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Celebrity is a condition of
fame Fame is the quality of being well-known and in the public eye. Celebrities are famous by definition. Fame may also refer to: Places in the United States * Fame, Mississippi * Fame, West Virginia Books * ''Fame: an art project'', a 2013 book and s ...
and broad public recognition of an individual or group, or occasionally a character or animal, as a result of the attention given to them by
mass media Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets. Broadcast media transmit information el ...
. A person may attain a celebrity status from having great
wealth Wealth is the abundance of valuable financial assets or physical possessions which can be converted into a form that can be used for transactions. This includes the core meaning as held in the originating old English word ''weal'', which is fro ...
, their participation in sports or the entertainment industry, their position as a political figure, or even from their connection to another celebrity. 'Celebrity' usually implies a favorable public image, as opposed to the neutrals 'famous' or 'notable', or the negatives 'infamous' and 'notorious'.


History

In his 2020 book ''Dead Famous: an unexpected history of celebrity'', British historian
Greg JennerGreg Jenner (born 1982) is a British author and public historian with a particular interest in communicating history through pop culture and humour. His appearances on British television and radio discussing history has led to him being termed a ‘c ...
uses the definition: Although his book is subtitled "from Bronze Age to Silver Screen", and despite the fact that "Until very recently, sociologists argued that ''celebrity'' was invented just over 100 years ago, in the flickering glimmer of early Hollywood" and the suggestion that some medieval saints might qualify, Jenner asserts that the earliest celebrities lived in the early 1700s, his first example being
Henry Sacheverell Henry Sacheverell (; 8 February 1674 – 5 June 1724) was an English high church Anglican clergyman who achieved nationwide fame in 1709 after preaching an incendiary 5 November sermon. He was subsequently impeached by the House of Commons and tho ...
.
Athlete An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the term in several sports, such as golf or auto racing, becomes a controversial issue. At ...
s in
Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 12th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ( AD 600). This era was immediately followed by the Early Middle ...
were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, and received free food and gifts from those seeking
celebrity endorsement Celebrity branding or celebrity endorsement is a form of advertising campaign or marketing strategy which uses a celebrity's fame or social status to promote a product, brand or service, or to raise awareness about an issue. Marketers use celebrit ...
.
Ancient Rome In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom (753 BC–509 BC), Rom ...
similarly lauded actors and notorious gladiators, and
Julius Caesar Gaius Julius Caesar (; 12 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general and statesman who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Po ...

Julius Caesar
appeared on a coin in his own lifetime (a departure from the usual depiction of battles and divine lineage). In the early 12th century,
Thomas Becket Thomas Becket (), also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London and later Thomas à Becket (21 December 1119 or 1120 – 29 December 1170), was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as ...
became famous following his murder. He was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him and scenes from his life became widespread in just a few years. In a pattern often repeated, what started as an explosion of popularity (often referred to with the suffix 'mania') turned into long-lasting fame: pilgrimages to Canterbury Cathedral where he was killed became instantly fashionable and the fascination with his life and death have inspired plays and films. The cult of personality (particularly in the west) can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation. The establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame: for example, London and Paris in the 18th and 19th centuries. Newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity. The
movie industry#REDIRECT Film industry {{R from other capitalisation ...
spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th century and now, the familiar concept of the instantly recognizable faces of its superstars. Yet, celebrity was not always tied to actors in films, especially when cinema was starting as a medium. As Paul McDonald states in ''The Star System: Hollywood's Production of Popular Identities'', "in the first decade of the twentieth century, American film production companies withheld the names of film performers, despite requests from audiences, fearing that public recognition would drive performers to demand higher salaries." Public fascination went well beyond the on-screen exploits of
movie star A movie star (also known as a film star or cinema star) is an actor or actress who is famous for their starring, or leading, roles in movies. The term is used for performers who are marketable stars and whose names are used to promote movies, for ...
s and their private lives became headline news: for example, in Hollywood the marriages of
Elizabeth Taylor Dame Elizabeth Rosemond Taylor (February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011) was an English-American actress, businesswoman, and humanitarian. She began her career as a child actress in the early 1940s and was one of the most popular stars of classical ...
and in
Bollywood Hindi cinema, often known as Bollywood and formerly as ''Bombay cinema'', is the Indian Hindi-language film industry based in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The term is a portmanteau of "Bombay" and "Hollywood". The industry is related to Cinema ...

Bollywood
the affairs of
Raj Kapoor Raj Kapoor, also known as Ranbir Raj Kapoor, (born Shrishti Nath Kapoor; 14 December 1924 – 2 June 1988) was an Indian film actor, film producer and film director in the Indian cinema industry. He is widely considered as the greatest sho ...
in the 1950s. The second half of the century saw
television Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a televisi ...

television
and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star and the pop group, epitomised by
Elvis Presley Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977), also known simply as Elvis, was an American singer, musician and actor. He is regarded as one of the most significant cultural icons of the 20th century and is often referred to ...

Elvis Presley
and
the Beatles The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The group, whose best-known line-up comprised John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr, are regarded as the most influential band of all time. They were int ...
, respectively.
John Lennon John Winston Ono Lennon (born John Winston Lennon; 9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, musician and peace activist who achieved worldwide fame as the founder, co-lead vocalist, and rhythm guitarist of the Beatl ...
's highly controversial 1966 quote: "We're more popular than
Jesus Jesus; he, יֵשׁוּעַ, ''Yēšū́aʿ''; ar, عيسى, ʿĪsā ( 4 BC AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianit ...
now," which he later insisted was not a boast, and that he was not in any way comparing himself with Christ, gives an insight into both the adulation and notoriety that fame can bring. Unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not primarily actors; for example, presenters, talk show hosts, and newsreaders. However, most of these are only famous within the regions reached by their particular broadcaster, and only a few such as
Oprah Winfrey Oprah Gail Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American talk show host, television producer, actress, author, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show, ''The Oprah Winfrey Show'', broadcast from Chicago, ...

Oprah Winfrey
,
Jerry Springer Gerald Norman Springer (born February 13, 1944) is an English-born American broadcaster, journalist, actor, producer, and former lawyer and politician. He hosted the tabloid talk show ''The Jerry Springer Show'' between September 30, 1991 and ...
, or
David Frost Sir David Paradine Frost (7 April 1939 – 31 August 2013) was a British television host, journalist, comedian and writer. He rose to prominence during the satire boom in the United Kingdom when he was chosen to host the satirical programme ' ...
could be said to have broken through into wider stardom. In the '60s and early '70s, the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing. In most cases, the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer, but the celebrity would then be available for a book tour and appearances on talk shows.


Becoming a celebrity

People may become celebrities in a wide range of ways; from their professions, following appearances in the media, or by complete accident. The term "instant celebrity" describes someone who becomes a celebrity in a very short time. Someone who achieves a small amount of transient fame (through, say, hype or mass media) may become labeled a "B-grade celebrity". Often, the generalization extends to someone who falls short of mainstream or persistent fame but who seeks to extend or exploit it.


Success

There are no guarantees of success for an individual to become a celebrity. Though celebrities come from many different working fields, most celebrities are typically associated with the fields of sports and entertainment, or a person may be a public figure who is commonly recognizable in mass media with commercial and critical acclaim. Though glamour and wealth may certainly play a role for only famous celebrities, most people in the sports and entertainments spheres, be it music, film, television, radio, modelling, comedy, literature etc. live in obscurity and only a small percentage achieve fame and fortune. Outside of the sports and entertainment sphere, the top inventors, professionals such as doctors, lawyers, and scientists, etc. are unlikely to become celebrities even if they are enormously successful in their field due to society's disinterest in science,
invention An invention is a unique or novel device, method, composition or process. The invention process is a process within an overall engineering and product development process. It may be an improvement upon a machine or product or a new process for ...
,
medicine Medicine is the art, science, and practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis, prevention, treatment or palliation of their injury or disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain ...
, and courtroom law which is not fictional. American microbiologist
Maurice Hilleman Maurice Ralph Hilleman (August 30, 1919 – April 11, 2005) was a leading American microbiologist who specialized in vaccinology and developed over 40 vaccines, an unparalleled record of productivity. According to one estimate, his vaccines s ...
is credited with saving more lives than any other medical
scientist A scientist is a person who conducts scientific research to advance knowledge in an area of interest. In classical antiquity, there was no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, philosophers engaged in the philosophical study of nat ...
of the 20th century. After Hilleman's death
Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (; born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney. He is noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism, and government reform causes. The son of Lebanese immigrants to t ...
wrote, "Yet almost no one knew about him, saw him on television, or read about him in newspapers or magazines. His anonymity, in comparison with Madonna, Michael Jackson,
Jose Canseco José Canseco Capas Jr. (born July 2, 1964) is a Cuban-American former Major League Baseball (MLB) outfielder and designated hitter. During his time with the Oakland Athletics, he established himself as one of the premier power hitters in the g ...
, or an assortment of grade B actors, tells something about our society's and media's concepts of celebrity; much less of the heroic."


Difficulty

Many
athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the term in several sports, such as golf or auto racing, becomes a controversial issue. At ...
who are unable to turn professional take a second job or even sometimes abandon their athletic aspirations in order to make ends meet. A small percentage of entertainers and athletes can make a decent living but a vast majority will spend their careers toiling from hard work, determination, rejection, and frequent unemployment. For minor league to amateur athletes, earnings are usually on the lower end of the pay-scale. Many of them take second jobs on the side or even venture into other occupations within the field of sports such as coaching,
general management A general manager (GM) is an executive who has overall responsibility for managing both the revenue and cost elements of a company's income statement, known as profit & loss (P&L) responsibility. A general manager usually oversees most or all of ...
,
referee A referee (right) issues a yellow card to a player during a game of association football. A referee is an official, in a variety of sports and competition, responsible for enforcing the rules of the sport, including sportsmanship decisions such ...
ing, or recruiting and scouting up-and-coming athletes.


Becoming a celebrity in the U.S.

The
Screen Actors Guild The Screen Actors Guild (SAG) was an American labor union which represented over 100,000 film and television principal and background performers worldwide. On March 30, 2012, the union leadership announced that the SAG membership voted to merge ...
, a union representing actors and actresses throughout
Hollywood Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the U.S. film industry and the people associated with it. Many of its studios such as Disney, Paramount Pictures, ...
reports that the average television and film actor earns less than US$50,000 annually; the median hourly wage for actors was $18.80 in May 2015. Actors sometimes alternate between theater, television, and film or even branch into other occupations within the
entertainment industry Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience or gives pleasure and delight. It can be an idea or a task, but is more likely to be one of the activities or events that have developed over thousands o ...
such as becoming a singer, comedian, producer, or a television host in order to be monetarily diversified, as doing one gig pays comparatively very little. For instance,
David Letterman David Michael Letterman (born April 12, 1947) is an American television host, comedian, writer, and producer. He hosted late night television talk shows for 33 years, beginning with the February 1, 1982, debut of ''Late Night with David Letterman ...

David Letterman
is well known for branching into
late night television Late night television is one of the dayparts in television broadcast programming. It follows prime time and precedes the overnight television show graveyard slot. The slot generally runs from about 11:30 PM to 2:00 AM local time, with variations a ...
as a
talk show host Below is a list of talk show hosts, sorted alphabetically by their surnames. __NOTOC__ A B C D E F G H I Don Imus Imus In The Morning J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z See also * List of game show ho ...
while honing his skills as a stand-up comedian,
Barbra Streisand Barbara Joan "Barbra" Streisand (; born April 24, 1942) is an American singer, actress, and filmmaker. With a career spanning seven decades, she has achieved success in multiple fields of entertainment and is one of the few entertainers who h ...

Barbra Streisand
ventured into acting while operating as a singer, and
Clint Eastwood Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, film director, composer, and producer. After achieving success in the Western TV series ''Rawhide'', he rose to international fame with his role as the "Man with No Name" in Italia ...
achieved even greater fame in Hollywood as a film director and producer than for his acting credentials. According to American entertainment magnate
Master P Percy Robert Miller (born April 29, 1967), also known by his stage name Master P, is an American rapper, actor, record producer, entrepreneur, and former basketball player. He is the founder of the record label No Limit Records, which was relaunch ...
, entertainers and professional athletes make up less than 1% of all millionaires in the entire world. Less than 1% of all runway models are known to make more than US$1000 for every fashion showcase. According to the US
Bureau of Labor Statistics The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor. It is the principal fact-finding agency for the U.S. government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics and serves as a principal agency of the ...
, the median wage for commercial and print models was only $11.22 per hour in 2006 and was also listed one of the top ten worst jobs in the United States.


Wealth


''Forbes'' Celebrity 100

''
Forbes ''Forbes'' () is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family. Published eight times a year, it features original articles on finance, industry, investing, and marketing topics. ''Forbes'' al ...
'' Magazine releases an annual ''Forbes'' Celebrity 100 list of the highest-paid celebrities in the world. The total earnings for all top celebrity 100 earners totaled $4.5 billion in 2010 alone. For instance, Forbes ranked
media mogul Media may refer to: Physical means Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications deliver ...
and
talk show host Below is a list of talk show hosts, sorted alphabetically by their surnames. __NOTOC__ A B C D E F G H I Don Imus Imus In The Morning J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z See also * List of game show ho ...
,
Oprah Winfrey Oprah Gail Winfrey (born Orpah Gail Winfrey; January 29, 1954) is an American talk show host, television producer, actress, author, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show, ''The Oprah Winfrey Show'', broadcast from Chicago, ...

Oprah Winfrey
as the top earner "Forbes magazine’s annual ranking of the most powerful celebrities", with earnings of $290 million in the past year. Forbes cites that
Lady Gaga Stefani Joanne Angelina Germanotta ( ) (born March 28, 1986), known professionally as Lady Gaga, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. She is known for her image reinventions and musical versatility. Gaga began performing as a teena ...
reportedly earned over $90 million in 2010. In 2011, golfer
Tiger Woods Eldrick Tont "Tiger" Woods (born December 30, 1975) is an American professional golfer. He is tied for first in PGA Tour wins, ranks second in men's major championships, and holds numerous golf records. Woods is widely regarded as one of the ...

Tiger Woods
was one of highest-earning celebrity athletes, with an income of $74 million and is consistently ranked one of the highest-paid
athlete An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the term in several sports, such as golf or auto racing, becomes a controversial issue. At ...
s in the world. In 2013, Madonna was ranked as the fifth most powerful and the highest-earning celebrity of the year with earnings of $125 million. She has consistently been among the most powerful and highest-earning celebrities in the world, occupying the third place in Forbes Celebrity 100 2009 with $110 million of earnings, and getting the tenth place in the 2011 edition of the list with annual earnings equal to $58 million.
Beyoncé Beyoncé Giselle Knowles-Carter ( ; ; born September 4, 1981) is an American singer and songwriter. Born and raised in Houston, Texas, Beyoncé performed in various singing and dancing competitions as a child. She rose to fame in the late 199 ...
has also appeared in the top ten in 2008, 2009, 2010, 2013, 2017, and topped the list in 2014 with earnings of $115 million.


Entrepreneurship and endorsements

Celebrity endorsements have proven very successful around the world where, due to increasing
consumerism Consumerism is a social and economic order that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts. With the industrial revolution, but particularly in the 20th century, mass production led to overproduction—the supply ...
, an individual is often considered to own a status symbol when they purchase a celebrity-endorsed product. Although it has become commonplace for celebrities to place their name with endorsements onto products just for quick money, some celebrities have gone beyond merely using their names and have put their entrepreneurial spirit to work by becoming entrepreneurs by attaching themselves in the business aspects of entertainment and building their own business brand beyond their traditional salaried activities. Along with investing their salaried wages into growing business endeavors, several celebrities have become innovative business leaders in their respective industries, gaining the admiration of their peers and contributing to the country's economy. Numerous celebrities have ventured into becoming business moguls and established themselves as entrepreneurs, idolizing many well known American business leaders such as
Bill Gates William Henry Gates III (born October 28, 1955) is an American business magnate, software developer, investor, author, landowner and philanthropist. He is a co-founder of Microsoft Corporation. During his career at Microsoft, Gates held the ...
and
Warren Buffett Warren Edward Buffett ( ; born August 30, 1930) is an American investor, business tycoon, philanthropist, and the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway. He is considered one of the most successful investors in the world and has a net worth of ...
. For instance, basketball legend
Michael Jordan Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963), also known by his initials MJ, is an American businessman and former professional basketball player. He is the principal owner and chairman of the Charlotte Hornets of the National Basketball As ...

Michael Jordan
became an active entrepreneur involved with many sports-related ventures including investing a minority stake in the
Charlotte Bobcats Charlotte () is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont region, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the population was 885,708, making it the 15th-mos ...
,
Paul Newman Paul Leonard Newman (January 26, 1925 – September 26, 2008) was an American actor, film director, race car driver, and entrepreneur. He was the recipient of numerous awards, including an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, three Golden Globe Awar ...
started his own
salad dressing A salad is a dish consisting of mixed pieces of food, sometimes with at least one raw ingredient. It is often dressed, and is typically served at room temperature or chilled, though some can be served warm. Garden salads use a base of leafy gr ...
business after leaving behind a distinguished acting career, and rap musician Birdman started his own
record label#REDIRECT Record label#REDIRECT Record label {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, clothing line, and an
oil business The petroleum industry, also known as the oil industry or the oil patch, includes the global processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transporting (often by oil tankers and pipelines), and marketing of petroleum products. The largest volum ...

oil business
while maintaining a career as a rap artist. Brazilian football legend and World Cup winner
Ronaldo Ronaldo is a Portuguese name equivalent to the Scottish Ronald. It became a very common name in all Portuguese speaking countries, being also prevalent in Italy and Spanish speaking countries. People Notable people known as Ronaldo include: * Ron ...
became the majority owner of La Liga club
Real Valladolid Real Valladolid Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., or simply Real Valladolid () or Valladolid, is a Spanish professional football club based in Valladolid (Castile and León) from where the nickname ''Pucela'' – also the nickname of the city – is derived ...
in 2018. Other celebrities such as
Tyler Perry Tyler Perry (born Emmitt Perry Jr.; September 13, 1969) is an American actor, director, producer, and screenwriter. In 2011, ''Forbes'' listed him as the highest-paid man in entertainment, earning US$130 million between May 2010 and May 20 ...

Tyler Perry
,
George Lucas George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American film director, producer, screenwriter, and entrepreneur. Lucas is best known for creating the ''Star Wars'' and ''Indiana Jones'' franchises and founding Lucasfilm, LucasArts, and Indu ...

George Lucas
, and Steven Spielberg have become successful entrepreneurs through starting their own film production companies and running their own
movie studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production c ...
s beyond their traditional activities of screenwriting, directing, animating, producing, and acting. Various examples of celebrity turned entrepreneurs included in the table below are: Tabloid magazines and talk TV shows bestow a great deal of attention to celebrities. To stay in the public eye and build wealth in addition to their salaried labor, numerous celebrities have participating and branching into various business ventures and endorsements. Many celebrities have participated in many different endorsement opportunities that include: animation, publishing, fashion designing, cosmetics,
consumer electronics Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic (analog or digital) equipment intended for everyday use, typically in private homes. Consumer electronics include devices used for entertainment, communications and recreation. Usually ref ...
, household items and appliances, cigarettes,
soft drink A soft drink (see § Terminology for other names) is a drink that usually contains carbonated water (although some vitamin waters and lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural and/or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a ...
s and alcoholic beverages, hair care, hairdressing,
jewelry design Rendering of a jewellery design before going to the jeweller's bench Jewellery design is the art or profession of designing and creating jewellery. This is one of civilization's earliest forms of decoration, dating back at least 7,000 years to th ...
, fast food, credit cards, video games, writing, and toys. In addition to various endorsements, some celebrities have been involved with some business and investment-related ventures also include: and toddler related items, sports team ownership, fashion retailing, establishments such as restaurants, cafes, hotels, and casinos, movie theaters, advertising and event planning, management-related ventures such as
sports managementSport management is the field of business dealing with sports and recreation. Some examples of sport managers include the front office system in professional sports, college sports managers, recreational sport managers, sports marketing, event manage ...
, financial services, model management, and
talent management Talent management (TM) refers to the anticipation of required human capital for an organization and the planning to meet those needs. The field has been growing in significance and gaining interest among practitioners as well as in the scholarly ...

talent management
,
record label#REDIRECT Record label#REDIRECT Record label {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
s,
film production Filmmaking (or, in any context, film production) is the process by which a film is made. Filmmaking involves a number of complex and discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound ...
,
television production upright=1.35, A live television show set and cameras A television show – or simply TV show – is any content produced for viewing on a television set which can be broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, - excluding breaking news, advertise ...
, publishing such as
book A book is a medium for recording information in the form of writing or images, typically composed of many pages (made of papyrus, parchment, vellum, or paper) bound together and protected by a cover. The technical term for this physical arrange ...
and
music publishing Music publishing is the publishing of music. Music publishers originally published sheet music. When copyright became legally protected, music publishers started to play a role in the management of the intellectual property of composers. Music prin ...
, massage therapy,
salon Salon may refer to: * Beauty salon, a venue for cosmetic treatments * Drawing room, an architectural space in a home * Salon (gathering), a meeting for learning or enjoyment Art exhibitions * French art salons and academies * Salon (Paris), a p ...
s, health and fitness, and real estate. Although some celebrities have achieved additional financial success from various business ventures, the vast majority of celebrities are not successful businesspeople and still rely on salaried labored wages to earn a living. Most businesses and investments are well known to have a 90 to 95 percent failure rate within the first five years of operation. Not all celebrities eventually succeed with their businesses and other related side ventures. Some celebrities either went broke or filed for bankruptcy as a result of dabbling with such side businesses or endorsements. Though some might question such validity since celebrities themselves are already well known, have mass appeal, and are well exposed to the general public. The average entrepreneur who is not well known and reputable to the general public does not the same marketing flexibility and status-quo as most celebrities allow and have. Therefore, compared to the average person who starts a business, celebrities already have all the cards and odds stacked in their favor. This means they can have an unfair advantage to expose their business ventures and endorsements and can easily capture a more significant amount of market share than the average entrepreneur.


As a mass media phenomenon

Celebrities often have fame comparable to
royalty Royalty may refer to: * Kingship * Royal family, the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family * Royalty payment for use of such things as intellectual property, music, or natural resources Entertainment ...
. As a result, there is a strong public curiosity about their private affairs. The release of
Kim Kardashian Kimberly Noel Kardashian West (born October 21, 1980) is an American media personality, socialite, model, businesswoman, producer, and actress. Kardashian first gained media attention as a friend and stylist of Paris Hilton but received wider ...
's
sex tape Amateur pornography is a category of pornography that features models, actors or non-professionals performing without pay, or actors for whom this material is not their only paid modeling work. ''Reality pornography'' is made porn which seeks t ...
with rapper
Ray J William Ray Norwood Jr. (born January 17, 1981), known professionally as Ray J, is an American singer, songwriter, rapper, television personality, actor, and entrepreneur. Born in McComb, Mississippi and raised in Carson, California, he is the ...
in 2003 brought her to a new level of fame, leading to magazine covers, book deals, and
reality TV Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations, often starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television first emerged as a distinct genre in the ...
series. Celebrities may be resented for their accolades, and the public may have a love/hate relationship with celebrities. Due to the high visibility of celebrities' private lives, their successes and shortcomings are often made very public. Celebrities are alternately portrayed as glowing examples of perfection, when they garner awards, or as decadent or immoral if they become associated with a scandal. When seen in a positive light, celebrities are frequently portrayed as possessing skills and abilities beyond average people; for example, celebrity actors are routinely celebrated for acquiring new skills necessary for filming a role within a very brief time, and to a level that amazes the professionals who train them. Similarly, some celebrities with very little formal education can sometimes be portrayed as experts on complicated issues. Some celebrities have been very vocal about their political views. For example,
Matt Damon Matthew Paige Damon (; born October 8, 1970) is an American actor, producer, and screenwriter. Ranked among ''Forbes'' most bankable stars, the films in which he has appeared have collectively earned over $3.12 billion at the North American box ...
expressed his displeasure with 2008 US vice presidential nominee
Sarah Palin Sarah Louise Palin (; née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the ninth governor of Alaska from 2006 until her resignation in 2009. As the Republican ...
, as well as with the 2011 United States debt-ceiling crisis.


Famous for being famous

Famous for being famous, in
popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture#REDIRECT Popular culture {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
terminology, refers to someone who attains celebrity status for no particular identifiable reason, or who achieves fame through association with a celebrity. The term is a
pejorative A pejorative or slur is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative or a disrespectful connotation, a low opinion, or a lack of respect toward someone or something. It is also used to express criticism, hostility, or disregard. Sometimes, a t ...
, suggesting that the individual has no particular talents or abilities. Even when their fame arises from a particular talent or action on their part, the term will sometimes still apply if their fame is perceived as disproportionate to what they earned through their own talent or work. The coinages " famesque" and "
celebutante Famous for being famous is a pejorative term for someone who attains celebrity status for no clearly identifiable reason (as opposed to fame based on achievement, skill, or talent) and appears to generate his or her own fame, or someone who achieves ...
" are of similar pejorative gist.


Internet celebrities

Also known as being ''
internet famous ''Internet Famous'' is a 2016 mockumentary comedy film satirizing the Internet celebrity phenomenon. It was written and directed by Michael Gallagher and Steve Greene, and features several real-life internet celebrities portraying parodies of thems ...
'', contemporary fame does not always involve a physical red carpet.


Online fame in Asia

A report by
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of emplo ...

BBC
highlighted a longtime trend of Asian internet celebrities such as
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China * Chinese people, people of Chinese nationality, citizenship, or ethnicity **''Zhonghua minzu'', the supra-ethnic Chinese nationality ** Han Chinese, the majority ethnic group in Mainland China, ...
celebrity Wang Hong (birth name Ling Ling)."Wang Hong: China's online stars making real cash"
''
BBC News BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs. The department is the world's largest broadcast news organisation and generate ...
''. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 1, 2017.
According to BBC, there are two kinds of online celebrities in China—those who create original content, such as Papi Jiang, who is regularly censored by Chinese authorities for cussing in her videos, and those such as Wang Hong and Zhang Dayi, who fall under the second category, as they have clothing and cosmetics businesses on Taobao, China's equivalent of
Amazon Amazon usually refers to: * Amazons, a tribe of woman warriors in Greek mythology * Amazon rainforest, a rainforest covering most of the Amazon basin * Amazon River, in South America * Amazon (company), an American multinational technology company ...
.


Social networking services and video hosting

Most high-profile celebrities participate in
social networking service A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backg ...
s and photo or video hosting platforms such as
YouTube#REDIRECT YouTube {{R from miscapitalization ...
, Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat.
Social networking service A social networking service (also social networking site or social media) is an online platform which people use to build social networks or social relationships with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backg ...
s allow celebrities to communicate directly with their fans, removing the middle-man known as traditional media. Social media humanizes celebrities in a way that arouses public fascination as evident by the success of magazines such as ''
Us Weekly ''Us Weekly'' is a weekly celebrity and entertainment magazine based in New York City. ''Us Weekly'' was founded in 1977 by The New York Times Company, who sold it in 1980. It was acquired by Wenner Media in 1986, and sold to American Media Inc. ...
'' and '' People Weekly''. Celebrity blogging have also spawned stars such as
Perez Hilton Mario Armando Lavandeira Jr. (born March 23, 1978), known professionally as Perez Hilton, is an American blogger, columnist, and media personality. His blog is known for posts covering gossip items about celebrities, and for posting tabloid pho ...
who is well known for not only blogging but also
outing Outing is the act of disclosing an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity without that person's consent. Outing gives rise to issues of privacy, choice, hypocrisy, and harm in addition to sparking debate on what constitutes common goo ...
celebrities. Social media and the rise of the smartphone have changed how celebrities are treated and how people gain the platform of fame. Not everything is as concealed as it was back in old Hollywood because now everything is put out on the internet by fans or even the celebrity themselves. Websites like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube allow people to become a celebrity overnight. For example,
Justin Bieber Justin Drew Bieber (; born March 1, 1994) is a Canadian singer, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist. Bieber was discovered by American record executive Scooter Braun and signed with RBMG Records in 2008, gaining recognition with the release ...

Justin Bieber
got his start on YouTube by posting videos of him singing and got discovered. All of his fans got direct contact with his content and were able to interact with him on several social media platforms. Social media has substantially changed what it means to be a celebrity. Instagram and YouTube allow regular people to become rich and famous all from inside their home. It also allows fans to connect with their favorite celebrity without ever meeting them in person. Everything is being shared on social media so it makes it harder for celebrities to live private lives. Social media sites have also contributed to the fame of some celebrities, such as
Tila Tequila Nguyễn Thị Thiên Thanh (born October 24, 1981), better known by her stage names Tila Tequila, Tila Nguyen, Miss Tila and Tornado Thien, is an American television and social media personality. She first gained recognition for her active pr ...
who became known through MySpace.


Families

Another example of a celebrity is a family that has notable ancestors or is known for its wealth. In some cases, a well-known family is associated with a particular field. For example, the
Kennedy family The Kennedy family is an American political family that has long been prominent in American politics, public service, entertainment, and business. The first Kennedy elected to public office was Patrick Joseph "P. J." Kennedy in 1884, 35 years a ...
is associated with US politics; The
House of Windsor The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. In 1901, the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the House of Wettin) succeeded the House of Hanover to the British monarchy with ...
with royalty; The Hilton and
Rothschild Rothschild () is a name derived from the German ''zum rothen Schild'' (with the old spelling "th"), meaning "with the red sign", in reference to the houses where these family members lived or had lived. At the time, houses were designated by signs ...
families with business; the
Jackson family The Jackson family is an American family of musicians and entertainers from Gary, Indiana. Six children of Joseph Walter (or Joe) and Katherine Esther Jackson form the members of Motown boy band the Jackson 5 (later known as the Jacksons). Joe ...
with popular music; and the Osbourne,
ChaplinChaplin may refer to: People * Charlie Chaplin (1889–1977), English comedy film actor and director * Chaplin (name), other people named Chaplin Films * ''Unknown Chaplin'' (1983) * ''Chaplin'' (film) (1992) * ''Chaplin'' (2011 film), Bengali fi ...
,
Kardashian The Kardashian family, also referred to as the Kardashian–Jenner family, is an American family that is prominent in the fields of entertainment, fashion design, and business. Founded by Robert Kardashian and Kris Jenner, the family consists of ...
,
Baldwin Baldwin is a Germanic name, composed of the elements ''bald'' "bold" and ''win'' "friend". People * Baldwin (name) Places Canada * Baldwin, York Regional Municipality, Ontario * Baldwin, Ontario, in Sudbury District United States * Baldwin ...
, and Barrymore families with television and film.


Restricted access

Access to celebrities is strictly controlled by their entourage of staff which includes
manager Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes the activities of setting the strategy of an organization and coordinating the ...
s,
publicist A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a company, a brand, or public figure – especially a celebrity – or for a work such as a book, film, or album. Publicists are public relations specialists who ha ...
s,
agent Agent may refer to: Espionage, investigation, and law *, spies or intelligence officers * Law of agency, laws involving a person authorized to act on behalf of another ** Agent of record, a person with a contractual agreement with an insurance ...
s,
personal assistant A personal assistant, also referred to as personal aide (PA) or personal secretary (PS), is a job title describing a person who assists a specific person with their daily business or personal tasks. Duties, responsibilities and functions An as ...
s, and
bodyguard A bodyguard (or close protection officer/operative) is a type of security guard, government law enforcement officer, or servicemember who protects a person or a group of people - usually high-ranking public officials or officers, wealthy people, ...
s. Even journalists find it difficult to access celebrities for interviews. Writer and actor
Michael Musto Michael Musto (born December 3, 1955) is an American journalist who has long been a prevalent presence in entertainment-related publications, as well as on websites and television shows. Musto is a former columnist for ''The Village Voice'', wher ...
said, "You have to go through many hoops just to talk to a major celebrity. You have to get past three different sets of publicists: the publicist for the event, the publicist for the movie, and then the celebrity's personal publicist. They all have to approve you." Celebrities often hire one or more bodyguards (or close protection officer) to protect themselves and their families from threats ranging from the mundane (intrusive or
autograph An autograph is a person's own handwriting or signature. The word ''autograph'' comes from Ancient Greek (, ''autós'', "self" and , ''gráphō'', "write"), and can mean more specifically:Gove, Philip B. (ed.), 1981. ''Webster's Third New Internat ...
-seeking
fans Fan commonly refers to: * Fan (machine), a machine for producing airflow, often for cooling ** Hand fan, an implement held and waved by hand to move air * Fan (person), short for fanatic; an enthusiast or supporter, especially with regard to enterta ...
) to serious (
assault An assault is the act of inflicting physical harm or unwanted physical contact upon a person or, in some specific legal definitions, a threat or attempt to commit such an action. It is both a crime and a tort and, therefore, may result in crimi ...
,
kidnapping In criminal law, kidnapping is the unlawful transportation, asportation and confinement of a person against their will. It can also be defined as false imprisonment by means of abduction, both of which are separate crimes that when committed sim ...
,
assassination Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state, heads of government, politicians, royalty, celebrities, journalists, or CEOs. An assassination may be prompted by political and military mo ...
, or
stalking Stalking is unwanted and/or repeated surveillance by an individual or group toward another person. Stalking behaviors are interrelated to harassment and intimidation and may include following the victim in person or monitoring them. The term '' ...
). The bodyguard travels with the celebrity during professional activities (movie shoots or concerts) and personal activities such as recreation and errands. Celebrities also typically have security staff at their home, to protect them from similar threats.


15 minutes of fame

Andy Warhol Andy Warhol (; born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist, film director, and producer who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between ...
famously coined the phrase "
15 minutes of fame 15 minutes of fame is short-lived media publicity or celebrity of an individual or phenomenon. The expression was inspired by Andy Warhol's words "In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes", which appeared in the program for a 1968 ...
" in reference to short-lived publicity. Certain "15 minutes of fame" celebrities can be average people seen with an A-list celebrity, who are sometimes noticed on entertainment news channels such as
E! News ''E! News'', previously known as ''E! News Daily'' and ''E! News Live'', is the entertainment news operation for the cable network E! in the United States. Its former on-air weekday newscast debuted on September 1, 1991, and primarily reported on c ...
. These persons are ordinary people becoming celebrities, often based on the ridiculous things they do. "In fact, many reality show contestants fall into this category: the only thing that qualifies them to be on TV is that they're real."


Health implications

John Cleese John Marwood Cleese ( ; born 27 October 1939) is an English actor, comedian, screenwriter, and producer. Emerging from the Cambridge Footlights in the 1960s, he first achieved success at the Edinburgh Festival Fringe and as a scriptwriter and p ...
said being famous offers some advantages such as financial wealth and easier access to things that are more difficult for non-famous people to access, such as the ability to more easily meet other famous or powerful people, but that being famous also often comes with the disadvantage of creating the conditions in which the celebrity finds themselves acting, at least temporarily (although sometimes over extended periods of time), in a superficial, inauthentic fashion. Common threats such as
stalking Stalking is unwanted and/or repeated surveillance by an individual or group toward another person. Stalking behaviors are interrelated to harassment and intimidation and may include following the victim in person or monitoring them. The term '' ...
have spawned
celebrity worship syndromeCelebrity worship syndrome (CWS) is an obsessive addictive disorder in which a person becomes overly involved with the details of a celebrity's personal and professional life. Psychologists have indicated that though many people obsess over film, tel ...
where a person becomes overly involved with the details of a celebrity's personal life.Schumaker, John F., 'Star Struck' New Internationalist; Issue 363, p34-35, 2p, December 2003 Psychologists have indicated that though many people obsess over glamorous film, television, sport and music stars, the disparity in salaries in society seems to value
professional athlete Professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, are sports in which athletes receive payment for their performance. Professional athleticism has come to the fore through a combination of developments. Mass media and increased leisure have brou ...
s and entertainment industry-based professionals. One study found that singers, musicians, actors and athletes die younger on average than writers, composers, academics, politicians and businesspeople, with a greater incidence of cancer and especially lung cancer. However, it was remarked that the reasons for this remained unclear, with theories including
innate In science and engineering, an intrinsic property is a property of a specified subject that exists itself or within the subject. An extrinsic property is not essential or inherent to the subject that is being characterized. For example, mass is a ...
tendencies towards risk-taking as well as the pressure or opportunities of particular types of fame. Furthermore, some have said fame might have negative
psychological Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the e ...
effects, and may lead to increasingly selfish tendencies and psychopathy. An academic study on the subject said that fame has an
addictive Addiction is a biopsychosocial disorder characterized by repeated use of drugs, or repetitive engagement in a behavior such as gambling, despite harm to self and others. According to the "brain disease model of addiction," while a number o ...
quality to it. When a celebrity's fame recedes over time, the celebrity may find it difficult to adjust psychologically. Recently, there has been more attention toward the impact celebrities have on health decisions of the population at large. It is believed that the public will follow celebrities' health advice to some extent.S.J. Hoffman, C. Tan. 2013. “Why Do So Many People Follow Celebrities’ Medical Advice? A Meta-Narrative Review,” British Medical Journal 347: f7151. . This can have positive impacts when the celebrities give solid, evidence-informed health advice, however, it can also have detrimental effects if the health advice is not accurate enough.


See also


References


Bibliography

* Goldman, Jonathan (2011) ''Modernism Is the Literature of Celebrity''. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2011. * Grinin, Leonid (2009)
'People of Celebrity' as a New Social Stratum and Elite
. In ''Hierarchy and Power in the History of Civilizations: Cultural Dimensions'' (pp. 183–206). Ed. by Leonid E. Grinin and Andrey V. Korotayev. Moscow: KRASAND/ Editorial URSS, 2009. * * Schikel, Richard. ''Intimate Strangers: The Culture of Celebrity''. New York: Doubleday, 1985.


Further reading

*


External links

* * {{Authority control