The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave
in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted at the end of communist
rule throughout the world, including in Central and Eastern Europe
and beyond. The period is often also called the Fall of Communism and sometimes called the Fall of Nations or the Autumn of Nations,
a play on the term Spring of Nations
that is sometimes used to describe the Revolutions of 1848
. These revolutions
started with the Polish workers' mass strike movement on 21 April 1988, and ended when Cambodia enacted a new Constitution, in which Communism was abandoned
, on 24 September 1993.
The events of this revolution began in Poland
and continued in Hungary
, East Germany
. One feature common to most of these developments was the extensive use of campaigns
of civil resistance
, demonstrating popular opposition to the continuation of one-party rule
and contributing to the pressure for change. Romania and Afghanistan were the only countries whose citizens
and opposition forces used violence
to overthrow their Communist regimes
. Protests in Tiananmen Square
(April–June 1989) failed to stimulate major political changes in Mainland China
, but influential images
of courageous defiance during that protest helped to precipitate events in other parts of the globe. On 4 June 1989, the trade union Solidarity
won an overwhelming victory in a partially free election
, leading to the peaceful fall of Communism in that country
in the summer of 1989. Also in June 1989, Hungary
began dismantling its section of the physical Iron Curtain
The opening of a border gate between Austria
and Hungary at the Pan-European Picnic
on 19 August 1989, then set in motion a peaceful chain reaction, at the end of which East Germany
reunited with West Germany
and the Eastern Bloc
had disintegrated. Due to the inconsistent action of the Eastern European rulers at the Pan-European Picnic, the bracket of the Eastern Bloc was broken. Now the media
-informed Eastern Bloc citizens knew that the Iron Curtain was no longer tight and that the power of the authorities was increasingly broken. This led to mass demonstrations
in the cities such as Leipzig
and subsequently to the fall of the Berlin Wall
in November 1989, which served as the symbolic gateway to the German reunification
The Soviet Union became a multi-party semi-presidential republic from March 1990 until its dissolution
in December 1991, resulting in eleven new countries (Armenia
), which had declared their independence
from the Soviet Union in the course of the year, while the Baltic states
their independence in September 1991. The rest of the Soviet Union, which constituted the bulk of the area
, continued with the establishment of the Russian Federation
in December 1991. Albania
abandoned Communism between 1990 and 1992. By 1992, Yugoslavia had split into five new countries
, namely Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Republic of Macedonia
and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was later renamed Serbia and Montenegro
in 2003 and eventually split in 2006
into two states, Serbia
. Serbia was then further split with the breakaway of the partially recognized
state of Kosovo
in 2008. Czechoslovakia
dissolved three years after the end of Communist rule
, splitting peacefully into the Czech Republic
on 1 January 1993. The impact of these events was felt in the many socialist states
was abandoned in the countries such as the Ethiopia
(1991), South Yemen
(1992) and Cambodia
The political reforms
varied, but in only the four countries
were Communist parties
able to retain a monopoly on the power
, namely China
, and Vietnam
. North Korea
has changed to Juche
since 2009. Too many communist and socialist organisations
in the West
turned their guiding principles over to the social democracy
and democratic socialism
. The Communist parties
and San Marino
suffered and the reformation of the Italian political class
took place in the early 1990s. In contrast, and somewhat later, in South America
, a Pink tide
began in Venezuela
in 1999 and shaped politics
in the other parts of the continent
through the early 2000s. The European political landscape
changed drastically, with several former Eastern Bloc
countries joining the NATO
and the European Union
, resulting in the stronger economic
and social integration
with the Western Europe
and the United States
Development of the Eastern Bloc
The Russian Revolution
of 1917 (and 1922) saw the first communist state
in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(USSR), when the Bolsheviks
overthrew the provisional government
The period between the world wars saw communism on the rise in many parts of the world, especially in towns and cities. This led to a series of purges in many countries to stifle the movement. Violent resistance to this repression led to an increase in support for communism in Central and Eastern Europe.
In the early stages of World War II
, both Nazi Germany
and the USSR invaded and occupied the countries of Eastern Europe after the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
. Germany then turned against and invaded the USSR: the battles of this Eastern Front
were the largest in history. The USSR joined with the Allies
and in conferences at Tehran
, the Allies agreed that Central and Eastern Europe would be in the "Soviet sphere of political influence.". The Soviets fought the Germans to a veritable standstill and after victory at Stalingrad, began driving them back, reaching Berlin to end the war. Nazi ideology was violently anti-communist
, and the Nazis brutally suppressed communist movements in the countries it occupied. Communists played a large part in the resistance to the Nazis
and the resistance to the Nazis by the Germans
in these countries. As the Soviets forced the Germans back, they assumed temporary control of these devastated areas.
After World War II
, the Soviets ensured that communists loyal to Moscow
took power in the countries it occupied. The Soviets retained troops throughout these territories. The Cold War
saw these states, bound together by the Warsaw Pact
, had continuing tensions with the capitalist west, which was bound together by NATO
. The Chinese Revolution
During the Hungarian Revolution of 1956
, a spontaneous nationwide anti-authoritarian revolt, the Soviet Union
invaded Hungary to assert control. Similarly, in 1968, the USSR repressed the Prague Spring
by organizing the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
Emergence of Solidarity in Poland
Labour turmoil in Poland during 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union Solidarity
, led by Lech Wałęsa
, which over time became a political force. On 13 December 1981, Polish Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski
started a crackdown on Solidarity by declaring martial law in Poland
, suspending the union, and temporarily imprisoning all of its leaders.
Although several Eastern Bloc countries had attempted some abortive, limited economic and political reform since the 1950s (e.g. the Hungarian Revolution of 1956
and Prague Spring
of 1968), the ascension of reform-minded Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev
in 1985 signaled the trend toward greater liberalization. During the mid-1980s, a younger generation of Soviet apparatchiks
, led by Gorbachev, began advocating fundamental reform in order to reverse years of Brezhnev stagnation
. After decades of growth, the Soviet Union was now facing a period of severe economic decline and needed Western technology and credits to make up for its increasing backwardness. The costs of maintaining its military, the KGB
, and subsidies to foreign client states further strained the moribund Soviet economy
The first signs of major reform came in 1986 when Gorbachev launched a policy of ''glasnost
'' (openness) in the Soviet Union, and emphasized the need for ''perestroika
'' (economic restructuring). By the spring of 1989, the Soviet Union had not only experienced lively media debate but had also held its first multi-candidate elections in the newly established Congress of People's Deputies
. While glasnost ostensibly advocated openness and political criticism, these were only permitted within a narrow spectrum dictated by the state. The general public in the Eastern Bloc was still subject to secret police
and political repression
Gorbachev urged his Central and Southeast European counterparts to imitate ''perestroika'' and ''glasnost'' in their own countries. However, while reformists in Hungary and Poland were emboldened by the force of liberalization spreading from the east, other Eastern Bloc countries remained openly skeptical and demonstrated aversion to reform. Believing Gorbachev's reform initiatives would be short-lived, hardline communist rulers like East Germany
's Erich Honecker
's Todor Zhivkov
's Gustáv Husák
's Nicolae Ceauşescu
obstinately ignored the calls for change. "When your neighbor puts up new wallpaper, it doesn't mean you have to too," declared one East German politburo
By the late 1980s, people in the Caucasus
and Baltic states
were demanding more autonomy from Moscow
, and the Kremlin was losing some of its control over certain regions and elements in the Soviet Union
. In November 1988, the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic
issued a declaration of sovereignty
, which would eventually lead to other states making similar declarations of autonomy.
The Chernobyl disaster
in April 1986 had major political and social effects that catalyzed or at least partially caused the revolutions of 1989. One political result of the disaster was the greatly increased significance of the new Soviet policy of glasnost
It is difficult to establish the total economic cost of the disaster. According to Gorbachev, the Soviet Union spent 18 billion rubles (the equivalent of US$18 billion at that time) on containment and decontamination, virtually bankrupting itself.
[Gorbachev, Mikhail (1996), interview in Johnson, Thomas, ', ilm Discovery Channel, retrieved 19 February 2014.]
Impact of Solidarity grows
Throughout the mid-1980s, Solidarity
persisted solely as an underground organization, supported by the Catholic Church. However, by the late 1980s, Solidarity became sufficiently strong to frustrate Jaruzelski's
attempts at reform, and nationwide strikes in 1988
forced the government to open dialogue with Solidarity. On 9 March 1989, both sides agreed to a bicameral legislature
called the National Assembly
. The already existing Sejm
would become the lower house. The Senate would be elected by the people. Traditionally a ceremonial office, the presidency was given more powers (Polish Round Table Agreement
On 7 July 1989, President Mikhail Gorbachev implicitly renounced the use of force against other Soviet-bloc nations. Speaking to members of the 23-nation Council of Europe, Mr. Gorbachev made no direct reference to the so-called Brezhnev Doctrine
, under which Moscow had asserted the right to use force to prevent a Warsaw Pact member from leaving the Communist fold. He stated, "Any interference in domestic affairs and any attempts to restrict the sovereignty of states—friends, allies or any others—are inadmissible". The policy was termed the Sinatra Doctrine
, in a joking reference to the Frank Sinatra
song "My Way
". Poland became the first Warsaw Pact country to break free of Soviet domination.
Fall of dictatorial regimes
In February 1986, in one of the first peaceful, mass-movement
revolutions against a dictatorship
, the People Power Revolution
in the Philippines
peacefully overthrew dictator Ferdinand Marcos
and inaugurated Cory Aquino
as the President
The domino effect
of the revolutions of 1989 affected other regimes as well. The South Africa
regime and Pinochet's military dictatorship in Chile
were gradually dismantled during the 1990s as the West withdrew their funding and diplomatic support. Ghana
, South Korea
, Republic of China
, among many others, elected democratic governments.
Exact tallies of the number of democracies vary depending on the criteria used for assessment, but by some measures by the late 1990s there were well over 100 democracies in the world, a marked increase in just a few decades.
National political movements
A wave of strikes
hit Poland from 21 April then this continued in May 1988. A second wave began on 15 August, when a strike broke out at the July Manifesto
coal mine in Jastrzębie-Zdrój
, with the workers demanding the re-legalisation of the Solidarity trade union. Over the next few days, sixteen other mines went on strike followed by a number of shipyards, including on 22 August the Gdansk Shipyard
, famous as the epicentre of the 1980 industrial unrest
that spawned Solidarity. On 31 August 1988 Lech Wałęsa
, the leader of Solidarity, was invited to Warsaw by the Communist authorities, who had finally agreed to talks.
On 18 January 1989 at a stormy session of the Tenth Plenary Session of the ruling United Workers' Party
, General Wojciech Jaruzelski
, the First Secretary, managed to get party backing for formal negotiations with Solidarity leading to its future legalisation, although this was achieved only by threatening the resignation of the entire party leadership if thwarted. On 6 February 1989 formal Round Table discussions began in the Hall of Columns in Warsaw. On 4 April 1989 the historic Round Table Agreement
was signed legalising Solidarity and setting up partly free parliamentary elections
to be held on 4 June 1989 (incidentally, the day following the midnight crackdown on Chinese protesters in Tiananmen Square). A political earthquake followed as the victory of Solidarity surpassed all predictions. Solidarity candidates captured all the seats they were allowed to compete for in the Sejm
, while in the Senate
they captured 99 out of the 100 available seats (with the one remaining seat taken by an independent candidate). At the same time, many prominent Communist candidates failed to gain even the minimum number of votes required to capture the seats that were reserved for them.
On 15 August 1989, the Communists' two longtime coalition partners, the United People's Party
(ZSL) and the Democratic Party
(SD), broke their alliance with the PZPR and announced their support for Solidarity. The last Communist Prime Minister of Poland, General Czesław Kiszczak
, said he would resign to allow a non-Communist to form an administration. As Solidarity was the only other political grouping that could possibly form a government, it was virtually assured that a Solidarity member would become prime minister. On 19 August 1989, in a stunning watershed moment, Tadeusz Mazowiecki
, an anti-Communist editor, Solidarity supporter, and devout Catholic, was nominated as Prime Minister of Poland and the Soviet Union voiced no protest. Five days later, on 24 August 1989, Poland's Parliament ended more than 40 years of one-party rule by making Mazowiecki the country's first non-Communist Prime Minister since the early postwar years. In a tense Parliament, Mazowiecki received 378 votes, with 4 against and 41 abstentions. On 13 September 1989, a new non-Communist government was approved by parliament, the first of its kind in the Eastern Bloc
. On 17 November 1989 the statue of Felix Dzerzhinsky
, Polish founder of the Cheka
and symbol of Communist oppression, was torn down in Bank Square, Warsaw
. On 29 December 1989 the Sejm amended the constitution to change the official name of the country from the People's Republic of Poland to the Republic of Poland. The communist Polish United Workers' Party dissolved itself on 29 January 1990 and transformed itself into the Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland
In 1990, Jaruzelski resigned as Poland's president and was succeeded by Wałęsa, who won the 1990 presidential elections
held in two rounds on 25 November and 9 December. Wałęsa's inauguration as president on 21 December 1990 is thought by many to be the formal end of the Communist People's Republic of Poland
and the beginning of the modern Republic of Poland
. The Warsaw Pact
was dissolved on 1 July 1991. On 27 October 1991 the first entirely free Polish parliamentary elections
since 1945 took place. This completed Poland's transition from Communist Party rule to a Western-style liberal democratic political system. The last Russian troops left Poland on 18 September 1993.
Following Poland's lead, Hungary was next to switch to a non-Communist government. Although Hungary had achieved some lasting economic reforms and limited political liberalization during the 1980s, major reforms only occurred following the replacement of János Kádár
as General Secretary of the Communist Party on 23 May 1988 with Károly Grósz
. On 24 November 1988 Miklós Németh
was appointed Prime Minister. On 12 January 1989, the Parliament adopted a "democracy package", which included trade union pluralism; freedom of association, assembly, and the press; a new electoral law; and a radical revision of the constitution, among other provisions. On 29 January 1989, contradicting the official view of history held for more than 30 years, a member of the ruling Politburo, Imre Pozsgay
, declared that Hungary's 1956 rebellion was a popular uprising rather than a foreign-instigated attempt at counterrevolution.
Mass demonstrations on 15 March, the National Day, persuaded the regime to begin negotiations with the emergent non-Communist political forces. Round Table talks
began on 22 April and continued until the Round Table agreement was signed on 18 September. The talks involved the Communists (MSzMP) and the newly emerging independent political forces Fidesz
, the Alliance of Free Democrats
(SzDSz), the Hungarian Democratic Forum
(MDF), the Independent Smallholders' Party
, the Hungarian People's Party
, the Endre Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Society, and the Democratic Trade Union of Scientific Workers. At a later stage the Democratic Confederation of Free Trade Unions
and the Christian Democratic People's Party
(KDNP) were invited. At these talks a number of Hungary's future political leaders emerged, including László Sólyom
, József Antall
, György Szabad
, Péter Tölgyessy and Viktor Orbán
On 2 May 1989, the first visible cracks in the Iron Curtain
appeared when Hungary
began dismantling its long border fence
with Austria. This increasingly destabilized East Germany
over the summer and autumn, as thousands of their citizens illegally crossed over to the West through the Hungarian-Austrian border. On 1 June 1989 the Communist Party admitted that former Prime Minister Imre Nagy
, hanged for treason for his role in the 1956 Hungarian uprising, was executed illegally after a show trial. On 16 June 1989 Nagy was given a solemn funeral on Budapest's largest square in front of crowds of at least 100,000, followed by a hero's burial.
The initially inconspicuous opening of a border gate of the Iron Curtain
between Austria and Hungary in August 1989 then triggered a chain reaction, at the end of which the GDR no longer existed and the Eastern Bloc had disintegrated. It was the largest escape movement from East Germany since the Berlin Wall was built in 1961. The idea of opening the border came from Otto von Habsburg
and was brought up by him to Miklós Németh
, who promoted the idea.
[Miklós Németh in Interview, Austrian TV - ORF "Report", 25 June 2019.]
The local organization in Sopron took over the Hungarian Democratic Forum, the other contacts were made via Habsburg and Imre Pozsgay
. Extensive advertising for the planned picnic was made by posters and flyers among the GDR holidaymakers in Hungary. The Austrian branch of the Paneuropean Union
, which was then headed by Karl von Habsburg
, distributed thousands of brochures inviting them to a picnic near the border at Sopron. After the pan-European picnic, Erich Honecker
dictated the ''Daily Mirror'' of 19 August 1989: "Habsburg distributed leaflets far into Poland, on which the East German holidaymakers were invited to a picnic. When they came to the picnic, they were given gifts, food and Deutsche Mark, and then they were persuaded to come to the West." But with the mass exodus at the Pan-European Picnic, the subsequent hesitant behavior of the Socialist Unity Party of East Germany and the non-intervention of the Soviet Union broke the dams. Now tens of thousands of the media-informed East Germans made their way to Hungary, which was no longer ready to keep its borders completely closed or to oblige its border troops to use force of arms. In particular, the leadership of the GDR in East Berlin no longer dared to completely block the borders of their own country.
[Andreas Rödder, Deutschland einig Vaterland – Die Geschichte der Wiedervereinigung (2009).]
The Round Table agreement
of 18 September encompassed six draft laws that covered an overhaul of the Constitution
, establishment of a Constitutional Court
, the functioning and management of political parties, multiparty elections for National Assembly deputies, the penal code and the law on penal procedures (the last two changes represented an additional separation of the Party from the state apparatus). The electoral system was a compromise: about half of the deputies would be elected proportionally and half by the majoritarian system. A weak presidency was also agreed upon, but no consensus was attained on who should elect the president (parliament or the people) and when this election should occur (before or after parliamentary elections). On 7 October 1989, the Communist Party at its last congress re-established itself as the Hungarian Socialist Party
. In a historic session from 16 to 20 October, the parliament adopted legislation providing for a multi-party parliamentary election
and a direct presidential election, which took place on 24 March 1990. The legislation transformed Hungary from a People's Republic
into the Republic of Hungary
, guaranteed human and civil rights, and created an institutional structure that ensured separation of powers among the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government. On 23 October 1989, on the 33rd anniversary of the 1956 Revolution, the Communist regime in Hungary was formally abolished. The Soviet military occupation of Hungary
, which had persisted since World War II, ended on 19 June 1991.
On 2 May 1989, Hungary started dismantling its barbed-wire border
. The border
was still heavily guarded, but it was a political
The Pan-European Picnic
in August 1989 finally started a movement that could not be stopped by the rulers in the Eastern Bloc. It was the largest escape movement from East Germany since the Berlin Wall was built in 1961. The patrons of the picnic, Otto von Habsburg
and the Hungarian Minister of State Imre Pozsgay
saw the planned event as an opportunity to test the reaction of Mikhail Gorbachev
and the Eastern Bloc countries to a large opening of the border including flight. After the pan-European picnic, Erich Honecker
dictated the Daily Mirror of 19 August 1989: "Habsburg distributed leaflets far into Poland, on which the East German holidaymakers were invited to a picnic. When they came to the picnic, they were given gifts, food, and Deutsche Mark, and then they were persuaded to come to the West." But with the mass exodus at the Pan-European Picnic, the subsequent hesitant behavior of the Socialist Unity Party of East Germany and the non-intervention of the Soviet Union broke the dams. Now tens of thousands of the media-informed East Germans made their way to Hungary, which was no longer ready to keep its borders completely closed or to oblige its border troops to use force of arms.
By the end of September 1989, more than 30,000 East Germans had escaped to the West before the GDR
denied travel to Hungary, leaving Czechoslovakia
as the only neighboring state to which East Germans could escape. Thousands of East Germans tried to reach the West by occupying the West German diplomatic facilities in other Central and Eastern European capitals, notably the Prague Embassy
and the Hungarian Embassy, where thousands camped in the muddy garden from August to November waiting for German political reform. The GDR closed the border to Czechoslovakia on 3 October, thereby isolating itself from all its neighbors. Having been shut off from their last chance for escape, an increasing number of East Germans participated in the Monday demonstrations
in Leipzig on 4, 11, and 18 September, each attracting 1,200 to 1,500 demonstrators. Many were arrested and beaten, but the people refused to be intimidated. On 25 September, the protests
attracted 8,000 demonstrators.
After the fifth successive Monday demonstration in Leipzig
on 2 October attracted 10,000 protesters, Socialist Unity Party
(SED) leader Erich Honecker
issued a ''shoot and kill'' order to the military.
Communists prepared a huge police, militia, Stasi
, and work-combat troop presence, and there were rumors a Tiananmen Square-style massacre
was being planned for the following Monday's demonstration on 9 October.
On 6 and 7 October, Mikhail Gorbachev
visited East Germany to mark the 40th anniversary of the German Democratic Republic, and urged the East German leadership to accept reform. A famous quote of his is rendered in German as "Wer zu spät kommt, den bestraft das Leben" ("The one who comes too late is punished by life."). However, Honecker remained opposed to internal reform, with his regime even going so far as forbidding the circulation of Soviet publications that it viewed as subversive.
In spite of rumors that the Communists were planning a massacre on 9 October, 70,000 citizens demonstrated in Leipzig that Monday and the authorities on the ground refused to open fire. The following Monday, 16 October 120,000 people demonstrated on the streets of Leipzig.
Erich Honecker had hoped that the Soviet troops
stationed in the GDR by the Warsaw Pact
would restore the communist government and suppress the civilian protests. By 1989 the Soviet government deemed it impractical for the Soviet Union to continue asserting its control
over the Eastern Bloc, so it took a neutral stance regarding the events happening in East Germany. Soviet troops stationed in eastern Europe were under strict instructions from the Soviet leadership not to intervene in the political affairs of the Eastern Bloc nations and remained in their barracks. Faced with ongoing civil unrest, the SED deposed Honecker on 18 October and replaced him with the number-two-man in the regime, Egon Krenz
. However, the demonstrations kept growing, and on Monday, 23 October, the Leipzig protesters numbered 300,000 and remained as large the following week.
The border to Czechoslovakia was opened again on 1 November, and the Czechoslovak authorities soon let all East Germans travel directly to West Germany without further bureaucratic ado, thus lifting their part of the Iron Curtain on 3 November. On 4 November the authorities decided to authorize a demonstration in Berlin and were faced with the Alexanderplatz demonstration
, where half a million citizens converged on the capital demanding freedom in the biggest protest the GDR ever witnessed. Unable to stem the ensuing flow of refugees to the West through Czechoslovakia, the East German authorities eventually caved in to public pressure by allowing East German citizens to enter West Berlin and West Germany directly, via existing border points, on 9 November 1989, without having properly briefed the border guards. Triggered by the erratic words of regime spokesman Günter Schabowski
in a TV press conference, stating that the planned changes were in effect "immediately, without delay," hundreds of thousands of people took advantage of the opportunity. The guards were quickly overwhelmed by the growing crowds of people demanding to be let out into West Berlin. After receiving no feedback from their superiors, the guards, unwilling to use force, relented and opened the gates
to West Berlin. Soon new crossing points were forced open in the Berlin Wall
by the people, and sections of the wall were literally torn down. The guards were unaware of what was happening and stood by as the East Germans took to the wall with hammers and chisels.
On 7 November, the entire ''Ministerrat der DDR'' (State Council of East Germany
), including its chairman Willi Stoph
, resigned. A new government was formed under a considerably more liberal Communist, Hans Modrow
On 1 December, the Volkskammer
removed the SED's leading role from the constitution of the GDR
On 3 December Krenz resigned as leader of the SED; he resigned as head of state three days later. On 7 December, Round Table talks opened between the SED and other political parties. On 16 December 1989, the SED was dissolved and refounded as the SED-PDS
, abandoning Marxism–Leninism and becoming a mainstream democratic socialist party.
On 15 January 1990, the Stasi's headquarters was stormed by protesters. Modrow became the de facto leader of East Germany until free elections were held on 18 March 1990
—the first since November 1932
. The SED, renamed the Party of Democratic Socialism
, was heavily defeated. Lothar de Maizière
of the East German Christian Democratic Union
became Prime Minister on 4 April 1990 on a platform of speedy reunification
with the West. The two Germanies were reunified on 3 October 1990.
willingness to abandon such a strategically vital ally marked a dramatic change by the Soviet superpower and a fundamental paradigm shift
in international relations
, which until 1989 had been dominated by the East–West divide running through Berlin itself. The last Russian troops
left the territory of the former GDR, now part of a reunited Federal Republic of Germany
, on 1 September 1994.
The "Velvet Revolution" was a non-violent transition of power in Czechoslovakia from the Communist government to a parliamentary republic. On 17 November 1989, riot police suppressed a peaceful student demonstration in Prague, a day after a similar demonstration passed without incident in Bratislava. Although controversy continues over whether anyone died that night, that event sparked a series of popular demonstrations from 19 November to late December. By 20 November the number of peaceful protesters assembled in Prague had swelled from 200,000 the previous day to an estimated half-million. Five days later, the Letná Square protest held 800,000 people. On 24 November, the entire Communist Party leadership, including general secretary Miloš Jakeš
, resigned. A two-hour general strike, involving all citizens of Czechoslovakia, was successfully held on 27 November.
With the collapse of other Communist governments, and increasing street protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announced on 28 November 1989 that it would relinquish power and dismantle the single-party state. Barbed wire and other obstructions were removed from the border with West Germany and Austria in early December. On 10 December, President Gustáv Husák
appointed the first largely non-Communist government in Czechoslovakia since 1948 and resigned. Alexander Dubček
was elected speaker of the federal parliament on 28 December and Václav Havel
the President of Czechoslovakia on 29 December 1989. In June 1990 Czechoslovakia held its first democratic elections since 1946. On 27 June 1991 the last Soviet troops were withdrawn from Czechoslovakia.
In October and November 1989, demonstrations on ecological issues were staged in Sofia, where demands for political reform were also voiced. The demonstrations were suppressed, but on 10 November 1989 (the day after the Berlin Wall was breached) Bulgaria's long-serving leader Todor Zhivkov
was ousted by his Politburo. He was succeeded by a considerably more liberal Communist, former foreign minister Petar Mladenov
. Moscow apparently approved the leadership change, as Zhivkov had been opposed to Gorbachev's policies. The new regime immediately repealed restrictions on free speech and assembly, which led to the first mass demonstration on 17 November, as well as the formation of anti-communist movements. Nine of them united as the Union of Democratic Forces
(UDF) on 7 December. The UDF was not satisfied with Zhivkov's ouster, and demanded additional democratic reforms, most importantly the removal of the constitutionally mandated leading role of the Bulgarian Communist Party
Mladenov announced on 11 December 1989 that the Communist Party would abandon its monopoly on power, and that multiparty elections would be held the following year. In February 1990, the Bulgarian legislature deleted the portion of the constitution about the "leading role" of the Communist Party. Eventually, it was decided that a round table on the Polish model would be held in 1990 and elections held by June 1990. The round table took place from 3 January to 14 May 1990, at which an agreement was reached on the transition to democracy. The Communist Party abandoned Marxism–Leninism in April 1990 and renamed itself as the Bulgarian Socialist Party
. In June 1990 the first free elections since 1931 were held, won by the Bulgarian Socialist Party.
After having suppressed the Braşov Rebellion
in 1987, Nicolae Ceauşescu
was re-elected for another five years as leader of the Romanian Communist Party
(PCR) in November 1989, signalling that he intended to ride out the anti-Communist uprisings sweeping the rest of Europe. As Ceauşescu prepared to go on a state visit to Iran, his Securitate
ordered the arrest and exile of a local Hungarian Calvinist
minister, László Tőkés
, on 16 December, for sermons offending the regime. Tőkés was seized, but only after serious rioting erupted. Timișoara
was the first city to react on 16 December and civil unrest continued for five days.
Returning from Iran, Ceauşescu ordered a mass rally in his support outside Communist Party headquarters in Bucharest on 21 December. However, to his shock, the crowd booed and jeered him as he spoke. Years of repressed dissatisfaction boiled to the surface throughout the Romanian populace and even among elements in Ceauşescu's own government, and the demonstrations spread throughout the country.
At first, the security forces obeyed Ceauşescu's orders to shoot protesters. However, on the morning of 22 December, the Romanian military suddenly changed sides. This came after it was announced that defense minister Vasile Milea
had committed suicide after being unmasked as a traitor. Believing Milea had actually been murdered, the rank-and-file soldiers went over virtually ''en masse'' to the revolution. Army tanks began moving towards the Central Committee building with crowds swarming alongside them. The rioters forced open the doors of the Central Committee building in an attempt to capture Ceauşescu and his wife, Elena
, coming within a few meters of the couple. However, they managed to escape via a helicopter waiting for them on the roof of the building.
Although elation followed the flight of the Ceauşescus, uncertainty surrounded their fate. On Christmas Day, Romanian television showed the Ceauşescus facing a hasty trial, and then being executed by firing squad. An interim National Salvation Front
Council led by Ion Iliescu
took over and announced elections for April 1990, the first free elections held in Romania since 1937. These were, however, postponed until 20 May 1990. The Romanian Revolution was the bloodiest of the revolutions of 1989: over 1,000 people died, one hundred of which were children, the youngest only one month old. Unlike its kindred parties in the Warsaw Pact, the PCR simply melted away; no present-day Romanian party claiming to be its successor has ever been elected to the legislature since the change of system. However, former PCR members have played significant roles in post-1989 Romanian politics; every Romanian President
until the election of Klaus Iohannis
was a former Communist Party member.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
was not a part of the Warsaw Pact but pursued its own version
of Communism under Josip Broz Tito
. It was a multi-ethnic state which Tito was able to maintain through a Yugoslav patriotic doctrine
of "Brotherhood and unity
". Tensions between ethnicities began to escalate, however, with the Croatian Spring
of 1970–71, a movement for greater Croatia
n autonomy, which was suppressed. Constitutional changes were instituted in 1974, and the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution
devolved some federal powers to the constituent republics and provinces. After Tito's death in 1980 ethnic tensions grew, first in Albanian-majority SAP Kosovo
with the 1981 protests in Kosovo
Parallel to the same process, Slovenia
initiated a policy of gradual liberalization in 1984, somewhat similar to the Soviet Perestroika. This provoked tensions between the League of Communists of Slovenia
and the central Yugoslav Party
and federal army
. In 1984 the decade long ban to build the Saint Sava Cahedral
was lifted, the backdown of the communist elite and a popular gathering of 100.000 believers on 12 May 1985 to celebrate liturgy inside the walls of the ruins marked the return of religion in postwar Yugoslavia. By the late 1980s, many civil society groups were pushing towards democratization
, while widening the space for cultural plurality. In 1987 and 1988, a series of clashes between the emerging civil society and the Communist regime culminated with the so-called Slovene Spring
, a mass movement for democratic reforms. The Committee for the Defence of Human Rights
was established as the platform of all major non-Communist political movements. By early 1989, several anti-Communist political parties were already openly functioning, challenging the hegemony of the Slovenian Communists. Soon, the Slovenian Communists, pressured by their own civil society, came into conflict with the Serbian Communist
In January 1990, an extraordinary Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia
was called in order to settle the disputes among its constituent parties. Faced with being completely outnumbered, the Slovenian and Croatian
Communists walked out of the Congress on 23 January 1990, thus effectively bringing to an end to Yugoslavia's communist party. Both parties of the two western republics negotiated free multi-party elections with their own opposition movements.
On 8 April 1990, the democratic and anti-Yugoslav DEMOS coalition
won the elections in Slovenia
, while on 22 April 1990 the Croatian elections
resulted in a landslide victory for the nationalist Croatian Democratic Union
(HDZ) led by Franjo Tuđman
. The results were much more balanced in Bosnia and Herzegovina
and in Macedonia
in November 1990, while the parliamentary
elections of December 1990 in Serbia and Montenegro
consolidated the power of Milošević and his supporters. Free elections on the level of the federation were never carried out.
The Slovenian and Croatian leaderships started preparing plans for secession from the federation, while a part of the Serbs of Croatia
started the so-called Log Revolution
, an insurrection organized by Serbia
that would lead to the creation of the breakaway region of SAO Krajina
. In the Slovenian independence referendum
on 23 December 1990, 88.5% of residents voted for independence. In the Croatian independence referendum
on 19 May 1991, 93.24% voted for independence.
The escalating ethnic and national tensions were exacerbated by the drive for independence and led to the following Yugoslav wars
* War in Slovenia
* Croatian War of Independence
* Bosnian War
* Kosovo War
(1998–1999), including the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia
In addition, the insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) and the insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
(2001) are also often discussed in the same context.
In the People's Socialist Republic of Albania
, Enver Hoxha
, who led Albania for four decades, died on 11 April 1985. His successor, Ramiz Alia
, began to gradually open up the regime from above. In 1989, the first revolts started in Shkodra
and spread in other cities. Eventually, the existing regime introduced some liberalization, including measures in 1990 providing for freedom to travel abroad. Efforts were begun to improve ties with the outside world. March 1991 elections—the first free elections in Albania since 1923, and only the third free elections in the country's history—left the former Communists in power, but a general strike and urban opposition led to the formation of a coalition cabinet including non-Communists. Albania's former Communists were routed in elections held in March 1992, amid economic collapse and social unrest
Mongolia declared independence in 1911 during the fall
of the Qing dynasty
. The Mongolian People's Party took power
in 1921, and the party renamed itself the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party. During these years, Mongolia was closely aligned with the Soviet Union. After Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal
left in 1984, the new leadership under Jambyn Batmönkh
implemented economic reforms, but failed to appeal to those who, in late 1989, wanted broader changes.
The "Mongolian Revolution
" was a democratic, peaceful
revolution that started with demonstrations and hunger strike
s and ended 70-years of Marxism-Leninism
and eventually moved towards democracy. It was spearheaded by mostly younger people demonstrating on Sükhbaatar Square
in the capital Ulaanbaatar
. It ended with the authoritarian
government resigning without bloodshed. Some of the main organizers were Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj
, Sanjaasürengiin Zorig
, Erdeniin Bat-Üül
, and Bat-Erdeniin Batbayar
During the morning of 10 December 1989, the first public demonstration occurred in front of the Youth Cultural Center in the capital of Ulaanbaatar. There, Elbegdorj announced the creation of the Mongolian Democratic Union
and the first pro-democracy movement in Mongolia began. The protesters called for Mongolia to adopt perestroika
. Dissident leaders demanded free elections and economic reform, but within the context of a "human democratic socialism".
The protesters injected a nationalist element
into the protests by using traditional Mongolian script
—which most Mongolians could not read—as a symbolic repudiation of the political system which had imposed the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
. In late December 1989, demonstrations increased when news came of Garry Kasparov
's interview in ''Playboy
'', suggesting that the Soviet Union could improve its economic health by selling Mongolia to China.
On 14 January 1990, the protesters, having grown from three hundred to some 1,000, met in a square in front of Lenin Museum in Ulaanbaatar, which has been named Freedom Square since then. A demonstration in Sükhbaatar Square
on 21 January (in weather of -30 C) followed. Protesters carried banners alluding to Chinggis Khaan (also referred to Genghis Khan
), rehabilitating a figure whom Soviet schooling neglected to praise.
In subsequent months of 1990, activists continued to organize demonstrations, rallies, protests and hunger strikes, as well as teachers' and workers' strikes.
Activists had growing support from Mongolians, both in the capital and the countryside and the union's activities led to other calls for democracy all over the country. After numerous demonstrations of many thousands of people in the capital city as well as provincial centers, on 4 March 1990, the MDU and three other reform organizations held a joint outdoor mass meeting, inviting the government to attend. The government sent no representative to what became a demonstration of over 100,000 people demanding democratic change.
This culminated with Jambyn Batmönkh
, chairman of Politburo of MPRP's Central Committee decided to dissolve the Politburo and to resign on 9 March 1990.
Mongolia's first free, multi-party elections for a bicameral parliament took place on 29 July 1990.
Parties ran for 430 seats in the Great Hural. Opposition parties were not able to nominate enough candidates. The opposition nominated 346 candidates for the 430 seats in the Great Hural (upper house). The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party
(MPRP) won 357 seats in the Great Hural and 31 out of 53 seats in the Small Hural (which was later abolished) as well. The MPRP enjoyed a strong position in the countryside. The State Great Khural
first met on 3 September 1990 and elected a president (MPRP), vice president (Social Democrat
) who was also a chairman of the Baga Hural, prime minister (MPRP), and 50 members to the Baga Hural (lower house). In November 1991, the People's Great Hural began a discussion on a new constitution
, which entered into force on 12 February 1992. In addition, the new constitution restructured the legislative branch of government, creating a unicameral legislature, the State Great Hural (SGH). The MPRP retained its majority but lost the 1996 elections. The final Russian troops, which had stationed in Mongolia in 1966, fully withdrew in December 1992.
While China did not undergo a revolution resulting in a new form of government in 1989, a popular national movement led to large demonstrations in favor of democratic reforms. Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping
had developed the concept of socialism with Chinese characteristics
and enacted local market economy
reforms around 1984, but the policy had stalled.
The first Chinese student demonstrations, which eventually led to the Beijing protests of 1989, took place in December 1986 in Hefei
. The students called for campus elections, the chance to study abroad, and greater availability of Western pop culture. Their protests took advantage of the loosening political atmosphere and included rallies against the slow pace of reform. Hu Yaobang
, a protégé of Deng Xiaoping and a leading advocate of reform, was blamed for the protests and forced to resign as the CCP general secretary in January 1987. In the "Anti Bourgeois Liberalization Campaign", Hu would be further denounced.
The Tiananmen Square protests were sparked by the death of Hu Yaobang on 15 April 1989. By the eve of Hu's state funeral, some 100,000 students had gathered at Tiananmen Square
to observe it; however, no leaders emerged from the Great Hall
. The movement lasted for seven weeks.
Mikhail Gorbachev visited China on 15 May during the protests, bringing many foreign news agencies to Beijing, and their sympathetic portrayals of the protesters helped galvanize a spirit of liberation among the Central, South-East and Eastern Europeans who were watching. The Chinese leadership, particularly Communist Party general secretary Zhao Ziyang
, who had begun to radically reform the economy earlier than the Soviets, was open to political reform, but not at the cost of a potential return to the disorder of the Cultural Revolution
The movement lasted from Hu's death on 15 April until tanks and troops rolled into the Tiananmen Square protests
of 4 June 1989. In Beijing, the military response
to the protest by the PRC government left many civilians in charge of clearing the square of the dead and severely injured. The exact number of casualties is not known and many different estimates exist. The event, however, did make some political change; the most notable being that China
started to open up its economy. This allowed for the country to bring in large sums of money and also started the wave of mass migration from rural Western China to urban Eastern China. The problem with the mass migration is that it has now started a deepening divide between the rural poor and the rich urban people.
The Malta Summit
consisted of a meeting between U.S. President George H. W. Bush and U.S.S.R. leader Mikhail Gorbachev, taking place between 2–3 December 1989, just a few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a meeting which contributed to the end of the Cold War
partially as a result of the broader pro-democracy movement. It was their second meeting following a meeting that included then President Ronald Reagan, in New York in December 1988. News reports of the time referred to the Malta Summit as the most important since 1945, when British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt agreed on a post-war plan for Europe at the Yalta Conference
Election chronology in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia
Between June 1989 and April 1991, every Communist or former Communist country in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia—and in the case of the USSR and Yugoslavia, every constituent republic—held competitive parliamentary elections for the first time in many decades. Some elections were only partly free, while others were fully democratic. The chronology below gives the details of these historic elections, and the dates are the first day of voting as several elections were split over several days for run-off contests:
* – 4 June 1989
* – 7 January 1990
* – 18 February 1990
* – 24 February 1990
* – 25 February 1990
* – 25 February 1990
* – 25 February 1990
* – 4 March 1990
* – 4 March 1990
* – 4 March 1990
* – 18 March 1990
* – 18 March 1990
* – 18 March 1990
* – 25 March 1990
* – 25 March 1990
* – 8 April 1990
* – 22 April 1990
* – 20 May 1990
* – 20 May 1990
– 8 June 1990
* – 10 June 1990
* – 22 June 1990
* – 30 September 1990
* – 28 October 1990
* – 11 November 1990
* – 18 November 1990
* – 9 December 1990
* – 9 December 1990
* – 31 March 1991
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
On 1 July 1991, the Warsaw Pact was officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague. At a summit later that same month, Gorbachev and Bush declared a US–Soviet strategic partnership, decisively marking the end of the Cold War. President Bush declared that US–Soviet cooperation during the 1990–1991 Gulf War
had laid the groundwork for a partnership in resolving bilateral and world problems.
As the Soviet Union rapidly withdrew its forces from Central and Southeast Europe, the spillover from the 1989 upheavals began reverberating throughout the Soviet Union itself. Agitation for self-determination led to first Lithuania, and then Estonia, Latvia, and Armenia declaring independence. However, the Soviet central government demanded the revocation of the declarations and threatened military action and economic sanctions. The government even went as far as controversially sending Soviet Army
troops to the streets of the Lithuanian capital, Vilnius
, to suppress the separatist movements
in January 1991, causing the deaths of 14 people.
Disaffection in other Soviet republics, such as Georgia and Azerbaijan, was countered by promises of greater decentralization. More open elections led to the election of candidates opposed to Communist Party rule.
''Glasnost'' had inadvertently released the long-suppressed national sentiments of all peoples within the borders of the multinational Soviet state. These nationalist movements were further strengthened by the rapid deterioration of the Soviet economy, whose ramshackle foundations were exposed with the removal of Communist discipline. Gorbachev's reforms had failed to improve the economy, with the old Soviet command structure
completely breaking down. One by one, the constituent republics created their own economic systems and voted to subordinate Soviet laws to local laws. In 1990, the Communist Party was forced to surrender its seven-decade monopoly of political power when the Supreme Soviet rescinded the clause in the Soviet Constitution that guaranteed its sole authority to rule. Gorbachev's policies caused the Communist Party to lose its grip over the media. Details of the Soviet Union's past were quickly being declassified. This caused many to distrust the 'old system' and push for greater autonomy and independence.
After the March 1991 referendum
confirmed the preservation of the Soviet Union but in a looser form, a group of Soviet hard-liners represented by Vice-President Gennadi Yanayev
launched a coup attempting to overthrow Gorbachev
in August 1991. Boris Yeltsin
, then president of the Russian SFSR
, rallied the people and much of the army against the coup and the effort collapsed. Although restored to power, Gorbachev's authority had been irreparably undermined. Gorbachev resigned as General Secretary of the Communist Party following the coup, and the Supreme Soviet dissolved the Party and banned all Communist activity on Soviet soil. Just a few weeks later, the government granted the Baltic states their independence on 6 September.
Over the next three months, one republic after another declared independence, mostly out of fear of another coup. Also during this time, the Soviet government was rendered useless as the new Russian government began taking over what remained of it, including the Kremlin. The penultimate step came on 1 December, when voters in the second most powerful republic, Ukraine, overwhelmingly voted to secede from the Soviet Union in a referendum. This ended any realistic chance of keeping the Soviet Union together. On 8 December, Yeltsin met with his counterparts from Ukraine and Belarus and signed the Belavezha Accords
, declaring that the Soviet Union had ceased to exist. Gorbachev denounced this as illegal, but he had long since lost any ability to influence events outside of Moscow.
Two weeks later, 11 of the remaining 12 republics—all except Georgia—signed the Alma-Ata Protocol
, which confirmed the Soviet Union had been effectively dissolved and replaced by a new voluntary association, the Commonwealth of Independent States
. Bowing to the inevitable, Gorbachev resigned as Soviet president on 25 December, and the Supreme Soviet ratified the Belavezha Accords the next day, legally dissolving itself and the Soviet Union as a political entity. By the end of 1991, the few Soviet institutions that hadn't been taken over by Russia had dissolved. The Soviet Union was officially disbanded, breaking up into fifteen constituent parts, thereby ending the world's largest and most influential Socialist state, and leaving to China that position. A constitutional crisis
dissolved into violence in Moscow as the Russian Army
was called in to reestablish order.
Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania implemented democratic reforms and achieved independence from the Soviet Union. The Singing Revolution
is a commonly used name for events between 1987 and 1991 that led to the restoration of the independence of Estonia
. The term was coined by an Estonian activist and artist, Heinz Valk
, in an article published a week after 10–11 June 1988 spontaneous mass night-singing demonstrations at the Tallinn Song Festival Grounds
. Estonia declared its sovereignty
from the Soviet Union on 16 November 1988. Lithuania followed on 18 May 1989 and Latvia on 28 July 1989. Lithuania declared full independence
on 11 March 1990 and on 30 March, Estonia announced the start of a transitional period to independence, followed by Latvia
on 4 May. These declarations were met with force from the Soviet Union in early 1991, in confrontations known as the "January Events" in Lithuania
and "The Barricades
" in Latvia. The Baltic states contended that their incorporation into the Soviet Union had been illegal under both international law and their own law, and they were reasserting an independence that still legally existed.
Soon after the launching of the August coup, Estonia and Latvia declared full independence. By the time the coup was foiled, the USSR was no longer unified enough to mount a forceful resistance, and it recognized the independence of the Baltic states on 6 September.
Belarus, Ukraine and Moldova
* declared full independence from the USSR on 25 August 1991. The main political changes of the early 1990s were driven by the Belarusian Popular Front
and its fraction in the Supreme Soviet of Belarus
. A few years later, a new post-communist leader, Alyaksandr Lukashenka
, obtained power. After a short period, he increased his power as a result of two controversial referendums (1995–96) and has been criticized for repressing political opposition
* participated in the War of Transnistria
between Moldova and Russian-connected forces in the separatist region of Transnistria
. Communists came back to power in a 2001 election under Vladimir Voronin
, but faced civil unrest
in 2009 over accusations of rigged elections.
* declared its independence
in August 1991. Presidencies of former Communists Leonid Kravchuk
and Leonid Kuchma
were followed by the Orange Revolution
in 2004, in which Ukrainians elected Viktor Yushchenko
(also a former member of CPSU
* and the North Caucasus
have been marred by ethnic and sectarian violence since the collapse of the USSR. In April 1989 the Soviet Army massacred
demonstrators in Tbilisi
; in November 1989, the Georgian SSR
officially condemned the Red Army invasion of Georgia
. Democracy activist Zviad Gamsakhurdia
served as president from 1991 to 1992.
Russia aided break-away republics in wars in South Ossetia
during the early 1990s, conflicts that have periodically reemerged, and Russia has accused Georgia of supporting Chechen rebels during the Chechen wars
. A coup d'état installed former Communist leader Eduard Shevardnadze
as President of Georgia until the Rose Revolution
* 's independence struggle included violence as the First Nagorno-Karabakh War
was fought between Armenia and Azerbaijan. Armenia became increasingly militarized (with the ascendancy of Kocharian, a former president of Nagorno-Karabakh
, often viewed as a milestone), while elections have since been increasingly controversial, and government corruption became rifer. After Kocharyan, notably, Serzh Sargsyan
ascended to power. Sargsyan is often noted as the "founder of the Armenian and Karabakh militaries" and was, in the past, defense minister and national security minister.
* 's Popular Front Party
won the first elections with the self-described pro-Western, populist nationalist Elchibey. However, Elchibey planned to end Moscow's advantage in the harvesting of Azeri oil and build much stronger links with Turkey and Europe, and as a result was overthrown by former Communists in a coup backed by Russia and Iran (which viewed the new country as a compelling threat, with territorial ambitions within Iranian borders and also being a strong economic rival). Mutallibov rose to power, but he was soon destabilized and eventually ousted due to popular frustration with his perceived incompetence, corruption and improper handling of the war with Armenia. Azerbaijani KGB and Azerbaijani SSR leader Heydar Aliyev
captured power and remained president until he transferred the presidency to his son in 2003. The First Nagorno-Karabakh War
was fought between Armenia and Azerbaijan, and has largely defined the fates of both countries. However, unlike Armenia, which remains a strong Russian ally, Azerbaijan has begun, since Russia's 2008 war with Georgia, to foster better relations with Turkey and other Western nations, while lessening ties with Russia.
(an autonomous republic
within Russian SFSR
that had a strong desire for independence), using tactics partly copied from the Baltics, anti-Communist coalition forces led by former Soviet general Dzhokhar Dudayev
staged a largely bloodless revolution, and ended up forcing the resignation of the Communist republican president. Dudayev was elected in a landslide in the following election and in November 1991 he proclaimed Checheno-Ingushetia
's independence as the Republic of Ichkeria. Ingushetia voted to leave the union with Chechnya, and was allowed to do so (thus it became the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria). Due to Dudayev's desire to exclude Moscow from all oil deals, Yeltsin backed a failed coup against him in 1993. In 1994, Chechnya, with only marginal recognition (one country: Georgia, which was revoked soon after the coup landing Shevardnadze in power), was invaded by Russia, spurring the First Chechen War
. The Chechens, with considerable assistance from the populations of both former-Soviet countries and from Sunni Muslim countries repelled this invasion and a peace treaty was signed in 1997. However, Chechnya became increasingly anarchic, largely due to the both political and physical destruction of the state during the invasion, and general Shamil Basaev, having evaded all control by the central government, conducted raids into neighboring Dagestan, which Russia used as a pretext for reinvading Ichkeria. Ichkeria was then reincorporated into Russia as Chechnya again, though insurgency continues.
* 's independence struggle began with the Jeltoqsan
uprising in 1986. Former Communist leader Nursultan Nazarbayev
has been in power from 1990 when he started serving as President of Kazakh SSR
until his retirement from his position in 2019.
* 's Askar Akayev
retained power until the Tulip Revolution
* 's Rahmon Nabiyev
retained power, which led to the civil war in Tajikistan
. Emomali Rahmon
has succeeded Nabiyev and has retained power since 1992.
* 's Saparmurat Niyazov
retained power until his death in 2006 and was criticized as one of the world's most totalitarian and repressive leaders, maintaining his own cult of personality
. Niyazov's successor Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov
initially eased changes made by Niyazov before starting his very own cult of personality.
* 's Islam Karimov
retained power until his death in 2016 and was widely criticized for repressing the political opposition throughout his tenure.
Some of the more notable post-Soviet conflicts include the Tajikistani Civil War
, the First Nagorno-Karabakh War
, the War of Transnistria
, the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War
, the First Chechen War
, the War in Abkhazia
, the Ossetian–Ingush conflict
, and the Crimea
conflicts in Ukraine.
Communist and Socialist countries
Reforms in the Soviet Union and its allied countries also led to dramatic changes to Communist and Socialist states outside of Europe.
Countries that retained socialist-styled economies and government structures beyond 1991:
* – China remained under the leadership of the Communist Party of China
, whilst continuing far-reaching economic reforms.
* – Cuba remained under the leadership of the Communist Party of Cuba
and retained a socialist planned economy.
* – Indian economic reforms
were launched in 1991.
* – Laos remained under the leadership of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
and retained many socialist economic policies.
– Libya remained governed according to Muammar Gaddafi
's socialist Third International Theory
, and retained a socialist planned economy.
* – Syria remained under the leadership of the Syrian Ba'ath Party
and retained a socialist (Ba'athist
) planned economy.
* – Vietnam remained under the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam
and pursued economic reforms that were much less far-reaching than China's and many socialist economic policies were retained.
* – 1988 October Riots
, democratization through the 1989 constitutional referendum
, victory of, an Islamist party, the FIS in the 1990 local elections
and in the 1991 legislative elections
, leading to a military coup in January 1992, sparking the Algerian Civil War
, until 2002.
– The ruling MPLA
government abandoned Marxism–Leninism in 1991 and agreed to the Bicesse Accords
in the same year, however the Angolan Civil War
between the MPLA and the conservative UNITA
continued for another decade.
– Mathieu Kérékou
's regime was pressured to abandon Marxism–Leninism in 1989.
* – Thomas Sankara
was overthrown and assassinated in the 1987 Burkinabé coup d'état
, during which power was taken by Blaise Compaoré
, who reversed many of Sankara's social policies. Military rule was ended in 1989, with the establishment of the ODP-MT
and the Popular Front
coalition, beginning a process of democratization that started in 1991
and finished when Compaoré was finally forced to resign by the 2014 Burkinabé uprising
* – 1996 Burundian coup d'état
* – The ruling African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde
party cut down its Socialist ideology and foreign donors pressured the government to allow multiparty elections in 1991.
* – democratization in 1992.
– Denis Sassou Nguesso
's regime was pressured to abandon Marxism–Leninism in 1991. The nation had elections in 1992 and First Republic of the Congo Civil War
* – Djiboutian Civil War
in 1991 and democratization in 1992.
– A new constitution
was implemented in 1987 and, following the withdrawal of Soviet and Cuban assistance, the Communist military junta Derg
led by Mengistu Haile Mariam
was defeated by the rebel EPRDF
in the Ethiopian Civil War
and fled in 1991.
* – The Third Republic of Ghana
and the military government
of Jerry Rawlings
are dissolved following democratization
in 1992, leading to the establishment a democratically-elected government
under the National Democratic Congress
* – A process of democratization begins with the introduction of multi-party politics in May 1991 and the first democratic elections
being held in 1994.
* – 1984 Guinean coup d'état
– Socialist President Didier Ratsiraka
was ousted in 1991.
* – Moussa Traoré
was ousted, Mali adopted a new constitution; held multi-party elections. Rebellion
in 1990 and coup d'état
– The Mozambican Civil War
between the socialist FRELIMO
and the RENAMO
conservatives was ended via treaty in 1992
. FRELIMO subsequently abandoned Marxism–Leninism in favor of democratic socialism with the support of the UN
, held multiparty elections.
* – The ruling Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party
cut down its Socialist ideology and foreign donors pressured the government to allow multiparty elections in 1991.
* – Socialist Party of Senegal
formed a national unity government with the Senegalese Democratic Party
* – democratization in 1991.
* – The beginning of the Sierra Leone Civil War
in March 1991, followed by a constitutional referendum
restoring multi-party politics
in August 1991 and a coup d'état
finally overthrowing the First Republic of Sierra Leone
in April 1992.
– Rebelling Somalis overthrew Siad Barre
's Communist military junta during the Somali Revolution
. Somalia has been in a constant state of civil war
– The 1985 Sudanese coup d'état
overthrows the Democratic Republic of the Sudan
. After a brief period of parliamentary democracy
during the late 1980s, the 1989 Sudanese coup d'état
establishes a right-wing dictatorship
under Omar al-Bashir
* – The ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi
party cut down its Socialist ideology and foreign donors pressured the government to allow multiparty elections in 1995.
* – Habib Bourguiba
removed from power by Zine El Abidine Ben Ali
in the 1987 Tunisian coup d'état
, reforming the Socialist Destourian Party
into the Democratic Constitutional Rally
in 1988 and holding the first multi-party election in 1989
. The Tunisian Communist Party
abandoned communism and reformed itself as the Ettajdid Movement
* – The government of Milton Obote
is overthrown by a coup in 1985, followed by the end of the Ugandan Bush War
in 1986. With the rise of Yoweri Museveni
to power, the National Resistance Movement
cut down its Socialist ideology.
* Western Sahara
– cut down its Socialist ideology and the End of the Western Sahara War
* – The ruling United National Independence Party
cut down its Socialist ideology and foreign donors pressured the government to allow multiparty elections
in 1991, leading to Kurdistan becoming an autonomous region. The rest of Iraq remained under Saddam Hussein
's Ba'athist regime until 2003 with American invasion
overthrowing his regime.
– Annexed by Iraq in 1990. Then liberated during the Gulf War.
* Palestinian Territories – The Palestine Liberation Organization
lost one of its most important diplomatic patrons, due to the deterioration of the Soviet Union, Arafat's failing relationship with Moscow and loss of a one-party government, and Suspension PFLP-GC of the PLO in 1984. First Intifada
occurred from 1987 to 1991, leading to the PLO recognition of Israel.
* – South Yemen Civil War
in 1986; Abandoned Marxism–Leninism in 1990; it reunified
with the more capitalist North Yemen
that year, though this later led to a civil war
* – The Syrian Communist Party
was divided to two parties in 1986. Syria participated in the Madrid Conference of 1991
and met its Cold War enemy Israel in peace negotiations. The Syrian Democratic People's Party
changed from Left-wing to center-left.
– The People's Democratic Party
underwent National Reconciliation
reforms from 1987, renaming the country to Republic of Afghanistan (from "Democratic Republic") and removing the red star of communism from the coat of arms. The Soviet occupation ended
in 1989, and in 1990 the ruling party renamed itself, removing all references to Marxism–Leninism in the process. The Soviet-supporting government fell
in 1992 and the party was dissolved; a new Civil War
* – In 1990, a mass uprising
leads to the end of the country's military dictatorship and a restoration of democracy. The Communist Party of Bangladesh
experiences a split between an orthodox Marxist-Leninist faction and a more democratic and libertarian faction. The country experiences an internal conflict
, driven by the rise of Islamism
– The 8888 Uprising
in 1988 saw the demise of the Burma Socialist Programme Party
, but failed to bring democracy, although Marxism was abandoned. The country was led by a military government under the State Peace and Development Council
until 2011, following 2010 elections
viewed by many Western countries as fraudulent. End of the Communist insurgency
– The Vietnam-supported government, which had been in power since the fall of the Khmer Rouge
, lost power following UN-sponsored elections in 1993
, the CGDK
and the Party of Democratic Kampuchea
were dissolved in 1993.
* – The Communist Party of China
began implementing liberalizing economic reform
s during the late 1970s under Deng Xiaoping
. However, the pro-democracy protests of 1989
were crushed by the military
. Unrest in Tibet
in 1987. The URFET
and the ETPRP
* – Defeat of the Indian National Congress
in the 1989 Indian general election
. The Rashtriya Samajwadi Congress
was dissolved in 1989, Tripura National Volunteers
was dissolved in 1988 and Hmar People's Convention
was dissolved in 1986. Begin of the Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
in 1989. The Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
continued into the 21st century, while the Communist Party of India (Marxist)
remain a major political force in the state of Kerala
* – Remained Communist under the Lao People's Revolutionary Party
. Laos was forced to ask France and Japan for emergency assistance, and also to ask the World Bank
and the Asian Development Bank
for aid. Finally, in 1989, Kaisôn visited Beijing to confirm the restoration of friendly relations, and to secure Chinese aid. The red star and the hammer and sickle was taken out from the crest in 1991.
* – Kim Il-sung
died in 1994, passing power to his son Kim Jong-il
. Unprecedented floods and the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to the North Korean famine
, which resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2.5 million to 3 million North Koreans. All references to Marxism–Leninism were absolutely replaced by Juche
in 2009, thus signifying an apparent downplaying of the role of Communism in North Korea. North Korea is still a single-party Communist state.
* – End of the second communist insurgrency
by the communist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna
and the death of its leaders.
* – The Communist Party of Vietnam
has undertaken Doi Moi
reforms since 1986, liberalizing certain sectors of the economy in a manner similar to China. Vietnam is still a single-party Communist state.
* – The end of Soviet subsidies led to the Special Period
. An unsuccessful protest was held in 1994
. Cuba is still a single-party Communist state.
* – democratization in 1987 and the first free elections were held in 1992
* – End of the Contra War
, Daniel Ortega
lost the multi-party elections in 1990, and the National Opposition Union
* – democratization in 1987 and Suriname Guerrilla War
* – Vanua'aku Pati
lost the multi-party elections in 1991, and the Union of Moderate Parties
Many Soviet-supported political parties and militant groups around the world suffered from demoralization and loss of financing.
* – The Communist Party of Australia
was dissolved in 1991.
* – The Communist Party of Austria
lost its East German financing and 250 million euros in assets.
* – The Communist Party of Belgium
was divided to two parties in 1989.
* – The Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin
was dissolved in 1991.
* - In 1990 the Communist Party of Canada
was de-registered and had its assets seized, forcing it to begin an ultimately successful thirteen-year political and legal battle to maintain registration of small political parties in Canada known as ''Figueroa v. Canada
'', thus changing the legal definition of a political party in Canada in 2003 and now operates without any elected political representation.
* – first multi-party elections in 1993
* – The Finnish People's Democratic League
was dissolved in 1990 and the bankrupt Communist Party of Finland
collapsed in 1992, and absorbed to the Left Alliance
* – The collapse of the Eastern Bloc came as a shock to the French Communist Party
. The crisis is called ''la mutation''. Fusion of the Unified Socialist Party
with the New Left for Socialism, Ecology and Self-management for Red and Green Alternatives in 1989.
* – 1994 Gambian coup d'état
* – The German Communist Party
lost its East German financing and declined significantly and the Communist League
was dissolved. The Red Army Faction
lost its long-term supporter, the Stasi
, after the fall of the Berlin Wall
* – The Organisation of Marxist-Leninist Communists of Greece
was dissolved in 1993 and merged into the Movement for a United Communist Party of Greece
. Greek Left
was dissolved in 1992.
* – democratization in 1990.
* – The Communist Party of Ireland
declined significantly. Democratic Socialist Party
* – The collapse caused the Italian Communist Party
to reform itself, creating two new groups, the larger Democratic Party of the Left
and the smaller Communist Refoundation Party
. The disappearance of the Communist party in part led to profound changes within the Italian political party system in 1992–1994 and collapse of the Radical Party
in 1989 and the Italian Socialist Party
in 1994. Disintegration of the Red Brigades
* – The Japanese Communist Party
became gradually influenced by Eurocommunism
and issued a statement titled "We welcome the end of a great historical evil of imperialism and hegemonism". As a result, the JCP survived the post-Cold War decline of communist parties in the Western Bloc, and remain one of the largest non-governing communist parties in the world.
* – End of the Civil War
* – First Liberian Civil War
* – The Communist Party of Luxembourg
* – The Malayan Communist Party
laid down its arms in 1989, ending an insurgency
that had lasted decades.
* – the failed 1988 Maldives coup d'état
* – The Mexican Communist Party
and a number of other Communist parties were dissolved in 1989 and absorbed first into the Mexican Socialist Party
and then into the Party of the Democratic Revolution
. And collapse of the Socialist Mexican Party
– The Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi)
and the Communist Party of Nepal (Fourth Convention)
was dissolved in 1990.
* – The Communist Party of the Netherlands
was dissolved in 1991 and absorbed to the GreenLeft
. League of Communists in the Netherlands
was dissolved in 1992.
* – democratization in 1991, but Coup d'état
* – Coup d'état
* – The Communist Party of Norway
changed their pro-Soviet line.
* – The Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman
was dissolved in 1992.
* – The Communist Party of the Philippines
experienced criticism and the debates that ensued between the leading party cadres resulted to the expulsion of advocates of "left and right opportunism" notably forming the so-called "rejectionists" and "reaffirmist" factions. Those who affirmed the Maoist orthodoxy were called the "Reaffirmists", or RA, while those who rejected the document were called "Rejectionists" or RJ. In July 1993, the Komiteng Rehiyon ng Manila-Rizal (KRMR), one of the Rejectionists, declared its autonomy from the central leadership. Within a few months, several of the Party's regional formations and bureaus followed suit, permanently formalizing and deepening the schism.
* – The Sammarinese Communist Party
was dissolved in 1990.
* – The Barisan Sosialis
was dissolved in 1988.
* – The Workers' Party of Spain–Communist Unity
was dissolved in 1991. Alternative Left
was dissolved in 1993. Communist Party of Spain (Marxist–Leninist) (historical)
was dissolved in 1992. The Communist Party of Galicia (Revolutionary Marxist)
was dissolved in 1989.
* – The Communist Association of Norrköping
was dissolved in 1990 and Kommunistiska Förbundet Marxist-Leninisterna
ceased to function as nationwide party. The pro-Albanian Kommunistiska Partiet i Sverige
and the Maoist Communist Workers' Party of Sweden
were dissolved in 1993. The main leftist party, Vänsterpartiet kommunisterna
, VPK (Left Party – Communists), abandoned the Communist part of its name, and became simply Vänsterpartiet
* – The Communist Labour Party of Turkey
* – The Communist Party of Great Britain
* – 1992 Venezuelan coup d'état attempts
Concurrently, many anti-Communist authoritarian states, formerly supported by the US, gradually saw a transition to democracy.
* – Held the first democratic presidential election since 1960
due to reforms started a few years earlier.
* – democratization in 1991.
* – Coup d'état in 1990
* – The military junta
under Augusto Pinochet
was pressured to implement democratic elections
, which saw Chile's democratization
in 1990. The Broad Party of Socialist Left
Merged into Socialist Party of Chile
* – The conservative constitution of 1886
was repealed in 1991
. The 19th of April Movement
, the Quintin Lame Armed Movement
and most of the Popular Liberation Army
gave up their weapons and began to participate in politics. The FARC
continued its role in the Colombian conflict
into the 21th century.
* – The Salvadoran Civil War
ended in 1992 following the Chapultepec Peace Accords
. The rebel FMLN
movement became a legal political party and participated in subsequent elections.
* – democratization in 1991.
* – The Guatemalan Civil War
ended in 1996 and the rebel Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity
became a legal party.
* – Haitian Revolution of 1986
* - The Suharto
regime received great international criticism for its role in the 1991 Santa Cruz massacre
and continued occupation of East Timor
, leading to US sanctions. Suharto resigned in 1998
following mass protests, and East Timor gained independence following the 1999 referendum
* – democratization in 1990.
* – Restoration of multi-party democracy in 1991
* – democratization in 1993.
* – 1984 Mauritanian coup d'état
; democratization in 1992.
* – democratization in 1988.
* – The Manuel Noriega
regime was overthrown by the US invasion in 1989
as a result of his suppression of elections, drug-trafficking activities and the killing of a US serviceman.
* – The dictatorship of Alfredo Stroessner
came to an end when he was deposed in a military coup d'état. In 1992, the country's new constitution established a democratic system of government.
* - The internal conflict in Peru
intensified under Alberto Fujimori
, who was criticized for his increased authoritarian rule and human rights abuses until his downfall in 2000. The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement
ended its role in the internal conflict in Peru
in 1997. The Shining Path
, responsible for killing tens of thousands people, shrunk in the 1990s, but continued into the 21th century.
– People Power Revolution
in 1986 led to the downfall of Ferdinand Marcos
. Communist rebellion in the Philippines
continued into the 21th century.
* – Rwandan Civil War
* – Following the Soviet-Afghan War, Osama bin Laden
, the founder of the Islamist militant group al-Qaeda
, proposed to the Saudi monarchy not to rely on the United States after the fall of Kuwait
. Bin Laden later denounced the Saudi invitation of the U.S. 82nd Airborne Division
and was eventually expelled from the country in 1992 due to the criticism. His citizenship was revoked in 1994.
* – The June Democracy Movement
's nationwide protests
led to the downfall of the Chun Doo-hwan
government in 1987, and the country's first democratic elections
. In 2000, North and South Korea agreed in principle to work towards peaceful reunification
in the future.
* – Negotiations
were started in 1990 to end the Apartheid
system. Nelson Mandela
was elected as the President of South Africa
* – In 1987 the ruling Kuomintang
party ended its strict martial law
introduced at the end of the Chinese Civil War
. Gradual democratic reforms
led to the first direct presidential election
* – democratization in 1993.
* - The Northern Ireland peace process
led to an end of The Troubles
in 1998, with the signing of the Good Friday Agreement
* – Following the end of the Cold War
, the United States became the world's sole superpower
. It ceased to support many of the military dictatorship
s it had during the Cold War, pressing more nations to adopt democracy.
* – reunified
with the communist South Yemen
and democratization in 1990.
* – Civil War
Countries that emerged into socialist-styled governments beyond 1991:
* – Evo Morales
led the Movement for Socialism
which led to the establishment of the socialistic Plurinational State in 2009 and ruled the country until his ouster in a coup
* – Monarchy
was overthrown in 2008 and the republic has been ruled by Communist Party
* – Hugo Chavez
led the Fifth Republic Movement
which led to the establishment of the Bolivarian Republic in 1999 and ruled the country until his death in 2013.
– In 1990, the Soviet Union finally permitted free emigration of Soviet Jews to Israel. Prior to this, Jews trying to leave the USSR faced persecution
; those who succeeded arrived as refugees. Over the next few years, some one million Soviet citizens migrated to Israel. Although there was a concern that some of the new immigrants had only a very tenuous connection to Judaism, and many were accompanied by non-Jewish relatives, this massive wave of migration brought large numbers of highly educated Soviet Jews and slowly changed the demographic nature of Israel. In addition, thousands of Ethiopian Jews
by the Israel Defense Forces
Decommunization is a process of overcoming the legacies of the Communist state
establishments, culture, and psychology in the post-Communist states. Decommunization was largely limited or non-existent. Communist parties were not outlawed and their members were not brought to trial. Just a few places even attempted to exclude members of communist secret services from decision-making. In a number of countries the Communist party simply changed its name and continued to function. In several European countries, however, endorsing or attempting to justify crimes committed by Nazi or Communist regimes became punishable by up to 3 years of imprisonment.
State run enterprises in socialist countries had little or no interest in producing what customers wanted, which resulted in shortages of goods and services.
In the early 1990s, the general view was that there was no precedent for moving from socialism to capitalism",
and only some elderly people remembered how a market economy worked. As a result, the view that Central, Southeastern and Eastern Europe would stay poor for decades was common.
The collapse of the Soviet Union, and the breakdown of economic ties which followed led to a severe economic crisis and catastrophic fall in the standards of living
in the 1990s in post-Soviet states and the former Eastern bloc. Even before Russia's financial crisis
of 1998, Russia's GDP was half of what it had been in the early 1990s.
There was a temporary fall of output in the official economy and an increase in black market economic activity.
Countries implemented different reform programs. One example, generally regarded as successful was the "shock therapy" Balcerowicz Plan
in Poland. Eventually the official economy began to grow.
In a 2007 paper, Oleh Havrylyshyn categorized the speed of reforms in the former communist countries of Europe:
* ''Sustained Big-Bang'' (fastest): Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia
* ''Advance Start/Steady Progress'': Croatia, Hungary, Slovenia
* ''Aborted Big-Bang'': Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Kyrgyzstan, Russia
* ''Gradual Reforms'': Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Tajikistan, Romania
* ''Limited Reforms'' (slowest): Belarus, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan
The 2004 enlargement of the European Union
included the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The 2007 enlargement of the European Union
included Romania and Bulgaria, and Croatia joined the EU in 2013
. The same countries have also become NATO members
. In Mongolia, however, the economy was reformed in a similar fashion to the Eastern European counterparts.
Chinese economic liberalization
began in 1978 and has helped lift millions of people out of poverty, bringing the poverty rate down from 53% of the population in the Mao era to 12% in 1981. Deng's economic reforms are still being followed by the CPC
today, and by 2001 the poverty rate became only 6% of the population.
Economic liberalization in Vietnam
was initiated in 1986, following the Chinese example.
Economic liberalization in India
was initiated in 1991.
Harvard University Professor Richard B. Freeman
has called the effect of reforms "The Great Doubling". He calculated that the size of the global workforce doubled from 1.46 billion workers to 2.93 billion workers.
An immediate effect was a reduced ratio of capital to labor. In the long-term China, India, and the former Soviet bloc will save and invest and contribute to the expansion of the world capital stock.
Ideological continuation of Communism
As of 2008, nearly half of Russians viewed Stalin positively, and many supported restoration of his previously dismantled monuments.
In 1992, President Yeltsin's government invited Vladimir Bukovsky
to serve as an expert to testify at the CPSU
trial by Constitutional Court
of Russia, where the Communists were suing Yeltsin for banning their party. The respondent's case was that the CPSU
itself had been an unconstitutional organization. To prepare for his testimony, Bukovsky requested and was granted access to a large number of documents from Soviet archives (then reorganized into TsKhSD
). Using a small handheld scanner and a laptop computer, he managed to secretly scan many documents (some with high security clearance
), including KGB
reports to the Central Committee
, and smuggle the files to the West.
The events caught many people by surprise. Before 1991, many thought that the collapse of the Soviet Union was impossible
Bartlomiej Kaminski's book ''The Collapse of State Socialism'' argued that the state Socialist system has a lethal paradox, saying that "policy actions designed to improve performance only accelerate its decay".
By the end of 1989, revolts had spread from one capital to another, ousting the regimes imposed on Central, South-East and Eastern Europe after World War II. Even the isolationist Stalinist regime in Albania was unable to stem the tide. Gorbachev's abrogation of the Brezhnev Doctrine
was perhaps the key factor that enabled the popular uprisings to succeed. Once it became evident that the feared Soviet Army would not intervene to crush dissent, the Central, South-East and Eastern European regimes were exposed as vulnerable in the face of popular uprisings against the one-party system and power of secret police
Coit D. Blacker
wrote in 1990 that the Soviet leadership "appeared to have believed that whatever loss of authority the Soviet Union might suffer in Central and South-East Europe would be more than offset by a net increase in its influence in western Europe."
Nevertheless, it is unlikely that Gorbachev ever intended for the complete dismantling of Communism and the Warsaw Pact. Rather, Gorbachev assumed that the Communist parties of Central and South-East Europe could be reformed in a similar way to the reforms he hoped to achieve in the CPSU. Just as ''perestroika'' was aimed at making the Soviet Union more efficient economically and politically, Gorbachev believed that the Comecon
and Warsaw Pact could be reformed into more effective entities. However, Alexander Yakovlev
, a close advisor to Gorbachev, would later state that it would have been "absurd to keep the system" in Central and South-East Europe. Yakovlev had come to the conclusion that the Soviet-dominated Comecon could not work on non-market principles and that the Warsaw Pact had "no relevance to real life".
, an international historical and civil rights
society that operates in a number of post-Soviet states
which focuses on recording and publicising the Soviet Union
aspect of the past, but also monitors human rights in post-Soviet states at the present time, for example in Chechnya
*German Unity Day
in Germany, a national holiday commemorating the anniversary of German reunification
in Slovenia commemorates the country's declaration of independence from Yugoslavia in 1991
*Independence and Unity Day
in Slovenia commemorates the country's independence referendum
*Day of National Unity
in Georgia is a public holiday commemorating victims of the 9 April tragedy
in Mongolia commemorates the country's transition to democracy in 1992
in Romania commemorates the 1991 Romanian Constitution
that enshrined the return to democracy after the fall of the Communist regime
*Struggle for Freedom and Democracy Day
in the Slovak Republic
*Struggle for Freedom and Democracy Day
in the Czech Republic
*Restoration of Independence Day in Latvia commemorates the 1990 declaration
restoring the country's independence
*''The Soviet Story
'', an award-winning documentary film about the Soviet Union
*''The Singing Revolution
'', a documentary film about the Singing Revolution
*''Heaven on Earth: The Rise and Fall of Socialism
'', a book and a documentary film based on the book
*''Lenin's Tomb: The Last Days of the Soviet Empire
'', a Pulitzer Prize-awarded book
*''A Political Tragedy in Six Acts'', biography of dissident Václav Havel
*''Right Here, Right Now
'', an international hit written by Mike Edwards and performed by his rock band Jesus Jones
and released in September 1990
*"Wind of Change
", a hit song by the German heavy-metal band Scorpions
that celebrates Perestroyka
and the fall of Communism in Central and Eastern Europe
* Contains chapters on the Soviet Union (Mark Kramer), Czechoslovakia (Kieran Williams), Poland (Alexander Smolar), Baltic States (Mark R. Beissinger), China (Merle Goldman), and East Germany (Charles Maier).
*. Some of aspects of state national economy evolution in the system of the international economic order.
* + Ergänzender Anhang A – F.
;Video of the revolutions in 1989
Category:1989 in Europe
Category:1990 in Europe
Category:1991 in Europe
Category:Cold War rebellions
Category:Conflicts in 1989
Category:Foreign relations of the Soviet Union
Category:Turn of the third millennium