of these reports. Despite this, marbled motifs are commonly referred to as ''hatip'' designs in Turkey today.
Literature and theatreFile:Orhan Pamuk.jpg, Orhan Pamuk is the recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. Turkish literature is a mix of cultural influences. Interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe contributed to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts. Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian literature, Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. The Tanzimat reforms introduced previously unknown Western genres, primarily the novel and the short story. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Namik Kemal, Nâmık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel ''İntibâh'' (Awakening), while the journalist İbrahim Şinasi, Şinasi has written, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the One act play, one-act comedy "''Şair Evlenmesi''" (The Poet's Marriage). Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896 and 1923. Broadly, there were three primary literary movements during this period: the ''Edebiyat-ı Cedîde'' (New Literature) movement; the ''Fecr-i Âtî'' (Dawn of the Future) movement; and the ''Millî Edebiyat'' (National Literature) movement. The first radical step of innovation in 20th century Turkish poetry was taken by Nâzım Hikmet Ran, Nâzım Hikmet, who introduced the free verse style. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli Kanık, Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat Horozcu, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet Anday, Melih Cevdet. The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatised, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature. The origin of Turkish theatre dates back to ancient pagan rituals and oral legends. The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated. In time, the ancient rituals, myths, legends and stories evolved into theatrical shows. Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays. After the Tanzimat (Reformation) period in the 19th century, characters in Turkish theatre were modernised and plays were performed on European-style stages, with actors wearing European costumes. Following the Second Constitutional Era, restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays. A theatrical conservatoire, Darülbedayi, Darülbedayi-i Osmani (which became the nucleus of the Istanbul City Theatres) was established in 1914. During the years of chaos and war, the Darülbedayi-i Osmani continued its activities and attracted the younger generation. Numerous Turkish playwrights emerged in this era; some of them wrote on romantic subjects, while others were interested in social problems, and still others dealt with nationalistic themes. The first Turkish musicals were also written in this period. In time, Turkish women began to appear on stage, which was an important development in the late Ottoman society. Until then, female roles had only been played by actresses who were members of Turkey's ethnic minorities. Today there are numerous private theatres in the country, together with those which are subsidised by the government, such as the Turkish State Theatres. Notable players, directors and playwrights of Turkish theatre include Muhsin Ertuğrul, Haldun Taner, Aziz Nesin, Gülriz Sururi, Yıldız Kenter, Müşfik Kenter, Haldun Dormen, Sadri Alışık, Çolpan İlhan, Münir Özkul, Adile Naşit, Erol Günaydın, Gazanfer Özcan, Nejat Uygur, Genco Erkal, Metin Serezli, Nevra Serezli, Levent Kırca, Zeki Alasya, Metin Akpınar, Müjdat Gezen, Ferhan Şensoy, among others.
Music and danceMusic of Turkey includes mainly Turkic culture, Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Music of Central Asia, Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian traditional music, Persian music and Music of Southeastern Europe, Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and Music of the United States, American popular music. The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences. Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization., pp. 396–410. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation also expanded. Turkey has also seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Music of Greece, Greek, Music of Armenia, Armenian, Music of Albania, Albanian, Music of Poland, Polish and Jewish communities, among others. Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Despite this however, western music styles like pop music and Kanto (music), kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 1970s and 1980s. It became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. With the support of Sezen Aksu, the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan (singer), Tarkan and Sertab Erener. The late 1990s also saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock music, Turkish rock, electronica, Turkish hip hop, hip-hop, Hip hop music, rap and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop music, pop and Arabesque music, arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial. Internationally acclaimed Turkish jazz and blues musicians and composers include Ahmet Ertegun (founder and president of Atlantic Records), Nükhet Ruacan and Kerem Görsev. The Turkish Five is a name used by some authors to identify the five pioneers of Western classical music in Turkey, namely Ahmed Adnan Saygun, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Cemal Reşit Rey, Hasan Ferit Alnar and Necil Kazım Akses.İlyasoğlu (1998), 14. Internationally acclaimed Turkish musicians of Western classical music include pianists İdil Biret, Verda Erman, Gülsin Onay, the Pekinel sisters (Güher and Süher Pekinel), Ayşegül Sarıca and Fazıl Say; violinists Ayla Erduran and Suna Kan; opera singers Semiha Berksoy, Leyla Gencer and Güneş Gürle; and conductors Emre Aracı, Gürer Aykal, Erol Erdinç, Rengim Gökmen and Hikmet Şimşek. Turkish dance, Turkish folk dance is diverse. ''Hora (dance), Hora'' is performed in East Thrace; ''Zeybek dance, Zeybek'' in the Aegean Region, Marmara Region, Southern Marmara and Central Anatolia Region, East-Central Anatolia Region; ''Teke'' in the Mediterranean Region, Western Mediterranean Region; ''Kaşık Oyunları'' and ''Karşılama'' in Central Anatolia Region, West-Central Anatolia, Black Sea Region, Western Black Sea Region, Marmara Region, Southern Marmara Region and Mediterranean Region, Eastern Mediterranean Region; ''Horon'' in the Black Sea Region, Central and Eastern Black Sea Region; ''Halay'' in Eastern Anatolia Region, Eastern Anatolia and the Central Anatolia Region; and ''Bar (dance), Bar'' and ''Lezginka'' in the Eastern Anatolia Region, Northeastern Anatolia Region.
ArchitectureThe Byzantine era is usually dated from 330 AD, when Constantine the Great moved the Roman capital to Byzantium, which became Constantinople, until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. Its architecture dramatically influenced the later medieval architecture throughout Europe and the Near East, and became the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse. When the Roman Empire went Christian (as well as Eastwards) with its new capital at Constantinople, its architecture became more sensuous and more ambitious. This new style would come to be known as Byzantine with increasingly exotic domes and ever-richer mosaics, traveled west to Ravenna and Venice and as far north as Moscow. The Seljuk architecture, architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Architecture of Central Asia, Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Persian architecture, Persian, Arab architecture, Arab, Armenian architecture, Armenian and Byzantine architecture, Byzantine architecture. The transition from Seljuk architecture to Ottoman architecture is most visible in Bursa, which was the capital of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman State between 1335 and 1413. Following the Fall of Constantinople, Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman architecture was significantly influenced by Byzantine architecture. Topkapı Palace in Istanbul is one of the most famous examples of classical Ottoman architecture and was the primary residence of the Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years. Mimar Sinan (c.1489–1588) was the most important architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. He was the chief architect of at least 374 buildings which were constructed in various eyalet, provinces of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by European styles, and this can be particularly seen in the Tanzimat era buildings of Istanbul like the Dolmabahçe Palace, Dolmabahçe, Çırağan Palace, Çırağan, Feriye Sarayları, Feriye, Beylerbeyi Palace, Beylerbeyi, Küçüksu Palace, Küçüksu, Ihlamur Palace, Ihlamur and Yıldız Palace, Yıldız palaces, which were all designed by members of the Balyan family of Ottoman Armenian court architects. The Ottoman era yalı, waterfront houses (''yalı'') on the Bosphorus also reflect the fusion between classical Ottoman and European architectural styles during the aforementioned period. The First National Architectural Movement in the early 20th century sought to create a new architecture, which was based on motifs from Seljuk and Ottoman architecture. The leading architects of this movement were Vedat Tek (1873–1942), Mimar Kemaleddin Bey (1870–1927), Arif Hikmet Koyunoğlu (1888–1982) and Giulio Mongeri (1873–1953). Buildings from this era are the Istanbul Main Post Office, Grand Post Office in Istanbul (1905–1909), Tayyare Apartments (1919–1922), Istanbul 4th Vakıf Han (1911–1926), State Art and Sculpture Museum (1927–1930), Ethnography Museum of Ankara (1925–1928), the first Ziraat Bank headquarters in Ankara (1925–1929), the first Türkiye İş Bankası headquarters in Ankara (1926–1929), Bebek, Istanbul, Bebek Mosque, and Kamer Hatun Mosque.
CuisineTurkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. In the early years of the Republic, a few studies were published about regional Anatolian dishes but cuisine did not feature heavily in Turkish folkloric studies until the 1980s, when the fledgling tourism industry encouraged the Turkish state to sponsor two food symposia. The papers submitted at the symposia presented the history of Turkish cuisine on a "historical continuum" that dated back to Turkic origins in Central Asia and continued through the Seljuk and Ottoman periods. Many of the papers presented at these first two symposia were unreferenced. Prior to the symposia, the study of Turkish culinary culture was first popularised by the publication of Süheyl Ünver's ''Fifty Dishes in Turkish History'' in 1948. This book was based on recipes found in an 18th century Ottoman manuscript. His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. Following the publication of Ünver's book subsequent studies were published, including a 1978 study by a historian named Bahaettin Ögel about the Central Asian cuisine, Central Asian origins of Turkish cuisine. Ottoman cuisine contains elements of Turkish cuisine, Turkish, Byzantine cuisine, Byzantine, Balkan cuisine, Balkan, Armenian cuisine, Armenian, Kurdish cuisine, Kurdish, Arab cuisine, Arab and Persian cuisine, Persian cuisines. The country's position between Europe, Asia, and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks in gaining complete control of the major trade routes, and an ideal landscape and climate allowed plants and animals to flourish. Turkish cuisine was well established by the mid-1400s, the beginning of the Ottoman Empire's six hundred-year reign. Yogurt salads, fish in olive oil, sharbat, sherbet and dolma, stuffed and wrapped vegetables became Turkish staples. The empire, eventually spanning from Austria and Ukraine to Arabia and North Africa, used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world. By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1,400 live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food. Since the fall of the empire in World War I (1914–1918) and the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.
SportsThe most popular Sports in Turkey, sport in Turkey is association football. Galatasaray S.K. (football), Galatasaray won the 2000 UEFA Cup Final, UEFA Cup and 2000 UEFA Super Cup, UEFA Super Cup in 2000. The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup and UEFA Euro 2008. Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular. The Turkey national basketball team, men's national basketball team won the silver medal at the 2010 FIBA World Championship and at the EuroBasket 2001, which were both hosted by Turkey; and is one of the most successful at the Basketball at the Mediterranean Games, Mediterranean Games. Turkish basketball club Fenerbahçe Men's Basketball, Fenerbahçe played the Final of the EuroLeague in three consecutive seasons (2015–16 Euroleague, 2016, 2016–17 EuroLeague, 2017 and 2017–18 EuroLeague, 2018), becoming the European champions in 2017 and runners-up in 2016 and 2018. Another Turkish basketball club, Anadolu Efes S.K. won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 2018–19 EuroLeague and the 1992–93 FIBA European Cup, 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup, and finished third at the 1999–2000 FIBA EuroLeague, 1999–2000 EuroLeague and the 2000–01 FIBA SuproLeague, 2000–01 SuproLeague. Beşiktaş men's basketball team, Beşiktaş won the 2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge, 2011–12 EuroChallenge, FIBA EuroChallenge, and Galatasaray S.K. (men's basketball), Galatasaray won the 2015–16 Eurocup Basketball, 2015–16 Eurocup. The Final of the 2013–14 EuroLeague Women basketball championship was played between two Turkish teams, Galatasaray S.K. (women's basketball), Galatasaray and Fenerbahçe Women's Basketball, Fenerbahçe, and won by Galatasaray. The Turkey women's national basketball team, women's national basketball team won the silver medal at the EuroBasket Women 2011 and the bronze medal at the EuroBasket Women 2013. Like the men's team, the women's basketball team is one of the most successful at the Basketball at the Mediterranean Games, Mediterranean Games. The Turkey women's national volleyball team, women's national volleyball team won the gold medal at the 2015 European Games, the silver medal at the 2003 Women's European Volleyball Championship, 2003 European Championship, the bronze medal at the 2011 Women's European Volleyball Championship, 2011 European Championship, and the bronze medal at the 2012 FIVB World Grand Prix. They also won multiple medals over multiple decades at the Volleyball at the Mediterranean Games, Mediterranean Games. Women's volleyball clubs, namely Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball, Fenerbahçe, Eczacıbaşı Istanbul, Eczacıbaşı and Vakıfbank Spor Kulübü, Vakıfbank, have won numerous European championship titles and medals. Fenerbahçe Women's Volleyball, Fenerbahçe won the 2010 FIVB Women's Club World Championship and the CEV Women's Champions League, 2012 CEV Women's Champions League. Representing European Volleyball Confederation, Europe as the winner of the 2012–13 CEV Women's Champions League, Vakıfbank also became the world champion by winning the 2013 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship. Recently Vakıfbank has won the 2017 FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship and the 2017–18 CEV Women's Champions League for the fourth time in their history. The traditional national sport of Turkey has been Oil wrestling, yağlı güreş (''olive oil, oil wrestling'') since Ottoman times. Edirne Province has hosted the annual Kırkpınar oil wrestling tournament since 1361, making it the oldest continuously held sporting competition in the world. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Ottoman Turkish oil wrestling champions such as Yusuf İsmail, Koca Yusuf, Nurullah Hasan and Kızılcıklı Mahmut acquired international fame in Europe and North America by winning world heavyweight wrestling championship titles. International wrestling styles governed by International Federation of Associated Wrestling Styles, FILA such as freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team. Renowned Turkish freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestlers who won international competitions include Yaşar Doğu, Celal Atik, Mahmut Atalay, Hamza Yerlikaya, Rıza Kayaalp and Taha Akgül.
Media and cinemaHundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable cinema of Turkey, national cinema and a rapid growth of broadband Internet use constitute a vibrant media industry in Turkey. The majority of the TV audiences are shared among public broadcaster Turkish Radio and Television Corporation, TRT and the network-style channels such as Kanal D, Show TV, ATV (Turkey), ATV and Star TV (Turkey), Star TV. The broadcast media have a very high penetration as satellite dishes and cable television, cable systems are widely available.Turkey country profile
See also* Index of Turkey-related articles * Outline of Turkey
Further reading* * * Reed, Fred A. (1999). ''Anatolia Junction: a Journey into Hidden Turkey''. Burnaby, BC: Talonbooks [sic]. 320 p., ill. with b&w photos. * * Roxburgh, David J. (ed.) (2005). ''Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years, 600–1600.'' Royal Academy of Arts. . * ''Turkey: A Country Study'' (1996). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. . *