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Santa Monica Mountains
Santa monica mountains canyon.jpg
Malibu Canyon in the Santa Monica Mountains
Highest point
PeakSandstone Peak
Elevation3,111 ft (948 m)
Geography
Wpdms shdrlfi020l santa monica mountains.jpg
CountryUnited States
StateCalifornia
CountiesLos Angeles and Ventura
Range coordinates34°7′13.023″N 118°55′54.348″W / 34.12028417°N 118.93176333°W / 34.12028417; -118.93176333The Santa Monica Mountains is a coastal mountain range in Southern California, paralleling the Pacific Ocean. It is part of the Transverse Ranges.[1] Because of its proximity to densely populated regions, it is one of the most visited natural areas in California. Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area is located in this mountain range.

Geography

The range extends approximately 40 miles (64 km) east-west from the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles to Point Mugu in Ventura County. The western mountains, separating the Conejo Valley from Malibu, suddenly end at Mugu Peak[2] as the rugged, nearly impassible shoreline gives way to tidal lagoons and coastal sand dunes of the alluvial Oxnard Plain. The mountain range contributed to the isolation of this vast coastal plain before regular transportation routes reached western Ventura County. The eastern mountains form a barrier between the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, separating "the Valley" on the north and west-central Los Angeles on the south. The Santa Monica Mountains are parallel to the Santa Susana Mountains, which are located directly north of the mountains across the San Fernando Valley.

The range is of moderate height, with no particularly craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak and Boney Mountains area. While often rugged and wild, the range hosts a substantial amount of human activity and development. Houses, roads, businesses, and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains.

A number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the western end of the San Fernando Valley, the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park, defining the easternmost extent of the mountains.

Archeology

The Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance, primarily from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people.[3] The mountains were part of their regional homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish.[4] The Spanish mission system had a dramatic impact on their culture, and by 1831 their population had dropped from over 22,000 to under 3,000.[5]

Geology

The range extends approximately 40 miles (64 km) east-west from the Hollywood Hills in Los Angeles to Point Mugu in Ventura County. The western mountains, separating the Conejo Valley from Malibu, suddenly end at Mugu Peak[2] as the rugged, nearly impassible shoreline gives way to tidal lagoons and coastal sand dunes of the alluvial Oxnard Plain. The mountain range contributed to the isolation of this vast coastal plain before regular transportation routes reached western Ventura County. The eastern mountains form a barrier between the San Fernando Valley and the Los Angeles Basin, separating "the Valley" on the north and west-central Los Angeles on the south. The Santa Monica Mountains are parallel to the Santa Susana Mountains, which are located directly north of the mountains across the San Fernando Valley.

The range is of moderate height, with no particularly craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak and Boney Mountains area. While often rugged and wild, the range hosts a substantial amount of human activity and development. Houses, roads, businesses, and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains.

A number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the western end of the San Fernando Valley, the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park, defining the easternmost extent of the mountains.

Archeology

The Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance, primarily from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people.[3] The mountains were part of their regional homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish.[4] The Spanish mission system had a dramatic impact on their culture, and by 1831 their population had dropped from over 22,000 to under 3,000.[5]

Geology

Azimuth Marker, Mount Allen (Sandstone Peak), Southern California, USA.

Geologists cons

The range is of moderate height, with no particularly craggy or prominent peaks outside the Sandstone Peak and Boney Mountains area. While often rugged and wild, the range hosts a substantial amount of human activity and development. Houses, roads, businesses, and recreational centers are dotted throughout the Santa Monica Mountains.

A number of creeks in the Santa Monica Mountains are part of the Los Angeles River watershed. Beginning at the western end of the San Fernando Valley, the river runs to the north of the mountains. After passing between the range and the Verdugo Mountains it flows south around Elysian Park, defining the easternmost extent of the mountains.

The Santa Monica Mountains have more than 1,000 archeology sites of significance, primarily from the Californian Native American cultures of the Tongva and Chumash people.[3] The mountains were part of their regional homelands for over eight thousand years before the arrival of the Spanish.[4] The Spanish mission system had a dramatic impact on their culture, and by 1831 their population had dropped from over 22,000 to under 3,000.[5]

Geology

Geologists consider the northern Channel Islands to be a westward extension of the Santa Monicas into the Pacific Ocean. The range was created by repeated episodes of uplifting and submergence by the Raymond Fault, which created complex layers of sedimentary rock. Volcanic intrusions have been exposed, including the poorly named andesitic[6] "Sandstone Peak", which is the highest point in the range at 3,111 feet (948 m). Malibu Creek, which eroded its own channel while the mountains were slowly uplifted, bisects the mountain range.

Climate

Snow in the Santa

The Santa Monica Mountains have dry summers with frequent coastal fog on the ocean (south) side of the range and wet, cooler winters. In the summer, the climate is quite dry (except for coastal fog), which makes the range prone to wildfires, especially during dry "Santa Ana" wind events. Snow is unusual in the Santa Monica Mountains, since they are not as high as the nearby San Gabriel Mountains. The lower slopes of the range average between 15 to 20 inches of rain per year, while the higher slopes of the central and western Santa Monica Mountains average 22 to 27 inches of rain per year. The bulk of the rain falls between November and March. The higher rainfall in the central and western parts of the range results in more widespread woodlands (with oak, sycamore, walnut, bay laurel, alder and other trees) than the eastern part of the range, where trees are usually restricted to the stream courses.

On January 17, 2007, an unusually cold storm brought snow in the Santa Monica Mountains. The hills above Malibu picked up three inches (eight centimeters) of snow - the first measurable snow in five decades (50 years). Snow was reported on Boney Peak in the winter of 2005; and in March 2006, snow also fell on the summit of the mountain. Snow also fell on the peak of Boney Mountain in late December 2008. The latest recorded snowfall in the area was in February 2019, when an unusual amount of snowfall accumulated in low passes in the mountains. The storm system also brought rare snowfall to the Los Angeles area.

Parks

<pOn January 17, 2007, an unusually cold storm brought snow in the Santa Monica Mountains. The hills above Malibu picked up three inches (eight centimeters) of snow - the first measurable snow in five decades (50 years). Snow was reported on Boney Peak in the winter of 2005; and in March 2006, snow also fell on the summit of the mountain. Snow also fell on the peak of Boney Mountain in late December 2008. The latest recorded snowfall in the area was in February 2019, when an unusual amount of snowfall accumulated in low passes in the mountains. The storm system also brought rare snowfall to the Los Angeles area.

Much of the mountains are located within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. Preservation of lands within the region are managed by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy, the National Park Service, the California State Parks, and County and Municipal agencies. Today, the Santa Monica Mountains face pressure from local populations as a desirable residential area, and in the parks as a recreational retreat and wild place that's increasingly rare in urban Los Angeles. In 2014 the California Coastal Commission and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors approved the Santa Monica Mountains Local Coastal Program, a land-use plan that will distinguish between the private lands that need strict protection and property that could be developed in strict conformance with this detailed plan.[10]

Regional parks

Over twenty individual state and municipal parks are in the Santa Monica Mountains, including: Topanga State Park, Leo Carrillo State Park, Malibu Creek State Park, Point Mugu State Park, Will Rogers State Historic Park, Point Dume State Beach, Griffith Park, Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park, Topanga State Park, Leo Carrillo State Park, Malibu Creek State Park, Point Mugu State Park, Will Rogers State Historic Park, Point Dume State Beach, Griffith Park, Marvin Braude Mulholland Gateway Park, Charmlee Wilderness Park,[11] Franklin Canyon Park, Runyon Canyon Park, King Gillette Ranch Park,[12] and Paramount Ranch Park.[13]

Satwiwa

The Satwiwa Native American Indian Culture Center in Newbury Park, California is located within the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area. The area was purchased by the U.S. National Park Service in 1980.[14] The Rosewood Trail near Stagecoach Inn, which leads to Angel Vista in the Santa Monica Mountains, is an additional access point in Newbury Park.

Griffith Park

The Rim of the Valley Trail is a plan in progress for accessing and connecting the parkland and recreational areas of the mountains surrounding the Conejo, The Rim of the Valley Trail is a plan in progress for accessing and connecting the parkland and recreational areas of the mountains surrounding the Conejo, San Fernando, Simi, and Crescenta Valleys. With trailheads in the mountains and valleys, it would link them via existing and new: walking, hiking, equestrian, and mountain biking trails; parklands; and conservation easements. The Rim of the Valley project also has the goal to protect flora-fauna habitats and wildlife corridors between the Santa Monica Mountains and the inland ranges.[15][16][17][18]

Flora and fauna

mountain lions population is challenged because the Santa Monica Mountains are isolated and not big enough for weaned cubs to find their own territory.[19][20][21][22] The primary cause of the decline is due to a combination of traffic-related mortality,[23][24] anti-coagulants ingested from human poisoned prey, and attacks by other, more dominant mountain lions (an elder male, known as P1, killed both his son and his mate; this is thought to be due to a reduction in available habitat.)[25]

Being struck by vehicles is also a common cause of bobcat fatalities.[26] Their main cause of death is mange, a skin disease often found in animals that have ingested rat poison.[27]

Snakes are common but only occasionally seen: the Southern Pacific rattlesnake (the only venomous species), mountain kingsnake, California kingsnake, gopher snake, and garter snake. The mountains are also home to the western fence lizard and the coastal whiptail. Also the endangered Southern California Distinct Population Segment of steelhead is found here.[28]

Flora

Many invasive weeds have colonized the mountain habitats which can bring about significant changes in the ecosystems by altering the native plant communities and the processes that support them. These non-native plants include annual Mediterranean grasses, Spanish broom (Genista juncea), and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). In creekside riparian habitats are found plants such as giant cane (Arundo donax), German ivy (Delairea odorata), blue periwinkle (Vinca major), and ivy (Hedera spp.).

More frequent fires have created conditions favorable to invasive plants. The 2018 Woolsey Fire burned through 88% of the federal parkland.[30] The fire, which was three times larger than the biggest fire ever before in the mountains, burned over 40% of the natural

Many invasive weeds have colonized the mountain habitats which can bring about significant changes in the ecosystems by altering the native plant communities and the processes that support them. These non-native plants include annual Mediterranean grasses, Spanish broom (Genista juncea), and yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). In creekside riparian habitats are found plants such as giant cane (Arundo donax), German ivy (Delairea odorata), blue periwinkle (Vinca major), and ivy (Hedera spp.).

More frequent fires have created conditions favorable to invasive plants. The 2018 Woolsey Fire burned through 88% of the federal parkland.[30] The fire, which was three times larger than the bigges

More frequent fires have created conditions favorable to invasive plants. The 2018 Woolsey Fire burned through 88% of the federal parkland.[30] The fire, which was three times larger than the biggest fire ever before in the mountains, burned over 40% of the natural area in the Santa Monicas.[31] The fire created a challenge to native plants as black mustard with bright yellow flowers quickly established itself as a wet winter followed the fire.[32] The mustard plants will also provide fuel for the next fires.[33]

The New Zealand mud snail has infested watersheds in the Santa Monica Mountains, posing serious threats to native species and complicating efforts to improve stream-water quality for the endangered steelhead.[34] Within a period of four years, the snails expanded from their first known population in Medea Creek in Agoura Hills to nearly 30 other stream sites. Researchers at the Santa Monica Bay Restoration Commission believe that the snails' expansion may have been expedited after the mollusks traveled from stream to stream on the gear of contractors and volunteers.[35]

Cahuenga Pass, present-day site of U.S. Route 101, is the easiest pass through the range connecting the Los Angeles Basin to the San Fernando Valley. In the 1800s, two battles were fought there, and the Treaty of Cahuenga was signed nearby. In the heyday of Hollywood, movie studios clustered on both sides of it.

Sepulveda Pass is the main north-south pass to the west, connecting the Westside to Sherman Oaks via the San Diego Freeway (I-405) and Sepulveda Boulevard.

Minor passes between the Sepulveda and Cahuenga passes include Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Coldwater Canyon Avenue, and Beverly Glen Boulevard. Further west of the Sepulveda Pass are Sepulveda Pass is the main north-south pass to the west, connecting the Westside to Sherman Oaks via the San Diego Freeway (I-405) and Sepulveda Boulevard.

Minor passes between the Sepulveda and Cahuenga passes include Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Coldwater Canyon Avenue, and Beverly Glen Boulevard. Further west of the Sepulveda Pass are Topanga Canyon Boulevard (SR 27), Malibu Canyon Road and Kanan Dume Road.

Mulholland Drive runs much of the length of the Santa Monica Mountains, from Cahuenga Pass to Woodland Hills, although it is not open to motor vehicles west of Encino. The Mulholland Highway runs from Woodland Hills to Sequit Point at the Pacific Ocean.

The eastern end of the range, located in the City of Los Angeles, is more intensively developed than the western end of the range. The city of Malibu runs between the coast and the leading mountain ridge, from Topanga Canyon in the east to Leo Carrillo State Park in the west.

Santa Monica Mountains-area communities

Communities along the north slope of the mountains include (from east to west):