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Roseland is one of the 77 official community areas of Chicago, Illinois, located on the far south side of the city. It includes the neighborhoods of Fernwood, Princeton Park, Lilydale, the southern portion of West Chesterfield, Rosemoor, Sheldon Heights and West Roseland.

History

First Reformed Church of Roseland was founded by the Dutch immigrant population

Roseland was settled in the 1840s by Dutch immigrants, who called the area "de Hooge Prairie", the High Prairie, because it was built on higher, drier ground than the earlier Dutch settlement several miles further south of the Little Calumet River, which was called "de Laage Prairie", the Low Prairie, now South Holland, Illinois.

The community was entirely agrarian until the late 19th century, when the town of Pullman, Chicago was built between Roseland and Lake Calumet. George M. Pullman planned a model industrial city built around a factory that manufactured his "Palace" railway coaches. Modern brick homes were built with electricity, plumbing and gas utilities. Skilled tradesmen from all over Europe immigrated to the town of Pullman with many settling in nearby Roseland. The Pullman Freight Car Works was built in the 1900s decade on 103rd Street, and survives to this day as a distribution center for flat-rolled steel.

Roseland was annexed into Chicago in 1892. The Roseland area became a very cosmopolitan community made up of multi cultural, ethnic and racial backgrounds. There was a large population of Italian Americans just east of Roseland in the Kensington community. While some Italians of southern Italian origins came to the area from the Little Italy neighborhood on Taylor Street, many other Italians who settled in the area came from the northern Italian regions of Piedmont, Tuscany, and the Veneto. All these Italians from varied regions of Italy helped to make the Kensington area, and the wider Roseland area, centers of South Side Italian life. Sant' Antonio di Padua (St. Anthony's) Church (built 1903) and its grammar school were key religious and cultural landmarks of the area. Supporting businesses flourished rapidly changing the farmland into commercial and residential communities surrounded by a number of industries. Stores on Michigan Avenue served the entire south side of Chicago.

Fortunes began to change in the 1960s when industry patterns lead to economic decline. Steel mills to the east were shuttered. Pullman scaled back production and eventually closed for good in 1981. The huge Sherwin-Williams paint factory closed for good in 1995. A period of rapid ethnic succession took place.

The much lauded mural "I Welcome Myself to a New Place: Roseland Pullman Mural," by Olivia Gude, Jon Pounds, and Marcus Jefferson, 1988, was designed to unite the predominantly African American community of Roseland with its nearest neighbor, the predominantly white Pullman community.

Neighborhoods

Fernwood

Fernwood lies on the western edge of Roseland, between 99th and 103rd Streets. It was considered an "upscale"[citation needed] neighborhood of Roseland and extended west into the Washington Heights community up to Halsted Street. Sometimes referred to as West Roseland, it was incorporated in 1883. The area was known for a gardenlike parkway between 95th and 103rd Streets along Eggelston that was known as Fernwood Parkway.

The area is noted for one of the worst race riots in Chicago history. In mid August 1947, several black veterans and their families moved into the CHA Fernwood Park Housing Project at 104th and Halsted. Area residents viewed this as one of several attempts by the CHA to initiate racial integration into white communities.Roseland was settled in the 1840s by Dutch immigrants, who called the area "de Hooge Prairie", the High Prairie, because it was built on higher, drier ground than the earlier Dutch settlement several miles further south of the Little Calumet River, which was called "de Laage Prairie", the Low Prairie, now South Holland, Illinois.

The community was entirely agrarian until the late 19th century, when the town of Pullman, Chicago was built between Roseland and Lake Calumet. George M. Pullman planned a model industrial city built around a factory that manufactured his "Palace" railway coaches. Modern brick homes were built with electricity, plumbing and gas utilities. Skilled tradesmen from all over Europe immigrated to the town of Pullman with many settling in nearby Roseland. The Pullman Freight Car Works was built in the 1900s decade on 103rd Street, and survives to this day as a distribution center for flat-rolled steel.

Roseland was annexed into Chicago in 1892. The Roseland area became a very cosmopolitan community made up of multi cultural, ethnic and racial backgrounds. There was a large population of Italian Americans just east of Roseland in the Kensington community. While some Italians of southern Italian origins came to the area from the Little Italy neighborhood on Taylor Street, many other Italians who settled in the area came from the northern Italian regions of Piedmont, Tuscany, and the Veneto. All these Italians from varied regions of Italy helped to make the Kensington area, and the wider Roseland area, centers of South Side Italian life. Sant' Antonio di Padua (St. Anthony's) Church (built 1903) and its grammar school were key religious and cultural landmarks of the area. Supporting businesses flourished rapidly changing the farmland into commercial and residential communities surrounded by a number of industries. Stores on Michigan Avenue served the entire south side of Chicago.

Fortunes began to change in the 1960s when industry patterns lead to economic decline. Steel mills to the east were shuttered. Pullman scaled back production and eventually closed for good in 1981. The huge Sherwin-Williams paint factory closed for good in 1995. A period of rapid ethnic succession took place.

The much lauded mural "I Welcome Myself to a New Place: Roseland Pullman Mural," by Olivia Gude, Jon Pounds, and Marcus Jefferson, 1988, was designed to unite the predominantly African American community of Roseland with its nearest neighbor, the predominantly white Pullman community.

Neighborhoods

Fernwood

Roseland is a stronghold for the Democratic Party. In the 2016 presidential election, Roseland cast 20,042 votes for Democratic Party. In the 2016 presidential election, Roseland cast 20,042 votes for Hillary Clinton and cast 316 votes for Donald Trump.[6] In the 2012 presidential election, Roseland cast 24,400 votes for Barack Obama and cast 132 votes for Mitt Romney.[7]

Transportation

Roseland
Community Area 49 - Roseland
Roseland as viewed from above.
Roseland as viewed from above.
Location within the city of Chicago
Location within the city of Chicago
Coordinates: 41°42.6′N 87°37.2′W / 41.7100°N 87.6200°W / 41.7100; -87.6200Coordinates: 41°42.6′N 87°37.2′W / 41.7100°N 87.6200°W / 41.7100; -87.6200
CountryUnited States
StateIllinois
CountyCook
CityChicago
Neighborhoods
Area
 • Total4.86 sq mi (12.58 km2)
Population
 (2015)
 • Total42,505[1]
Demographics 2018[1]
 • White