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The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences ( Swedish: ''Kungliga Vetenskapsakademien'') is one of the royal academies of
Sweden Sweden (; sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic countries, Nordic country in Northern Europe.The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names states that the country's for ...
. Founded on June 2, 1739, it is an independent, non-governmental scientific organization which takes special responsibility for promoting the
natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, test ...
s and
mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It has no generally ...
and strengthen their influence in society, whilst endeavouring to promote the exchange of ideas between various disciplines. The goals of the academy are: * to be a forum where researchers meet across subject boundaries, * to offer a unique environment for research, * to provide support to younger researchers, * to reward outstanding research efforts, * to communicate internationally among scientists, * to advance the case for science within society and to influence research policy priorities * to stimulate interest in mathematics and science in school, and * to disseminate and popularize scientific information in various forms. Every year the academy awards the Nobel Prizes in
physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, spa ...
and in
chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a Ch ...
, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, the Crafoord Prize, the Sjöberg Prize and several other awards. The Academy maintains close relations with foreign academies, learned societies and international scientific organizations and also promotes international scientific cooperation. The Academy of Sciences is located within the
Stockholm Stockholm is the Capital city, capital of Sweden. It has the most populous urban area in Sweden as well as in Scandinavia. 1 million people live in the Stockholm Municipality, municipality, approximately 1.6 million in the Stockholm ur ...
region's Royal National City Park.


Prizes


International prizes

* Nobel Prizes in
Physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, spa ...
and in
Chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and chemical compound, compounds composed of atoms, molecules and ions: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a Ch ...
* Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel * Crafoord Prizes in
astronomy Astronomy (from el, ἀστρονομία, literally meaning the science that studies the laws of the stars) is a natural science that studies astronomical object, celestial objects and celestial event, phenomena. It uses mathematics, physi ...
and
mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and calculus, change (mathematical analysis, analysis). It has no generally ...
,
geoscience Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science Natural science is a branch of science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Ta ...
s,
bioscience This list of life sciences comprises the branches of science The branches of science, also referred to as science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, buil ...
s (with an emphasis on ecology), and polyarthritis (for example rheumatoid arthritis) * Sjöberg Prize for research in cancer * Rolf Schock Prizes in logic and philosophy, mathematics, visual arts and musical arts * Gregori Aminoff Prize in crystallography * Tobias Prize for research to treat hematological disorders


National prizes

* Göran Gustafsson Prize for research in chemistry, mathematics, molecular biology, medicine and physics * Söderberg Prize for research in economics or jurisprudence or medicine * Ingvar Lindqvist Prizes for teachers in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics and natural sciences * Tage Erlander Prize "for research in natural sciences and technology" in four fields (physics, chemistry, technology and biology)


Members

The academy has elected about 1,700 Swedish and 1,200 foreign members since it was founded in 1739. Today the academy has about 470 Swedish and 175 foreign members which are divided into ten "classes", representing ten various scientific disciplines: * Mathematics * Astronomy, Astronomy and space science * Physics * Chemistry * Geosciences * Biosciences * Medicine, Medical sciences * Engineering sciences * Social sciences * Humanities and for outstanding services to science


List of permanent secretaries

The following persons have served as permanent secretaries of the academy: *Anders Johan von Höpken, 1739–1740, 1740–1741 *Augustin Ehrensvärd, April – June 1740 *Jacob Faggot, 1741–1744 *Pehr Elvius, 1744–1749 *Pehr Wilhelm Wargentin, 1749–1783 *Johan Carl Wilcke and Henrik Nicander, 1784–1796 *Daniel Melanderhjelm and Henrik Nicander, 1796–1803 *Jöns Svanberg and Carl Gustaf Sjöstén 1803–1808; Sjöstén was removed 1808 for negligence of his duties *Jöns Svanberg, 1809–1811 *Olof Swartz, 1811–1818 *Jöns Jacob Berzelius, 1818–1848 *Peter Fredrik Wahlberg, 1848–1866 *Georg Lindhagen, 1866–1901 *Christopher Aurivillius, 1901–1923 *Henrik Gustaf Söderbaum, 1923–1933 *Henning Pleijel, 1933–1943 *Arne Westgren, 1943–1959 *Erik Rudberg, 1959–1972 *Carl Gustaf Bernhard, 1973–1981 *Tord Ganelius, 1981–1989 *Carl-Olof Jacobson, 1989–1997 *Erling Norrby, 1997–30 June 2003 *Gunnar Öquist, 1 July 2003 – 30 June 2010 *Staffan Normark, 1 July 2010 – 30 June 2015 *Göran K. Hansson, 1 July 2015–present


Publications

The transactions of the Academy (''Vetenskapsakademiens handlingar'') were published as its main series between 1739 and 1974. In parallel, other major series have appeared and gone: *''Öfversigt af Kungl. Vetenskapsakademiens förhandlingar'' (1844–1903) *''Bihang till Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar'' (1872–1902) *''Vetenskapsakademiens årsbok'' (1903–1969) The academy started publishing annual reports in physics and chemistry (1826), technology (1827), botany (1831), and zoology (1832). These lasted into the 1860s, when they were replaced by the single ''Bihang'' series (meaning: supplement to the transactions). Starting in 1887, this series was once again split into four sections (''afdelning''), which in 1903 became independent scientific journals of their own, titled "Arkiv för..." (archive for...), among them * ''Arkiv för matematik, astronomi och fysik'' (1903–1949) Further restructuring of their topics occurred in 1949 and 1974. Other defunct journals of the Academy include: * ''Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence'' (1997–2001) ;Current publications *''AMBIO, Ambio'' (1972–) *''Acta Mathematica'' (1882–) *''Arkiv för matematik'' (1949– with this title; 1903–1949 also including physics and astronomy) *''Acta Zoologica'' (1920–) *''Levnadsteckningar över Vetenskapsakademiens ledamöter'' (1869–), biographies of deceased members *''Porträttmatrikel'' (1971–), portraits of current members *''Zoologica Scripta'' (1972–), jointly with the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters


History

The academy was founded on 2 June 1739 by naturalist Carl Linnaeus, mercantilist Jonas Alströmer, mechanical engineer Mårten Triewald, civil servants Sten Carl Bielke and Carl Wilhelm Cederhielm, and statesman/author Anders Johan von Höpken. The purpose of the academy was to focus on practically useful knowledge, and to publish in Swedish language, Swedish in order to widely disseminate the academy's findings. The academy was intended to be different from the Royal Society of Sciences in Uppsala, which had been founded in 1719 and published in Latin language, Latin. The location close to the commercial activities in Sweden's capital (which unlike Uppsala did not have a university at this time) was also intentional. The academy was modeled after the Royal Society of London and Academie Royale des Sciences in Paris, France, which some of the founding members were familiar with.


See also

*:Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences


References


External links

*
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences video site
{{Authority control Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, National academies of sciences, Sweden 1739 establishments in Sweden Swedish Royal Academies, Sciences, Academy Nobel Prize, Academy, Science Buildings and structures in Stockholm Science and technology in Sweden Scientific organizations established in 1739 Members of the International Council for Science Members of the International Science Council