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The Province of the Transvaal ( af, Provinsie Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal (; ), was a province of
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities: e ...
from 1910 until 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it following the end of
apartheid Apartheid (South African English: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid wa ...
. The name "Transvaal" refers to the province's geographical location to the north of the
Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana: ) is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. The river has its source near Breyten in Mpumalanga province, east of Johannesburg and about north of Ermelo and only about from the Indian Ocean. It t ...
. Its capital was
Pretoria Pretoria (; zu, ePitoli) is one of South Africa’s three capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. (Cape Town is the legislative capital and Bloemfontei ...
, which was also the country's executive capital.


History

In 1910, four British colonies united to form the
Union of South Africa The Union of South Africa ( nl, Unie van Zuid-Afrika; af, Unie van Suid-Afrika ) is the historical predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the Cape Colony, the Natal Colon ...
. The
Transvaal Colony The Transvaal Colony () was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Second Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the es ...
, which had been formed out of the bulk of the old
South African Republic The South African Republic ( nl, Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, af, Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was an independent and internationally recognised state in what is now South Africa, from 1852 to 1902. ...
after the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War (11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, Anglo-Boer War, or South African War, was fought between the British Empire and two independent Boer states, the South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and th ...
, became the Transvaal Province in the new union. Half a century later, in 1961, the union ceased to be part of the
Commonwealth of Nations A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good. Historically it has sometimes been synonymous with "republic". The noun "commonwealth", meaning "public welfare, general good or advantage", dates ...

Commonwealth of Nations
and became the
Republic of South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 59 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities: e ...
. The PWV (Pretoria-
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa. It consists of a hard, erosion-resistant quartzite metamorphic rock, over which several north-flowing rivers form waterfalls, which acc ...
-
Vereeniging Vereeniging () is a city located in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River. It is also one of the constituent parts of the Vaal Triangle region and was formerly sit ...
)
conurbation A conurbation is a region comprising a number of metropolises, cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most case ...
in the Transvaal, centred on Pretoria and Johannesburg, became South Africa's economic powerhouse, a position it still holds today as
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ''Gauteng''; zu, eGoli; Tsonga: ''Gauteng/eXilungwini;'' Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. The name in Sotho-Tswana languages mea ...
Province. In 1994, after the fall of
apartheid Apartheid (South African English: ; , segregation; lit. "aparthood") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s. Apartheid wa ...
, the former provinces were abolished, and the Transvaal ceased to exist. The south-central portion (including the PWV) became
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ''Gauteng''; zu, eGoli; Tsonga: ''Gauteng/eXilungwini;'' Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. The name in Sotho-Tswana languages mea ...
, the northern portion became
Limpopo Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's western and northern borders. The capital and largest city in the province is Polokwane (formerly Pietersburg). The province ...
and the southeastern portion became
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literally "the place where the sun rises" in the Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu languages. Mpumalanga lies in eastern South Africa, bordering Eswatini and Mozambique. It con ...
. Most of the
North West The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet-based directions are conventionally defined. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east, south, and west—each separated by 90 degrees, and secondarily d ...
came from the southwestern portion of the old Transvaal, and a tiny segment of the Transvaal joined
KwaZulu-Natal KwaZulu-Natal (, also referred to as KZN and known as "the garden province"; zu, iKwaZulu-Natali; xh, KwaZulu-Natala; af, KwaZoeloe-Natal) is a province of South Africa that was created in 1994 when the Zulu bantustan of KwaZulu ("Place of the Z ...
. Even before 1994, the Transvaal Province was subdivided into regions for a number of purposes (such as municipal and district courts, and sporting divisions). These divisions included Northern Transvaal (present-day
Limpopo Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's western and northern borders. The capital and largest city in the province is Polokwane (formerly Pietersburg). The province ...

Limpopo
and Pretoria), Eastern Transvaal (currently
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literally "the place where the sun rises" in the Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu languages. Mpumalanga lies in eastern South Africa, bordering Eswatini and Mozambique. It con ...

Mpumalanga
), Western Transvaal (currently part of North West (South Africa), North West Province) and Southern Transvaal (now
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Northern and Southern Sotho: ''Gauteng''; zu, eGoli; Tsonga: ''Gauteng/eXilungwini;'' Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. The name in Sotho-Tswana languages mea ...
Province).


Geography

The Transvaal province lay between the
Vaal River The Vaal River ( ; Khoemana: ) is the largest tributary of the Orange River in South Africa. The river has its source near Breyten in Mpumalanga province, east of Johannesburg and about north of Ermelo and only about from the Indian Ocean. It t ...
in the south, and the Limpopo River in the north, roughly between and S, and 25 and 32 E. To its south it bordered with the Orange Free State and Natal Province, Natal provinces, to its west were the Cape Province and the Bechuanaland Protectorate (later Botswana), to its north Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe), and to its east Portuguese East Africa (later Mozambique) and Swaziland. Except on the south-west, these borders were mostly well defined by natural features. Several Bantustans were entirely inside the Transvaal: Venda, KwaNdebele, Gazankulu, KaNgwane and Lebowa. Parts of Bophuthatswana were also in the Transvaal, with other parts in Cape Province and Orange Free State. Within the Transvaal lies the Waterberg Massif, a prominent ancient geological feature of the South African landscape.


Regions

* PWV region (later Gauteng province) consisting of the
Witwatersrand The Witwatersrand () (locally the Rand or, less commonly, the Reef) is a , north-facing scarp in South Africa. It consists of a hard, erosion-resistant quartzite metamorphic rock, over which several north-flowing rivers form waterfalls, which acc ...
, which in turn consists of the West Rand and the East Rand, as well as Johannesburg; the Vaal Triangle and Pretoria. * The North West *
Limpopo Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's western and northern borders. The capital and largest city in the province is Polokwane (formerly Pietersburg). The province ...

Limpopo
*
Mpumalanga Mpumalanga () is a province of South Africa. The name means "east", or literally "the place where the sun rises" in the Swazi, Xhosa, Ndebele and Zulu languages. Mpumalanga lies in eastern South Africa, bordering Eswatini and Mozambique. It con ...

Mpumalanga


Districts in 1991

Districts of the province and population at the 1991 census. * Johannesburg: 1,574,631 * Alberton, Gauteng, Alberton: 367,929 * Germiston: 171,541 * Boksburg: 195,905 * Benoni, Gauteng, Benoni: 288,629 * Kempton Park, Gauteng, Kempton Park: 354,787 * Randburg: 341,430 * Roodepoort: 219,149 * Westonaria: 160,531 * Oberholzer: 177,768 * Randfontein: 116,405 * Krugersdorp: 196,213 * Brakpan: 130,463 * Springs, Gauteng, Springs: 157,702 * Nigel, Gauteng, Nigel: 92,881 * Delmas, Mpumalanga, Delmas: 48,614 *
Pretoria Pretoria (; zu, ePitoli) is one of South Africa’s three capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. (Cape Town is the legislative capital and Bloemfontei ...
: 667,700 * Wonderboom, Pretoria, Wonderboom: 266,153 * Soshanguve: 146,334 * Cullinan, Gauteng, Cullinan: 32,006 * Vanderbijlpark: 434,004 *
Vereeniging Vereeniging () is a city located in the south of Gauteng province, South Africa, situated where the Klip River empties into the northern loop of the Vaal River. It is also one of the constituent parts of the Vaal Triangle region and was formerly sit ...
: 250,511 * Heidelberg, Gauteng, Heidelberg: 77,055 * Balfour, Mpumalanga, Balfour: 38,311 * Standerton: 85,893 * Hoëveldrif (Highveld Ridge): 155,881 * Bethal: 77,780 * Volksrust: 29,924 * Amersfoort, Mpumalanga, Amersfoort: 33,461 * Wakkerstroom: 33,246 * Piet Retief, Mpumalanga, Piet Retief: 64,052 * Ermelo, Mpumalanga, Ermelo: 111,082 * Carolina, Mpumalanga, Carolina: 30,438 * Bronkhorstspruit: 38,605 * Witbank: 173,281 * Middelburg, Mpumalanga, Middelburg: 140,015 * Belfast, Mpumalanga, Belfast: 28,973 * Waterval-Boven: 9,300 * Groblersdal: 57,742 * Moutse (main town Dennilton): 102,179 * Nelspruit: 61,921 * Barberton, Mpumalanga, Barberton: 72,165 * Witrivier: 30,235 * Pilgrim's Rest, Mpumalanga, Pelgrimsrus (main town Sabie): 29,063 * Lydenburg: 36,976 * Greater Letaba Local Municipality, Letaba (main town Tzaneen): 59,900 * Phalaborwa: 30,126 * Soutpansberg (main town Louis Trichardt): 35,839 * Musina, Messina: 22,959 * Polokwane, Pietersburg: 64,207 * Mokopane, Potgietersrus: 69,571 * Waterberg District Municipality, Waterberg (main town Nylstroom): 48,991 * Ellisras: 24,530 * Thabazimbi: 48,844 * Bela Bela, Warmbad: 41,692 * Brits, North West, Brits: 111,798 * Rustenburg: 125,307 * Swartruggens: 12,607 * Groot Marico, Marico: 38,983 * Koster, North West, Koster: 29,228 * Ventersdorp: 36,315 * Coligny, South Africa, Coligny: 22,154 * Lichtenburg, North West, Lichtenburg: 79,013 * Delareyville: 36,036 * Potchefstroom: 185,552 * Klerksdorp: 321,478 * Wolmaransstad: 61,497 * Schweizer-Reneke: 46,893 * Bloemhof: 15,291 * Christiana, South Africa, Christiana: 13,596


Administrators


Sports

The province was divided into a number of sporting teams. These teams were renamed after the Transvaal became defunct, however their traditional territories have remained unchanged in many cases, even though they overlap the boundaries of the Transvaal's successor provinces. Examples of this include the Blue Bulls (formerly ''Northern Transvaal''), which governs rugby in Pretoria (now part of Gauteng) and Limpopo Province, and the Golden Lions (formerly ''Transvaal'') formed in 1889. The Orlando Pirates Football Club was founded in 1937 and was originally based in Orlando, Soweto and Kaizer Chiefs were founded. January 1970. Mamelodi Sundowns F.C. originated from Marabastad, a cosmopolitan area north west of the Pretoria CBD in the early 1960s. Cricket teams from the former Transvaal include ''Transvaal'' (later Gauteng (cricket team), Gauteng) which represented the southern parts of the province, and ''Northern Transvaal'' (later Northerns (cricket team), Northerns) that represents the northern parts of Gauteng, including Pretoria, as well as areas further north.


References

{{Coord, 25, S, 30, E, type:country_source:kolossus-nlwiki, display=title History of South Africa Former provinces of South Africa States and territories established in 1910 States and territories disestablished in 1994 1910 establishments in South Africa 1994 disestablishments in South Africa