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''The Times'' is a British
daily Daily or The Daily may refer to: Journalism * Daily newspaper, newspaper issued on five to seven day of most weeks * The Daily (podcast), a podcast by ''The New York Times'' * ''The Daily'' (News Corporation), a defunct US-based iPad newspaper f ...
national newspaper A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business, sports and ...
based in
London London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its estuary leading to the North Sea. London has been a major settlement for two millen ...
. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its
sister paper A sister paper is one of two or more newspapers which share a common owner, but are published with different content, different names, and sometimes (but not necessarily) in different geographical areas. Such an arrangement can offer economies of sc ...
''
The Sunday Times ''The Sunday Times'' is a British newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in the quality press market category. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, which is in turn owned by News Corp. Times Newspapers also ...
'' (founded in 1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of
News UK News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of '' ...
, in turn wholly owned by
News Corp The current incarnation of News Corporation, stylized as News Corp, is an American mass media and publishing company operating across digital real estate information, news media, book publishing, and cable television. It was formed in 2013 as ...
. ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'', which do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, and have only had common ownership since 1966. ''The Times'' is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as ''
The Times of India ''The Times of India'' (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper and digital news media owned and managed by The Times Group. It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and largest selling English-language daily in the w ...

The Times of India
'' and ''
The New York Times ''The New York Times'' (''NYT'' or ''NY Times'') is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership. Founded in 1851, the ''Times'' has since won 130 Pulitzer Prizes (the most of any newspaper), and has long be ...
''. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is often referred to as , or as , although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution. ''The Times'' had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019; in the same period, ''The Sunday Times'' had an average weekly circulation of 712,291. An American edition of ''The Times'' has been published since 6 June 2006. ''The Times'' has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning.


History


1785 to 1890

''The Times'' was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as ''The Daily Universal Register,'' with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company for which he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. At that time, Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was reputedly faster and more precise (although three years later, it was proved less efficient than advertised). Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce books. The first publication of the newspaper ''The Daily Universal Register'' was on 1 January 1785. Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to ''The Times''. In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in
Newgate Prison Newgate Prison was a prison at the corner of Newgate Street and Old Bailey Street just inside the City of London, England, originally at the site of Newgate, a gate in the Roman London Wall. Built in the 12th century and demolished in 1904, t ...
for
libel Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort or crime. In several co ...
printed in ''The Times'', his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news, especially from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. ''The Times'' used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of ''The Times'' were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by
Friedrich Koenig Friedrich Gottlob Koenig (17 April 1774 – 17 January 1833) was a German inventor best known for his high-speed steam-powered printing press, which he built together with watchmaker Andreas Friedrich Bauer. This new style of printing press ...

Friedrich Koenig
. In 1815, ''The Times'' had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson (1802–1852). Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841,
John Thadeus Delane John Thadeus Delane (11 October 1817 – 22 November 1879), editor of ''The Times'' (London), was born in London. He was the second son of W.F.A. Delane, a barrister, of an old Irish family, who about 1832 was appointed by ''Times'' publish ...
, the influence of ''The Times'' rose to great heights, especially in politics and amongst the
City of London The City of London is a city, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1s ...
. Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, and gained for ''The Times'' the pompous/satirical nickname 'The Thunderer' (from "We thundered out the other day an article on social and political reform."). The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to rapidly growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence. ''The Times'' was one of the first newspapers to send
war correspondent A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories first-hand from a war zone. War correspondents' jobs bring them to the most conflict-ridden parts of the world. Once there, they attempt to get close enough to the action to provide written ac ...
s to cover particular conflicts.
William Howard Russell Sir William Howard Russell, (28 March 182011 February 1907) was an Irish reporter with ''The Times'', and is considered to have been one of the first modern war correspondents. He spent 22 months covering the Crimean War, including the Siege o ...
, the paper's correspondent with the army in the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russia lost to an alliance made up of France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom and Sardinia. The immediate cause of the war involved the righ ...
, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England.


1890 to 1981

''The Times'' faced financial extinction in 1890 under
Arthur Fraser Walter Arthur Fraser Walter (12 September 1846 – 10 August 1910) was an English newspaper proprietor and the second son of John Walter (third). Walter born on 12 September 1846. He studied at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford. He entered Linco ...
, but it was rescued by an energetic editor,
Charles Frederic Moberly Bell Charles Frederic Moberly Bell (2 April 1847 in Alexandria – 5 April 1911 in London) was a prominent British journalist and newspaper editor during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Family background Charles Frederic Moberly Bell was born ...
. During his tenure (1890–1911), ''The Times'' became associated with selling the ''
Encyclopædia Britannica The (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia") is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia which is now published exclusively as an online encyclopaedia. It was formerly published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., and other publishers ( ...
'' using aggressive American marketing methods introduced by
Horace Everett Hooper Horace Everett Hooper (December 8, 1859 – June 13, 1922) was the publisher of ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' from 1897 until his death. Early life Born at Worcester, Massachusetts, he left school at the age of 16, and after gaining experience in ...
and his advertising executive, Henry Haxton. Due to legal fights between the ''Britannica's'' two owners, Hooper and
Walter Montgomery JacksonWalter Montgomery Jackson (1863–1923) was the founder of encyclopedia publisher Grolier, Inc., and he was the partner of Horace Everett Hooper in publishing the 10th edition of the ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' and in developing its 11th edition. H ...
, ''The Times'' severed its connection in 1908 and was bought by pioneering newspaper
magnate A magnate, from the late Latin ''magnas'', a great man, itself from Latin ''magnus'', "great", is a noble or a man in a high social position, by birth, wealth or other qualities. In reference to the Middle Ages, the term is often used to distinguis ...
,
Alfred Harmsworth Alfred Charles William Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe (15 July 1865 – 14 August 1922), was a British newspaper and publishing magnate. As owner of the ''Daily Mail'' and the ''Daily Mirror'', he was an early developer of popular journalis ...
, later Lord Northcliffe. In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914,
Wickham Steed Henry Wickham Steed (10 October 1871 – 13 January 1956) was an English journalist and historian. He was editor of ''The Times'' from 1919 to 1922. Early life Born in Long Melford, England, Steed was educated at Sudbury Grammar School and ...
, the ''Times's'' Chief Editor, argued that the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
should enter
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
. On 8 May 1920, also under the editorship of Steed, ''The Times'' in an editorial endorsed the
anti-Semitic Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews. A person who holds such positions is called an antisemite. Antisemitism is generally considered to be a form of racism. An ...
fabrication '' The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion'' as a genuine document, and called Jews the world's greatest danger. In the leader entitled "The Jewish Peril, a Disturbing Pamphlet: Call for Inquiry", Steed wrote about ''The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'':
What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".
The following year, when
Philip Graves Philip Perceval Graves (25 February 1876 – 3 June 1953) was an Irish journalist and writer. While working as a foreign correspondent of ''The Times'' in Constantinople, he exposed ''The Protocols of the Elders of Zion'' as an antisemitic plag ...
, the
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse), Tsarigrad (Slavic), Qustantiniya (Arabic), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City"), Πόλι ...
(modern
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = 34000 to 34990 , area_code = +90 212 (European side) +90 216 (Asian side) , registration_plate = 34 , blank_name_sec2 ...
) correspondent of ''The Times'', exposed ''The Protocols'' as a forgery, ''The Times'' retracted the editorial of the previous year. In 1922,
John Jacob Astor John Jacob Astor (born Johann Jakob Astor; July 17, 1763 – March 29, 1848) was a German–American businessman, merchant, real estate mogul, and investor who made his fortune mainly in a fur trade monopoly, by smuggling opium into China, an ...
, son of the 1st Viscount Astor, bought ''The Times'' from the Northcliffe estate. The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German
appeasement Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict. The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of the UK governments of Prime M ...
; editor
Geoffrey Dawson George Geoffrey Dawson (25 October 1874 – 7 November 1944) was editor of ''The Times'' from 1912 to 1919 and again from 1923 until 1941. His original last name was Robinson, but he changed it in 1917. He married Hon. Margaret Cecilia Lawley, ...
was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably
Neville Chamberlain Arthur Neville Chamberlain (; 18 March 18699 November 1940) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1937 to 1940. He is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, and in particular for his signin ...
. Candid news reports by Norman Ebbut from Berlin that warned of warmongering were rewritten in London to support the appeasement policy.
Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1 January 191211 May 1988) was a British intelligence officer and a double agent for the Soviet Union. In 1963 he was revealed to be a member of the Cambridge Five, a spy ring which passed information to the ...
, a double agent with primary allegiance to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
, was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the
Spanish Civil War The Spanish Civil War ( es, Guerra Civil Española)) or The Revolution ( es, La Revolución) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War ( es, Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion ( es, La Rebelión) or Uprising ( es, Sublevaci ...
of the late 1930s. Philby was admired for his courage in obtaining high-quality reporting from the front lines of the bloody conflict. He later joined British Military Intelligence ( MI6) during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, was promoted into senior positions after the war ended, and defected to the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
when discovery was inevitable in 1963. Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian E. H. Carr was assistant editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone of his editorials. In December 1944, when fighting broke out in
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between the Greek Communist ELAS and the British Army, Carr in a ''Times''
leader Leadership is both a research area, and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual, group or organization to "lead", influence or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Often viewed as a contested term, speciali ...
sided with the Communists, leading
Winston Churchill Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, (30 November 187424 January 1965) was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, during the Second World War, and again from 1951 to 1955. Apart from two years between 1922 and 1924, ...

Winston Churchill
to condemn him and the article in a speech to the House of Commons. As a result of Carr's editorial, ''The Times'' became popularly known during that stage of World War II as "the threepenny ''
Daily Worker The ''Daily Worker'' was a newspaper published in New York City by the Communist Party USA, a formerly Comintern-affiliated organization. Publication began in 1924. While it generally reflected the prevailing views of the party, attempts were ma ...
''" (the price of the Communist Party's ''Daily Worker'' being one penny). On 3 May 1966, it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society. Also in 1966, the
Royal Arms (God and my right) , orders = Order of the Garter , other_elements = , earlier_versions = ''see below'' , use = On all Acts of Parliament; the cover of all UK passports; various government departments; adapted for the revers ...

Royal Arms
, which had been a feature of the newspaper's masthead since its inception, was abandoned. In the same year, members of the
Astor family The Astor family achieved prominence in business, society, and politics in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 19th and 20th centuries. With ancestral roots in the Italian Alps, the Astors settled in Germany, first appearing in Nor ...
sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson. His
Thomson Corporation The Thomson Corporation was one of the world's largest information companies. It was established in 1989 following a merger between International Thomson Organisation Ltd (ITOL) and Thomson Newspapers. In 2008, it purchased Reuters Group to form T ...
brought it under the same ownership as ''
The Sunday Times ''The Sunday Times'' is a British newspaper whose circulation makes it the largest in the quality press market category. It is published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News UK, which is in turn owned by News Corp. Times Newspapers also ...
'' to form
Times Newspapers Limited News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of '' ...
. An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979. The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the
1979 energy crisis The 1979 Oil Crisis, also known as the 1979 Oil Shock or Second Oil Crisis, was an energy crisis caused by a drop in oil production in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. Although the global oil supply only decreased by approximately four perce ...
and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods. Several suitors appeared, including
Robert Maxwell Ian Robert Maxwell (born Ján Ludvík Hyman Binyamin Hoch; 10 June 1923 – 5 November 1991) was a Ukrainian-British media proprietor, Member of Parliament (MP), suspected spy, and fraudster. Originally from Czechoslovakia, Maxwell rose from p ...
,
Tiny Rowland Roland Walter "Tiny" Rowland (27 November 1917 – 25 July 1998) was a controversial high-profile British businessman, corporate raider and chief executive of the Lonrho conglomerate from 1962 to 1994. He gained fame from a number of high-profile ...
and
Lord Rothermere Viscount Rothermere, of Hemsted in the county of Kent, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1919 for the press lord Harold Harmsworth, 1st Baron Harmsworth. He had already been created a baronet, of Horsey in the County ...

Lord Rothermere
; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate
Rupert Murdoch Keith Rupert Murdoch ( ; born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul. Through his company News Corp, he is the owner of hundreds of local, national, and international publishing outlets around the world, including in the U ...

Rupert Murdoch
.
Robert Holmes à Court Michael Robert Hamilton Holmes à Court (27 July 1937 – 2 September 1990) was a South African-born Australian entrepreneur who became Australia's first billionaire, before dying suddenly of a heart attack in 1990 at the age of 53. A great-gr ...
, another Australian magnate had previously tried to buy ''The Times'' in 1980.


From 1981

In 1981, ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's
News International News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of '' ...
. The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O'Neill. Murdoch gave legal undertakings to maintain separate journalism resources for the two titles. The
Royal Arms (God and my right) , orders = Order of the Garter , other_elements = , earlier_versions = ''see below'' , use = On all Acts of Parliament; the cover of all UK passports; various government departments; adapted for the revers ...

Royal Arms
was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the
House of Hanover The House of Hanover (german: Haus Hannover), whose members are known as Hanoverians, is a German royal house that ruled Hanover, Great Britain, and Ireland at various times during the 17th to 20th centuries. The house originated in 1635 as a ...
, who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded. After 14 years as editor,
William Rees-Mogg William Rees-Mogg, Baron Rees-Mogg (14 July 192829 December 2012) was a British newspaper journalist who was Editor of ''The Times'' from 1967 to 1981. In the late 1970s, he served as High Sheriff of Somerset, and in the 1980s was Chairman of the ...
resigned upon completion of the change of ownership. Murdoch began to make his mark on the paper by appointing
Harold Evans Sir Harold Matthew Evans (28 June 192823 September 2020) was a British-American journalist and writer. In his career in his native Britain, he was editor of ''The Sunday Times'' from 1967 to 1981, and its sister title ''The Times'' for a year fr ...
as his replacement.Stewart, p. 51 One of his most important changes was the introduction of new technology and efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process used to print ''The Times'' since the 19th century was phased out and replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print room staff at ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' to be reduced by half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke" input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim measure until the
Wapping dispute The Wapping dispute was a lengthy failed strike by print workers in London in 1986. Print unions tried to block distribution of ''The Sunday Times'', along with other newspapers in Rupert Murdoch's News International group, after production was ...
of 1986, when ''The Times'' moved from New Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near
Fleet Street Fleet Street is a major street mostly in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall and the River Fleet from which the street was named. ...

Fleet Street
) to new offices in
Wapping Wapping () is a district in East London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and uniquely has it own postcode area E1W, which covers the entire area. It is situated between the north bank of the River Thames and the ancient thoroughfare simply ...
.
Robert Fisk Robert Fisk (12 July 194630 October 2020) was a writer and journalist who held British and Irish citizenship. During his career he developed strong views, and was especially critical of United States foreign policy in the Middle East and the Isr ...
, seven times British International Journalist of the Year, resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of
Iran Air Flight 655 Iran Air Flight 655 was a scheduled passenger flight from Tehran to Dubai via Bandar Abbas that was shot down on 3July 1988 by an SM-2MR surface-to-air missile fired from , a guided-missile cruiser of the United States Navy. The aircraft, an Airbu ...
in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance. In June 1990, ''The Times'' ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. In 1992, it accepted the use of "Ms" for unmarried women "if they express a preference." In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. Over the next year, the broadsheet edition was withdrawn from
Northern Ireland Northern Ireland ( ga, Tuaisceart Éireann ; Ulster-Scots: ') is variously described as a country, province, or region which is part of the United Kingdom. Located in the northeast of the island of Ireland, Northern Ireland shares a border to ...

Northern Ireland
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland Scotland has a 96-mile (154 km) border with England to the southeast and is otherwis ...
, and the
West Country The West Country is a loosely defined area of south-western England. The term usually encompasses the historic counties of (from west to east) Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, and Somerset, and is often extended to include Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, ...
. Since 1 November 2004, the paper has been printed solely in tabloid format. On 6 June 2005, ''The Times'' redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. According to its
leading article An editorial, leading article (US) or leader (UK), is an article written by the senior editorial people or publisher of a newspaper, magazine, or any other written document, often unsigned. Australian and major United States newspapers, such as ...
"From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page. In a 2007 meeting with the
House of Lords The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Membership is by appointment, heredity or official function. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. Members of the House of Lords are dr ...

House of Lords
Select Committee on Communications, which was investigating media ownership and the news, Murdoch stated that the law and the independent board prevented him from exercising editorial control. In May 2008, printing of ''The Times'' switched from Wapping to new plants at
Waltham Cross Waltham Cross is a town in the Borough of Broxbourne, Hertfordshire, England, located approximately 12 miles (20 km) north of central London. It is in the metropolitan area of London and the Greater London Urban Area. The town is partly named f ...

Waltham Cross
in
Hertfordshire Hertfordshire (; often abbreviated Herts) is one of the home counties in southern England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, and Buckinghamshire to the west. For gover ...
, and
Merseyside Merseyside ( ) is a metropolitan and ceremonial county in North West England, with a population of 1.38 million. It encompasses the metropolitan area centred on both banks of the lower reaches of the Mersey Estuary and comprises five metropolit ...
and
Glasgow Glasgow, (, also , ; sco, Glesca or ; gd, Glaschu ) with an estimated city population of 633,120 in 2019, is the most populous city in Scotland and the fourth-most populous city in the United Kingdom (as of 2011), as well as being the 27th lar ...

Glasgow
, enabling the paper to be produced with full colour on every page for the first time. On 26 July 2012, to coincide with the official start of the
London 2012 Olympics The 2012 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012) was an international multi-sport event held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, t ...
and the issuing of a series of souvenir front covers, ''The Times'' added the suffix "of London" to its masthead. In March 2016, the paper dropped its rolling digital coverage for a series of 'editions' of the paper at 9am, midday and 5pm on weekdays. The change also saw a redesign for the paper's app for smartphones and tablets. In April 2018, IPSO upheld a complaint against ''The Times'' for its report of a court hearing in a Tower Hamlets fostering case. In April 2019,
Culture secretary The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, also referred to as the Culture Secretary, is a cabinet rank office with overall responsibility for strategy and policy across the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. T ...
Jeremy Wright Jeremy Paul Wright (born 24 October 1972) is a British lawyer and politician who served as Secretary of State for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport from 2018 to 2019. A member of the Conservative Party, he has been the Member of Parliament (MP) ...
said he was minded to allow a request by
News UK News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of '' ...
to relax the legal undertakings given in 1981 to maintain separate journalism resources for ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times''. In 2019, IPSO upheld complaints against ''The Times'' over their article "GPS data shows container visited trafficking hotspot", and for three articles as part of a series on pollution in Britain's waterways – "No river safe for bathing", "Filthy Business" and "Behind the story". IPSO also upheld complaints in 2019 against articles headlined "Funding secret of scientists against hunt trophy ban", and "Britons lose out to rush of foreign medical students"


Content

''The Times'' features news for the first half of the paper; the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, a Court & Social section, and related material. The sport section is at the end of the main paper. In April 2016, the cover price of ''The Times'' became £1.40 on weekdays and £1.50 on Saturdays.


''Times2''

''The Times'' main supplement, every day, is the ''times2'', featuring various columns. It was discontinued in early March 2010, but reintroduced on 12 October 2010 after discontinuation was criticised. Its regular features include a puzzles section called ''Mind Games''. Its previous incarnation began on 5 September 2005, before which it was called ''T2'' and previously ''Times 2''. The supplement contains arts and lifestyle features, TV and radio listings, and theatre reviews. The newspaper employs Richard Morrison as its classical music critic.


''The Game''

''The Game'' is included in the newspaper on Mondays, and details all the weekend's football activity (
Premier League The Premier League, often referred to outside the UK as the English Premier League, or sometimes the EPL, (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited) is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 c ...
and
Football League Championship The English Football League Championship (often referred to as the Championship for short or the Sky Bet Championship for sponsorship reasons, and known as the Football League Championship from 2004 until 2016) is the highest division of the E ...
,
League One The English Football League One (often referred to as League One for short or Sky Bet League One for sponsorship reasons) is the second-highest division of the English Football League and the third tier overall in the entire English football l ...
and League Two.) The Scottish edition of ''The Game'' also includes results and analysis from
Scottish Premier League The Scottish Premier League (SPL) was the top level league competition for professional football clubs in Scotland. The league was founded in 1998, when it broke away from the Scottish Football League (SFL). It was abolished in 2013, when the ...
games. During the
FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the ' (FIFA), the sport's global governing body. The championship has ...
and
UEFA The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA; ; french: Union Européenne de Football Association; german: Vereinigung Europäischer Fußballverbände) is the administrative body for football, futsal and beach soccer in Europe. It is one ...

UEFA
Euros there is a daily supplement of The Game.


Saturday supplements

The Saturday edition of ''The Times'' contains a variety of supplements. These supplements were relaunched in January 2009 as: ''Sport'', ''Saturday Review'' (arts, books, TV listings and ideas), ''Weekend'' (including travel and lifestyle features), ''Playlist'' (an entertainment listings guide) and ''The Times Magazine'' (columns on various topics).


''The Times Magazine''

''The Times Magazine'' features columns touching on various subjects such as celebrities, fashion and beauty, food and drink, homes and gardens or simply writers' anecdotes. Notable contributors include
Giles Coren Giles Robin Patrick Corenhttps://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/giles-coren-reviews-the-shed-and-apero-london-g7x5h0cjbks (born 29 July 1969) is a British journalist, food writer, and television and radio presenter. He has been a restaurant critic fo ...
, Food and Drink Writer of the Year in 2005 and
Nadiya Hussain Nadiya Jamir Hussain (''née'' Begum; born 25 December 1984) is a British TV chef, author and television presenter. She rose to fame after winning the sixth series of BBC's ''The Great British Bake Off'' in 2015. Since winning, she has signed ...
, winner of ''The Great British Bake Off''.


Online presence

''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' have had an online presence since March 1999, originally at ''the-times.co.uk'' and ''sunday-times.co.uk'', and later at ''timesonline.co.uk''. There are now two websites: ''thetimes.co.uk'' is aimed at daily readers, and the ''thesundaytimes.co.uk'' site at providing weekly magazine-like content. There are also iPad and Android editions of both newspapers. Since July 2010,
News UK News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of '' ...
has required readers who do not subscribe to the print edition to pay £2 per week to read ''The Times'' and ''The Sunday Times'' online. Visits to the websites have decreased by 87% since the paywall was introduced, from 21 million unique users per month to 2.7 million. In April 2009, the ''timesonline'' site had a readership of 750,000 readers per day. In October 2011, there were around 111,000 subscribers to ''The Times'' digital products.


Ownership

''The Times'' has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785: * 1785 to 1803 – John Walter * 1803 to 1847 – John Walter (editor, born 1776), John Walter, 2nd * 1847 to 1894 – John Walter (third), John Walter, 3rd * 1894 to 1908 –
Arthur Fraser Walter Arthur Fraser Walter (12 September 1846 – 10 August 1910) was an English newspaper proprietor and the second son of John Walter (third). Walter born on 12 September 1846. He studied at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford. He entered Linco ...
* 1908 to 1922 – Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, Lord Northcliffe * 1922 to 1966 –
Astor family The Astor family achieved prominence in business, society, and politics in the United States and the United Kingdom during the 19th and 20th centuries. With ancestral roots in the Italian Alps, the Astors settled in Germany, first appearing in Nor ...
* 1966 to 1981 – Roy Thomson * 1981 to present –
News UK News Corp UK & Ireland Limited (trading as News UK, formerly News International and NI Group), is a British newspaper publisher, and a wholly owned subsidiary of the American mass media conglomerate News Corp. It is the current publisher of '' ...
(formerly News International, a wholly owned subsidiary of
News Corp The current incarnation of News Corporation, stylized as News Corp, is an American mass media and publishing company operating across digital real estate information, news media, book publishing, and cable television. It was formed in 2013 as ...
, run by
Rupert Murdoch Keith Rupert Murdoch ( ; born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul. Through his company News Corp, he is the owner of hundreds of local, national, and international publishing outlets around the world, including in the U ...

Rupert Murdoch
) File:John walter.jpg, John Walter, the founder of ''The Times'' File:John Walter II.jpg, John Walter (editor, born 1776), John Walter, 2nd File:John Walter 1818–1894.jpg, John Walter (third), John Walter, 3rd File:Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe - Project Gutenberg eText 15305.jpg, Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, Lord Northcliffe File:Roy Thomson Cropped.jpg, Roy Thomson File:Rupert Murdoch - Flickr - Eva Rinaldi Celebrity and Live Music Photographer.jpg,
Rupert Murdoch Keith Rupert Murdoch ( ; born 11 March 1931) is an Australian-born American media mogul. Through his company News Corp, he is the owner of hundreds of local, national, and international publishing outlets around the world, including in the U ...

Rupert Murdoch


Readership

At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, ''The Times'' had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival ''The Daily Telegraph''. By November 2005, ''The Times'' sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "Quality press, quality" newspaper (after ''The Daily Telegraph'', which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales. By March 2014, average daily circulation of ''The Times'' had fallen to 394,448 copies, compared to ''The Daily Telegraphs 523,048, with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast ''The_Sun_(United_Kingdom), The Sun'', the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014, and the ''Daily Mail'', the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period. ''The Sunday Times'' has a significantly higher circulation than ''The Times'', and sometimes outsells ''The Sunday Telegraph''. In January 2019, ''The Times'' had a circulation of 417,298 and ''The Sunday Times'' 712,291. In a 2009 national readership survey, ''The Times'' was found to have the highest number of NRS social grade, ABC1 25–44 readers and the largest numbers of readers in London of any of the "quality" papers.


Typeface

''The Times'' is the originator of the widely used Times New Roman typeface, originally developed by Stanley Morison of ''The Times'' in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006, ''The Times'' began printing headlines in a new font, Times New Roman#Other typefaces used by The Times, Times Modern. ''The Times'' was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact (newspaper), compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. ''The Sunday Times'' remains a broadsheet. In 1908, ''The Times'' started using the ''Monotype Modern'' typeface. ''The Times'' commissioned the serif typeface ''Times New Roman'', created by Victor Lardent at the English branch of Monotype Corporation, Monotype, in 1931. It was commissioned after Stanley Morison had written an article criticizing ''The Times'' for being badly printed and typographically antiquated. The font was supervised by Morison and drawn by Victor Lardent, an artist from the advertising department of ''The Times''. Morison used an older font named Plantin (typeface), Plantin as the basis for his design, but made revisions for legibility and economy of space. ''Times New Roman'' made its debut in the issue of 3 October 1932. After one year, the design was released for commercial sale. ''The Times'' stayed with ''Times New Roman'' for 40 years, but new production techniques and the format change from broadsheet to tabloid (newspaper format), tabloid in 2004 have caused the newspaper to switch font five times since 1972. However, all the new fonts have been variants of the original New Roman font: * ''Times Europa'' was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for ''The Times'', as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces. * ''Times Roman'' replaced ''Times Europa'' on 30 August 1982. * ''Times Millennium'' was made in 1991, drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International. * ''Times Classic'' first appeared in 2001. Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor ''Times Millennium''. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004. * ''Times Modern'' was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of ''Times Classic''. Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The font was published by Elsner + Flake as ''EF Times Modern''; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.


Political allegiance

Historically, the paper was not overtly pro-Tory or Whigs (British political party), Whig, but has been a long time bastion of the The Establishment#Britain, English Establishment and empire. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of ''The Times'' in shaping the views of events of London's elite:
For much more than a century ''The Times'' has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street.
''The Times'' adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 United Kingdom general election, 1945 general election; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party. However, the newspaper reverted to the Tories for the 1950 United Kingdom general election, next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party (UK), Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con-Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Euroscepticism, Eurosceptic) candidates. For the 2001 United Kingdom general election, 2001 general election, ''The Times'' declared its support for Tony Blair's Labour government, which was re-elected by a landslide (although not as large as in 1997). It supported Labour again in 2005 United Kingdom general election, 2005, when Labour achieved a third successive win, though with a reduced majority. In 2004, according to Ipsos MORI, MORI, the voting intentions of its readership were 40% for the Conservative Party, 29% for the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats, and 26% for Labour. For the 2010 United Kingdom general election, 2010 general election, the newspaper declared its support for the Conservatives once again; the election ended in the Tories taking the most votes and seats but having to form a coalition with the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats in order to form a government as they had failed to gain an overall majority. This makes it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support in British history. Some columnists in ''The Times'' are connected to the Conservative Party such as Daniel Finkelstein, Tim Montgomerie, Matthew Parris, and Matt Ridley, but there are also columnists connected to the Labour Party such as David Aaronovitch, Philip Collins (journalist), Philip Collins, and Jenni Russell. ''The Times'' occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In November 2012, it endorsed a second term for Democratic Party (United States), Democrat Barack Obama although it also expressed reservations about his foreign policy. During the 2019 Conservative Party leadership election, 2019 Conservative leadership election, ''The Times'' endorsed Boris Johnson, and subsequently endorsed the Conservative Party in 2019 United Kingdom general election, the general election of that year.


Libel cases against ''The Times''


Imam Abdullah Patel

In 2019, ''The Times'' published an article about Imam Abdullah Patel which wrongly claimed Patel had blamed Israel for the 2003 murder of a British police officer by a terror suspect in Manchester. The story also wrongly claimed that Patel ran a primary school that had been criticised by Ofsted for segregating parents at events, which Ofsted said was contrary to "British democratic principles". ''The Times'' settled Patel's defamation claim by issuing an apology and offering to pay damages and legal costs. Patel's solicitor, Zillur Rahman, said the case "highlights the shocking level of journalism to which the Muslim community are often subject".


Sultan Choudhury

In 2019, ''The Times'' published an article titled "Female Circumcision is like clipping a nail, claimed speaker". The article featured a photo of Sultan Choudhury beside the headline, leading some readers to incorrectly infer that Choudhury had made the comment. Choudhury lodged a complaint with the Independent Press Standards Organisation and sued ''The Times'' for libel. In 2020, ''The Times'' issued an apology, amended its article and agreed to pay Choudhury damages and legal costs. Choudhury's solicitor, Nishtar Saleem, said "This is another example of irresponsible journalism. Publishing sensational excerpts on a ‘free site’ whilst concealing the full article behind a paywall is a dangerous game".


Cage

In December 2020, Cage and Moazzam Begg received damages of £30,000 plus costs in a libel case they had brought against ''The Times'' newspaper. In June 2020, a report in ''The Times'' had suggested that Cage and Begg were supporting a man who had been arrested in relation to a knife attack in Reading in which three men were murdered. ''The Times'' report also suggested that Cage and Begg were excusing the actions of the accused man by mentioning mistakes made by the police and others. In addition to paying damages, ''The Times'' printed an apology. Cage stated that the damages amount would be used to "expose state-sponsored Islamophobia and those complicit with it in the press. ... The Murdoch press empire has actively supported xenophobic elements and undermined principles of open society and accountability. ... We will continue to shine a light on war criminals and torture apologists and press barons who fan the flames of hate".


Sponsorships

''The Times'', along with the British Film Institute, sponsors "The Times" ''bfi'' London Film Festival. It also sponsors the Cheltenham Literature Festival and the Asia House Festival of Asian Literature at Asia House, London.


Editors


Related publications

An Republic of Ireland, Irish digital newspaper, digital edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 a
TheTimes.ie
A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland. The Irish edition was set to close in June 2019 with the loss of 20 jobs. ''The Times Literary Supplement'' (''TLS'') first appeared in 1902 as a supplement to ''The Times'', becoming a separately paid-for weekly literature and society magazine in 1914. The ''TLS'' is owned and published by News International and co-operates closely with ''The Times'', with its online version hosted on ''The Times'' website, and its editorial offices based in Times House, Pennington Street, London. Between 1951 and 1966, ''The Times'' published a separately paid-for quarterly science review, ''The Times Science Review''. ''The Times'' started a new, free, monthly science magazine, ''Eureka'', in October 2009. The magazine closed in October 2012. Times Atlases have been produced since 1895. They are currently produced by the Collins Bartholomew imprint of HarperCollins Publishers. The flagship product is ''Times Atlas of the World, The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World''. In 1971, ''The Times'' began publishing the ''Times Higher Education Supplement'' (now known as the ''Times Higher Education'') which focuses its coverage on tertiary education.


In popular culture

In the dystopian future world of George Orwell's ''Nineteen Eighty-Four'', ''The Times'' has been transformed into an organ of the totalitarian ruling party. The book's lead character Winston Smith is employed in the task of rewriting past issues of the newspaper for the Ministry of truth, Ministry of Truth. Rex Stout's fictional detective Nero Wolfe is described as fond of solving the London ''Times'' crossword puzzle at his New York home, in preference to those of American papers. In the James Bond, James Bond series by Ian Fleming, James Bond (character), James Bond reads ''The Times''. As described by Fleming in ''From Russia, with Love (novel), From Russia, with Love'': ''The Times'' was "the only paper that Bond ever read."


See also

* History of journalism in the United Kingdom#The Times * List of the oldest newspapers


References


Further reading

* Bingham, Adrian. "The Times Digital Archive, 1785–2006 (Gale Cengage)," ''English Historical Review'' (2013) 128#533 pp. 1037–1040. * - includes sections of black-and-white photographic plates, plus a few charts and diagrams in text pages. * Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. ''The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers'' (1980) pp. 320–29. * Morison, Stanley. ''The History of the Times: Volume 1: The Thunderer" in the Making 1785–1841. Volume 2: The Tradition Established 1841–1884. Volume 3: The Twentieth Century Test 1884–1912. Volume 4 [published in two parts]:The 150th Anniversary and Beyond 1912–1948.'' (1952) * Riggs, Bruce Timothy
"Geoffrey Dawson, editor of "The Times" (London), and his contribution to the appeasement movement" (PhD dissertation, U of North Texas, 1993) online
bibliography pp 229–33.


External links

*
''The Sunday Times'' site
* * (archives) * * Anthony Trollope's satir
on the mid-nineteenth century ''Times''
* Journalism Now: ''The Times'
Winchester University Journalism History project on ''The Times'' in the 19th century


including
History and Heritage section
detailing landmark ''Times'' atlases
Archive from 1785 to 2008
– full text and original layout, searchable (not free of charge, registration required) *
''The Times'' editor Robert Thomson lecture online: From the editorial desk of ''The Times'', RMIT School of Applied Communication Public Lecture series
{{DEFAULTSORT:Times, The The Times, National newspapers published in the United Kingdom Newspapers published in London News Corporation subsidiaries Publications established in 1785 Websites utilizing paywalls 1785 establishments in England 1785 establishments in Great Britain Daily newspapers published in the United Kingdom