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or *
Aragonese
Aragonese
and ca|espanyols ** ** * gl|españóis * oc|espanhòls | native_name_lang = | tablehdr =
Diaspora A diaspora () is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale. Historically, the word diaspora was used to refer to the mass dispersion of a population from its indigenous territories, specifically the dispersion of ...

Diaspora
| regions = 41,539,400 | flag = Flag of Spain.svg | flag_caption = ''
Rojigualda
Rojigualda
'' (Current Constitutional Spanish flag) Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a
Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love), emotional attraction towards another person and the courtship behaviors undertaken to express the feelings * Romance languages, a ...

Romance
nation A nation is a community of people formed on the basis of a common language, history, ethnicity, or a common culture, and, in many cases, a shared territory. A nation is more overtly political than an ethnic group; it has been described as "a fully ...

nation
native to
Spain , * gl|Reino de España, * oc|Reiaume d'Espanha, | | image_flag = Bandera de España.svg | image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg | national_motto = | national_anthem = | image_map = | map_caption = | image_map2 = | ...

Spain
. Within Spain, there are a number of
National and regional ethnic identities
National and regional ethnic identities
that reflect the country's complex
history History (from Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates t ...

history
and diverse cultures, including a number of different languages, among which
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
is the majority language and the only one that is official throughout the whole country. Commonly spoken regional languages include, most notably,
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...

Basque
(a
Paleohispanic language
Paleohispanic language
),
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * Ca ...

Catalan
and
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...

Galician
(the latter two are both
Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European langua ...

Romance languages
like Spanish). Many populations outside Spain have ancestors who
emigrated Emigration is the act of leaving a resident country or place of residence with the intent to settle elsewhere (to permanently leave a country). Conversely, immigration describes the movement of people into one country from another (to permanentl ...

emigrated
from Spain and share elements of a Hispanic culture. The most notable of these comprise
Hispanic America Hispanic America (Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es|América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of North, Central, and South America. In all ...

Hispanic America
in the Western Hemisphere. The
Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
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Roman Republic
conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. Hispania was a highly
Romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so. Methods of romanization include transliteration, for representing written text, and ...

Romanized
province of the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire, and as such, the majority of local languages, with the exception of
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...

Basque
, stem from the
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin spoken as a native language starting in the first century BC, under the late Roman Republic and then the Empire, at first only in Italy and later a ...

Vulgar Latin
. The
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...

Romans
laid the foundations for Spanish culture and identity, and Spain was the birthplace of important
Roman emperors The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it r ...

Roman emperors
such as
Trajan Trajan ( ; la|Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 538August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Senate ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over ...

Trajan
,
Hadrian Hadrian (; la|Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family that settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri in Picenum. His father was of sen ...

Hadrian
or
Theodosius I Theodosius I ( grc-gre|Θεοδόσιος; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also called Theodosius the Great, was Roman emperor from 379 to 395. He is best known for making Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire and great ...

Theodosius I
. At the
end of the Western Roman Empire
end of the Western Roman Empire
the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established relatively independent realms in its western provinces, including the
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names s ...

Suebi
,
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin: ''Alani''), were an ancient and medieval Iranian nomadic pastoral people of the North Caucasus. Generally regarded as part of the Sarmatians, and possibly related to the Massagetae, the Alans have been connected by mo ...

Alans
and
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the 5th century. The Vandals migrated to the area between ...

Vandals
. Eventually, the
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la|Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known ...

Visigoths
would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including the
Byzantine province of Spania
Byzantine province of Spania
, into the
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Visigoths ( la|Regnum Visigothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic successor states to the ...

Visigothic Kingdom
, which more or less unified politically, ecclesiastically and legally all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was then documented as
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into ...

Hispania
. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the
Umayyad Islamic Caliphate
Umayyad Islamic Caliphate
, that arrived to the peninsula in the year 711. The
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. The derivation of "Muslim" is from an Arabic word meaning "submitter (to God)". Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God ...

Muslim
rule in the Iberian Peninsula (
al-Andalus#REDIRECT Al-Andalus#REDIRECT Al-Andalus {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

al-Andalus) soon became autonomous from Baghdad. The handful of small Christian pockets in the north left out of Muslim rule, along the presence of the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lom ...

Carolingian Empire
near the Pyreneean range, would eventually led to the emergence of the Christian kingdoms of
León
León
,
Castile
Castile
,
Aragon Aragon ( or , Spanish and an|Aragón , ca|Aragó ) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon. In northeastern Spain, the Aragonese autonomous community comprises three provinces (from north to south): ...

Aragon
,
Portugal Portugal (), officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt|República Portuguesa|links=no ), is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state in mainland Europe, being bordered to the wes ...

Portugal
and
Navarre Navarre (; es|Navarra ; eu|Nafarroa ; oc|Navarra ), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre ( es|Comunidad Foral de Navarra|links=no ; eu|Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea|links=no ), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spai ...

Navarre
. Along seven centuries, an intermittent southwards expansion of the latter kingdoms (metahistorically dubbed as a reconquest: the ''
Reconquista The ' (Spanish and Portuguese for "reconquest") was a period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711, the expansion of the Christian kingdoms throughout Hispania, and the fall ...

Reconquista
'') took place, culminating with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity (the
Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
) in 1492, the same year Christopher Columbus arrived in the
New World The "New World" is a eurocultural term applied to the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas."America." ''The Oxford Companion to the English Language'' (). McArthur, Tom, ed., 1992. New York: Oxford University Press, ...

New World
. During the centuries after the Reconquista, the Christian kings of Spain persecuted and expelled ethnic and religious minorities such as Jews and Muslims through the
Spanish Inquisition The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition ( es|Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition ( es|Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs, King Ferdinand II of Ara ...

Spanish Inquisition
. A process of political conglomeration among the Christian kingdoms also ensued, and the late 15th-century saw the dynastic union of Castile and Aragon under the
Catholic Monarchs The term Catholic Monarchs refers to Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, whose marriage and joint rule marked the ''de facto'' unification of Spain. They were both from the House of Trastámara and were second cousins, be ...

Catholic Monarchs
, sometimes considered as the point of emergence of Spain as unified country. The
Conquest of Navarre
Conquest of Navarre
occurred in 1512. There was also a period called
Iberian Union The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Kingdom of Spain and the Kingdom of Portugal under the Spanish Crown that existed between 1580 and 1640, and which brought the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Portuguese overseas possessions, ...

Iberian Union
, the
dynastic union A dynastic union is a type of federation with only two different states that are governed under the same dynasty, with their boundaries, their laws, and their interests remaining distinct from each other. It differs from a personal union in that a ...

dynastic union
of the [[Kingdom of Portugal and the [[Spanish Crown; during which, both countries were ruled by the [[Spanish Habsburg kings between 1580 and 1640. In the early modern period, Spain ruled [[Spanish Empire|one of the largest empires in history which was also one of the first global empires, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes over 570 million [[Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's [[List of languages by number of native speakers|second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the [[Spanish Golden Age|Golden Age there were also many advancements in the arts, with the rise of renowned painters such as [[Diego Velázquez. The most famous Spanish literary work, ''[[Don Quixote'', was also published during the Golden Age. The population of Spain has become more diverse due to immigration of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second-highest absolute net migration in the world (after the [[United States). The diverse regional and cultural populations mainly include the [[Castilian people|Castilians, [[Catalan people|Catalans, [[Andalusian people|Andalusians, [[Valencian people|Valencians, [[Balearic people|Balearics, [[Canarian people|Canarians, [[Basque people|Basques and the [[Galician people|Galicians among others.


Historical background


Early populations

nobleman from the 1st century BC [[File:Traianus Glyptothek Munich 336.jpg|left|upMarble bust of Roman Emperor
Trajan Trajan ( ; la|Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 538August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Senate ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over ...

Trajan
, born in Roman
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into ...

Hispania
(in [[Italica near modern-day [[Seville) The earliest modern humans inhabiting the region of Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples, who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago. The [[Iberians|Iberians are believed to have arrived or emerged in the region as a culture between the [[4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC, settling initially along the Mediterranean coast. Then [[Celts settled in Spain during the [[Iron Age Europe|Iron Age. Some of those tribes in North-central Spain, who had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called [[Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the [[Tartessos|Tartessians and later [[Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain. They are believed to have developed a separate culture influenced by [[Phoenicia. The seafaring Phoenicians, [[Greeks, and [[Carthaginian Republic|Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. Interaction took place with indigenous peoples. The [[Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and [[Ancient Rome|Romans was fought mainly in what is now Spain and [[Portugal. The
Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic#REDIRECT Roman Republic {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, and established a series of [[Latin-speaking provinces in the region. As a result of [[Campaign history of the Roman military#Conquest of the Iberian peninsula (218-19 BC)|Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...

Basque
, stem from the
Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin is a range of informal sociolects of Latin spoken as a native language starting in the first century BC, under the late Roman Republic and then the Empire, at first only in Italy and later a ...

Vulgar Latin
that was spoken in
Hispania Hispania ( ; ) was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula and its provinces. Under the Roman Republic, Hispania was divided into two provinces: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior was divided into ...

Hispania
(Roman Iberia). A new group of [[languages of Iberia|Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula including
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
, which eventually became the main language in Spain evolved from Roman expansion. Hispania emerged as an important part of the
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as
Trajan Trajan ( ; la|Caesar Nerva Trajanus; 18 September 538August 117) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117. Officially declared by the Senate ''optimus princeps'' ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over ...

Trajan
,
Hadrian Hadrian (; la|Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family that settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri in Picenum. His father was of sen ...

Hadrian
, [[Seneca the Younger|Seneca and [[Quintilian. The [[Germanic peoples|Germanic
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the 5th century. The Vandals migrated to the area between ...

Vandals
and
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names s ...

Suebi
, with [[Iranian peoples|Iranian
Alans The Alans or Alāns (Latin: ''Alani''), were an ancient and medieval Iranian nomadic pastoral people of the North Caucasus. Generally regarded as part of the Sarmatians, and possibly related to the Massagetae, the Alans have been connected by mo ...

Alans
under King [[Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under [[Geiseric, removed to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the [[Visigoths#Visigothic Kingdom in Iberia|Visigoths. The latter were established in [[Toulouse and supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD. The Visigoths became the dominant power in Iberia and reigned for three centuries. They were highly [[Romanization (cultural)|romanized in the eastern Empire and already Christians, so they became fully integrated into the late Iberian-Roman culture. The
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names s ...

Suebi
were another Germanic tribe in the west of the peninsula; some sources said that they became established as ''federates'' of the Roman Empire in the old Northwestern Roman province of [[Gallaecia. But they were largely independent and raided neighboring provinces to expand their political control over ever-larger portions of the southwest after the Vandals and Alans left. They created a totally independent [[Suebic Kingdom of Galicia|Suebic Kingdom. In 447 AC they converted to Roman Catholicism under King [[Rechila. After being checked and reduced in 456 AD by the Visigoths, the Suebic Kingdom survived to 585 AD. It was decimated as an independent political unit by the Visigoths, after having been involved in the internal affairs of their kingdom.


Middle Ages

After two centuries of domination by the
Visigothic Kingdom The Visigothic Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Visigoths ( la|Regnum Visigothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries. One of the Germanic successor states to the ...

Visigothic Kingdom
, the [[Iberian Peninsula was [[Umayyad conquest of Hispania|invaded by a Muslim force under Tariq Bin Ziyad in 711. This army consisted mainly ethnic [[Berbers from the Ghomara tribe, who were reinforced by [[Arabs from [[Syria once the conquest was complete. The Visigothic Kingdom totally collapsed and nearly the entire peninsula was conquered. A remote mountainous area in the far north retained independence, eventually developing as the Christian [[Kingdom of Asturias. Muslim Iberia became part of the Umayyad Caliphate and would be known as [[Al-Andalus. The Berbers of Al Andalus revolted as early as 740 AD, halting Arab expansion across the [[Pyrenee Mountains into France. Upon the collapse of the [[Umayyad in [[Damascus, Spain was seized by Yusuf al Fihri. The exiled Umayyad Prince Abd al-Rahman I next seized power, establishing himself as Emir of [[Córdoba, Spain|Cordoba. [[Abd al Rahman III, his grandson, proclaimed a [[Caliphate in 929, marking the beginning of the Golden Age of Al Andalus. This policy was the effective power of the peninsula and Western North Africa; it competed with the [[Shiite rulers of [[Tunis and frequently raided the small Christian kingdoms in the North. The [[Caliphate of Córdoba effectively collapsed during a ruinous civil war between 1009 and 1013; it was not finally abolished until 1031, when al-Andalus broke up into a number of mostly independent mini-states and principalities called ''[[taifas.'' These were generally too weak to defend themselves against repeated raids and demands for tribute from the Christian states to the north and west, which were known to the Muslims as "the Galician nations." These had expanded from their initial strongholds in Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, the Basque country, and the Carolingian Marca Hispanica to become the Kingdoms of Navarre, León, Portugal, Castile and Aragon, and the County of Barcelona. Eventually they began to conquer territory, and the Taifa kings asked for help from the Almoravids, Muslim Berber rulers of the [[Maghreb. But the [[Almoravids went on to conquer and annex all the Taifa kingdoms. In 1086 the Almoravid ruler of Morocco, [[Yusuf ibn Tashfin, was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against [[Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the [[Battle of Sagrajas. By 1094, Yusuf ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and had annexed their states, except for the one at Zaragoza. He also regained [[Valencia from the Christians. About this time a massive process of conversion to [[Islam took place, and Muslims comprised the majority of the population in Spain by the end of the 11th century. The Almoravids were succeeded by the [[Almohads, another [[Berbers|Berber dynasty, after the victory of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur over the Castilian Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alarcos in 1195. In 1212 a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of the Castilian Alfonso VIII defeated the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. But the Almohads continued to rule Al-Andalus for another decade, though with much reduced power and prestige. The civil wars following the death of Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II rapidly led to the re-establishment of taifas. The taifas, newly independent but weakened, were quickly conquered by the kingdoms of Portugal, Castile, and Aragon. After the fall of Murcia (1243) and the Algarve (1249), only the [[Emirate of Granada survived as a Muslim state, tributary of Castile until 1492. In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile signaled a joining of forces to attack and conquer the Emirate of Granada. The King and Queen convinced the [[Pope to declare their war a [[Crusades|crusade. The Christians were successful and finally, in January 1492, after a long siege, the Moorish sultan [[Muhammad XII surrendered the fortress palace, the renowned [[Alhambra. Spain conquered the [[Canary Islands between 1402 and 1496. Their indigenous Berber populations, the [[Guanches, were gradually absorbed by unions with Spanish settlers. Spanish conquest of the Iberian part of Navarre was begun by Ferdinand II of Aragon and completed by Charles V. The series of military campaigns extended from 1512 to 1524, while the war lasted until 1528 in the Navarre to the north of the Pyrenees. Between 1568 and 1571, Charles V armies fought and defeated a general insurrection of the Muslims of the mountains of Granada. Charles V then ordered the expulsion of up to 80,000 Granadans from the province and their dispersal throughout Spain. The union of the Christian kingdoms of Castile and Aragon as well as the conquest of [[Granada, Navarre and the Canary Islands led to the formation of the Spanish state as known today. This allowed for the development of a Spanish identity based on the Spanish language and a local form of Catholicism. This gradually developed in a territory that remained culturally, linguistically and religiously very diverse. A majority of Jews were forcibly [[Converso|converted to Catholicism during the 14th and 15th centuries and those remaining were expelled from Spain in 1492. The open practice of Islam by Spain's sizeable [[Mudejar population was similarly outlawed. Furthermore, between 1609 and 1614, a significant number of [[Moriscos— (Muslims who had been baptized Catholic) were [[expulsion of the Moriscos|expelled by royal decree. Although initial estimates of the number of Moriscos expelled such as those of Henri Lapeyre reach 300,000 moriscos (or 4% of the total Spanish population), the extent and severity of the expulsion has been increasingly challenged by modern historians. Nevertheless, the eastern region of Valencia, where ethnic tensions were highest, was particularly affected by the expulsion, suffering economic collapse and depopulation of much of its territory. The Islamic legacy in Spain has been long lasting, and among many others, accounts for two of the eight [[masterpieces of [[Islamic architecture from around the world: the [[Alhambra of Granada and the [[Cordoba Mosque; the [[Palmeral of Elche is listed as a [[World Heritage Site due to its uniqueness. Those who avoided expulsion or who managed to return to Spain merged into the dominant culture. The last mass prosecution against Moriscos for [[crypto-Islamic practices took place in Granada in 1727, with most of those convicted receiving relatively light sentences. By the end of the 18th century, indigenous Islam and Morisco identity were considered to have been extinguished in Spain.


Colonialism and emigration

In the 16th century, following the military conquest of most of the new continent, perhaps 240,000 Spaniards entered American ports. They were joined by 450,000 in the next century. It is estimated that during the colonial period (1492–1832), a total of 1.86 million Spaniards settled in the Americas and a further 3.5 million immigrated during the post-colonial era (1850–1950); the estimate is 250,000 in the 16th century, and most during the 18th century as immigration was encouraged by the new Bourbon Dynasty. After the conquest of [[Mexico and [[Peru these two regions became the principal destinations of Spanish colonial settlers in the 16th century. In the period 1850–1950, 3.5 million Spanish left for [[the Americas, particularly [[Argentina, [[Uruguay, [[Mexico, [[Brazil, [[Chile, [[Venezuela, and [[Cuba. From 1840 to 1890, as many as 40,000 Canary Islanders emigrated to [[Venezuela. 94,000 Spaniards chose to go to [[French Algeria|Algeria in the last years of the 19th century, and 250,000 Spaniards lived in [[Morocco at the beginning of the 20th century. By the end of the [[Spanish Civil War, some 500,000 Spanish Republican [[refugees had crossed the border into France. From 1961 to 1974, at the height of the [[foreign worker|guest worker in Western Europe, about 100,000 Spaniards emigrated each year. The nation has formally apologized to expelled Jews and since 2015 offers the chance for people to reclaim Spanish citizenship. By 2019, over 132,000 [[Sephardic Jewish descendants had reclaimed Spanish citizenship. The population of Spain has become more diverse due to immigration of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second-highest absolute net migration in the world (after the [[United States). Immigrants now make up about 10% of the population. But Spain's prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced economic opportunities, and both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country declined. By the end of this period, Spain was becoming a net emigrant country.


Ancestry


Historical origins and genetics

The Spanish people's genetic pool largely derives from the pre-Roman inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, including both [[pre-Indo-European languages|pre-Indo-European and [[Indo-European speaking [[pre-Celtic groups ([[Iberians, [[Vettones, [[Turdetani, [[Aquitani)https://web.archive.org/web/20040611215344/http://www.arqueotavira.com/Mapas/Iberia/Populi.htm and [[Celts ([[Gallaecians, [[Celtiberians, [[Turduli and [[Celtici), who were [[Romanization (cultural)|Romanized after the conquest of the region by the [[ancient Romans. The ancient [[Phoenician and [[Carthaginian empire|Carthaginian colonization of southern Iberia, as well as the later [[Umayyad conquest of Hispania|Moorish occupation of Iberia, also left Middle Eastern (Phoenician, [[Sephardi Jews|Jewish and [[Arab) and [[North African ([[Punic or [[Berbers|Berber) genetic contributions, particularly in the south and west.


Peoples of Spain


Nationalisms and regionalisms

Within Spain, there are various regional populations including the [[Andalusian people|Andalusians, [[Castilian people|Castilians, the [[Catalan people|Catalans, [[Valencian people|Valencians and [[Balearic people|Balearics (who speak
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * Ca ...

Catalan
, a distinct Romance language in eastern Spain), the [[Basque people|Basques (who live in the [[Basque Country (autonomous community)|Basque country and north of [[Navarre and speak
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...

Basque
, a non-Indo-European language), and the [[Galician people|Galicians (who speak
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...

Galician
, a descendant of old [[Galician-Portuguese). Respect to the existing [[cultural pluralism is important to many Spaniards. In many regions there exist strong regional identities such as [[Asturias, [[Aragon, the [[Canary Islands, [[León (historical region)|León, and [[Andalusia, while in others (like [[Catalonia, [[Basque Country (autonomous community)|Basque Country or [[Galicia (Spain)|Galicia) there are stronger [[nationalism|national sentiments. Some of them refuse to identify themselves with the Spanish ethnic group and prefer some of the following: ;Regional identities


Romani minority

Spain is home to one of the largest communities of [[Romani people (commonly known by the English [[exonym "gypsies", Spanish: ''gitanos''). The Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup (''[[Romani people#Romani subgroups|calé''), are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, and Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. Data on ethnicity is not collected in Spain, although the Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is probably around one million. Most Spanish Roma live in the autonomous community of Andalusia, where they have traditionally enjoyed a higher degree of integration than in the rest of the country. A number of Spanish Calé also live in Southern France, especially in the region of [[Perpignan.


Modern immigration

The population of Spain has become increasingly diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World (after the [[United States) and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population. Since 2000, Spain has absorbed more than 3 million immigrants, with thousands more arriving each year. In 2008 immigrant population tops over 4.5 million. They come mainly from [[Europe, [[Latin America, [[China, the [[Philippines, [[North Africa, and [[West Africa.


Languages

Languages spoken in Spain include
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
(''castellano'' or ''español'') (74%),
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * Ca ...

Catalan
(''català'', called ''[[Valencian|valencià'' in the [[Valencian Community) (17%),
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...

Galician
(''galego'') (7%), and
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...

Basque
(''euskara'') (2%). Other languages with a lower level of official recognition are [[Asturian language|Asturian (''asturianu''), [[Aranese language|Aranese Gascon (''aranés''), (''aragonés''), and [[Leonese language|Leonese, each with their own various dialects. Spanish is the official state language, although the other languages are co-official in a number of autonomous communities. Peninsular Spanish is typically classified in northern and southern dialects; among the southern ones [[Andalusian Spanish is particularly important. The Canary Islands have a [[Canarian Spanish|distinct dialect of Spanish which is close to [[Caribbean Spanish. The Spanish language is a [[Romance languages|Romance language and is one of the aspects (including laws and general "ways of life") that causes Spaniards to be labelled a [[Romance-speaking Europe|Latin people. Spanish has a significant [[Arabic influence on the Spanish language|Arabic influence in vocabulary; between the 8th and 12th centuries, Arabic was the dominant language in [[Al-Andalus and some 4,000 words are of Arabic origin, including nouns, verbs and adjectives. It also has influences from other
Romance languages The Romance languages (less commonly Latin languages, or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that evolved from Vulgar Latin between the third and eighth centuries. They are a subgroup of the Italic languages in the Indo-European langua ...

Romance languages
such as [[French language|French, [[Italian language|Italian,
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * Ca ...

Catalan
,
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...

Galician
or [[Portuguese language|Portuguese. Traditionally, the [[Basque language has been considered a key influence on Spanish, though nowadays this is questioned. Other changes are borrowings from English and other Germanic languages, although English influence is stronger in Latin America than in Spain. The number of speakers of [[Names given to the Spanish language|Spanish as a mother tongue is roughly 35.6 million, while the vast majority of other groups in Spain such as the [[Galician people|Galicians, [[Catalan people|Catalans, and [[Basque people|Basques also speak Spanish as a first or second language, which boosts the number of Spanish speakers to the overwhelming majority of Spain's population of 46 million. Spanish was exported to the Americas due to over three centuries of Spanish colonial rule starting with the arrival of [[Christopher Columbus to [[Santo Domingo in 1492. Spanish is spoken natively by over 400 million people and spans across most countries of the Americas; from the Southwestern United States in North America down to [[Tierra del Fuego, the southernmost region of South America in [[Chile and [[Argentina. A variety of the language, known as [[Judaeo-Spanish or Ladino (or [[Haketia in Morocco), is still spoken by descendants of Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) who fled Spain following a [[Alhambra Decree|decree of expulsion of practising Jews in 1492. Also, a Spanish [[creole language known as [[Chabacano language|Chabacano, which developed by the mixing of Spanish and native [[Tagalog language|Tagalog and [[Cebuano languages during Spain's rule of the country through [[Mexico from 1565 to 1898, is spoken in the [[Philippines (by roughly 1 million people).


Religion

[[Roman Catholicism in Spain|Roman Catholicism is by far the largest denomination present in
Spain , * gl|Reino de España, * oc|Reiaume d'Espanha, | | image_flag = Bandera de España.svg | image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg | national_motto = | national_anthem = | image_map = | map_caption = | image_map2 = | ...

Spain
, although its share of the population has been decreasing for decades. According to a study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research in 2013 about 71% of Spaniards self-identified as [[Catholics, 2% other faith, and about 25% identified as atheists or declared they had [[irreligion in Spain|no religion. Survey data for 2019 show Catholics down to 69%, 2.8% "other faith" and 27% atheist-agnostic-non-believers.


Emigration from Spain

Outside of Europe, Latin America has the largest population of people with ancestors from Spain. These include people of [[Criollo people|full or [[Mestizo|partial Spanish ancestry.


People with Spanish ancestry

The listings above shows the ten countries with known collected data on people with ancestors from Spain, although the definitions of each of these are somewhat different and the numbers cannot really be compared. [[Spanish Chilean of Chile and [[Spanish Uruguayan of Uruguay could be included by percentage (each at above 40%) instead of numeral size.


See also

* [[Demographics of Spain * [[Hispanosphere * [[Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula * [[Nationalisms and regionalisms of Spain * [[Nationalities and regions of Spain * Spanish regional identities ** [[Andalusian people ** [[Aragonese people ** [[Asturian people ** [[Balearic people ** [[Basque people ** [[Cagot ** [[Canarian people ** [[Cantabrian people ** [[Castilian people ** [[Catalan people ** [[Extremaduran people ** [[Galician people ** [[Leonese people ** [[Valencian people ** [[Vaqueiros de alzada * Languages of Spain **
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
(see also [[Spanish dialects and varieties#Spain|dialects and varieties) ** [[Catalan language|Catalan/Valencian **
Basque Basque may refer to: * Basques, an ethnic group of Spain and France * Basque language, their language Places * Basque Country (greater region), the homeland of the Basque people with parts in both Spain and France * Basque Country (autonomous comm ...

Basque
**
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...

Galician
** [[Aranese language|Aranese ** ** [[Asturian language|Asturian ** [[Judaeo-Spanish ** [[Leonese language|Leonese ** [[Murcian Spanish|Murcian language * Ancient peoples of Spain ** [[Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula *** [[Iberians *** [[Celtiberians *** [[Gallaeci, [[Lusitanians, [[Cantabrians, [[Vascones ** [[Greeks and [[Punics ([[Phoenicians and [[Carthaginian Republic|Carthaginians) ** [[Guanches (in the [[Canary Islands) ** [[Ancient Rome|Romans **
Suebi The Suebi (or Suebians, also spelled Suevi, Suavi) were a large group of Germanic peoples originally from the Elbe river region in what is now Germany and the Czech Republic. In the early Roman era they included many peoples with their own names s ...

Suebi
**
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the 5th century. The Vandals migrated to the area between ...

Vandals
**
Visigoths The Visigoths (; la|Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi) were an early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in Late Antiquity, or what is known ...

Visigoths
** [[Moors of the [[Al-Andalus ([[Arabs/[[Berber people|Berbers) ** [[History of the Jews in Spain * Peoples with Spanish ancestry ** [[Criollo people|Criollos (Spanish in the former Spanish Empire) ** [[Afro-Spaniards ** [[Emancipados ** [[Fernandino peoples|Fernandinos **
Hispanic America Hispanic America (Spanish: ''Hispanoamérica'' or ''América Hispana'') (also known as Spanish America ( es|América española)) is the portion of the Americas comprising the Spanish-speaking countries of North, Central, and South America. In all ...

Hispanic America
ns ** [[Hispanic and Latino Americans ** [[Isleños ** [[Louisiana Creole people ** [[Spanish Americans ** [[Spanish Argentine|Spanish Argentinians ** [[Spanish Australians ** [[Brazilians of Spanish descent|Spanish Brazilians ** [[Spaniards in the United Kingdom|Spanish Britons ** [[Canadians of Spanish descent|Spanish Canadians ** [[Ethnic groups in Central America|Spanish Central Americans ** [[Spanish Chileans ** [[Spanish Equatoguineans ** [[Spanish Filipino ** [[Spanish Mexican ** [[Spanish Peruvians ** [[Spanish immigration to Puerto Rico|Spanish Puerto Ricans ** [[Uruguay|Spanish Uruguayans ** [[Spanish Colombians ** [[White Latin Americans|White Hispanic Americans


Notes


References


Sources

* Castro, Americo. Willard F. King and Selma Margaretten, trans. ''The Spaniards: An Introduction to Their History''. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1980. . * Chapman, Robert. ''Emerging Complexity: The Later Pre-History of South-East Spain, Iberia, and the West Mediterranean''. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. . * Goodwin, Godfrey. ''Islamic Spain''. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1990. . * Harrison, Richard. ''Spain at the Dawn of History: Iberians, Phoenicians, and Greeks''. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1988. . * James, Edward (ed.). ''Visigothic Spain: New Approaches''. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. . * Thomas, Hugh. ''The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870''. London: Picador, 1997. .
The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years
(Science, 15 March 2019, Vol. 363, Issue 6432, pp. 1230-1234) {{DEFAULTSORT:Spanish People [[Category:Ethnic groups in Spain [[Category:Spanish people| [[Category:Romance peoples