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Poznań
Poznań
(/ˈpoʊznæn, -nɑːn/ POHZ-na(h)n;[1] Polish: [ˈpɔznaɲ] ( listen); German: Posen; known also by other historical names) is a city on the Warta
Warta
River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland
Poland
region. It is best known for its renaissance Old Town and Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań
Poznań
is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair (Jarmark Świętojański), traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań
Poznań
is among the oldest and largest cities in Poland. The city population is about 550,000, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County
Poznań County
and several other communities is inhabited by almost 1.1 million people.[2] The Larger Poznań
Poznań
Metropolitan Area (PMA) is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno
Gniezno
and Września,[3][4][5][6] making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland
Poland
region and is currently the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań
Poznań
is a centre of trade, sports, education, technology and tourism. It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University
Adam Mickiewicz University
- the third largest Polish university. Poznań
Poznań
is also the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country. The city also hosts the Poznań International Fair
Poznań International Fair
– the biggest industrial fair in Poland
Poland
and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań
Poznań
Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Poznań
Grand Theatre, Poznań
Cathedral
Cathedral
and the Imperial Castle. Poznań
Poznań
has often topped rankings as a city with very high quality of education and a very high standard of living.[7] It also ranks highly in safety and healthcare quality.[8] The city of Poznań
Poznań
has also won many times a prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a very high quality city brand. Poznań
Poznań
was classified in 2012 as high sufficiency city by Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveller and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders". The official patron saints of Poznań
Poznań
are Saint Peter
Saint Peter
and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours
Martin of Tours
– the patron of the main street Święty Marcin
Święty Marcin
is also regarded as one of patron saints of the city.

Contents

1 Names 2 History 3 Geography 4 Climate 5 Administrative division 6 Economy 7 Transport 8 Culture and sights 9 Education 10 Scientific and regional organisations 11 Sports 12 Politics

12.1 Municipal politics

13 International relations

13.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

14 Gallery 15 Notable residents 16 See also 17 References 18 Bibliography 19 External links

Names[edit] The name Poznań
Poznań
probably comes from a personal name, Poznan, (from the Polish participle poznan(y) – "one who is known/recognized"), and would mean "Poznan's town". It is also possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may simply mean "known town". The earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis ("bishop of Poznań", in an entry for 970) and ab urbe Posnani ("from the city of Poznań", for 1005). The city's name appears in documents in the Latin
Latin
nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247. The phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań
Poznań
("The Capital City
City
of Poznań"), in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań
Poznań
is known as Posen in German, and was officially called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen ("Capital and Residence City
City
of Poznań") between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918. The Latin
Latin
names of the city are Posnania and Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is פּױזן, or Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. History[edit] Main articles: History of Poznań, Timeline of Poznań, and Historical population of Poznań

Monument of Mieszko I
Mieszko I
and Bolesław I the Brave, Golden Chapel in Poznań
Poznań
Cathedral

For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań (consisting of a fortified stronghold between the Warta
Warta
and Cybina rivers, on what is now Ostrów Tumski) was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first historically recorded ruler of the Polans, and of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of Poznań's cathedral, the first in Poland. Poznań
Poznań
was probably the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan. The Congress of Gniezno
Gniezno
in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno
Gniezno
(which is generally regarded as Poland's capital in that period), although Poznań
Poznań
continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs (Mieszko I, Boleslaus I, Mieszko II, Casimir I), and later of Przemysł I
Przemysł I
and King Przemysł II.

Tomb of Mieszko I
Mieszko I
and Bolesław I in Poznań
Poznań
Cathedral

The pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death (probably in Poznań) in 1034 left the region weak, and in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań
Poznań
and Gniezno. Poland
Poland
was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, which had been relatively unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland
Poland
was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, and Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland. This period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies frequently changed hands; control of Poznań, Gniezno
Gniezno
and Kalisz
Kalisz
sometimes lay with a single duke, but at other times these constituted separate duchies.

14th-century seal showing Poznań's coat of arms

In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I
Przemysł I
began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. Then in 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben
Guben
(Gubin) for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas brought a large number of German settlers to aid in the building and settlement of the city – this is an example of the German eastern migration (Ostsiedlung) characteristic of that period.[9][10] The city (covering the area of today's Old Town neighbourhood) was surrounded by a defensive wall, integrated with the castle.

Royal Castle after its total reconstruction

In reunited Poland, and later in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Poznań
Poznań
was the seat of a voivodeship. The city's importance began to grow in the Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
period, due to its position on trading routes from Lithuania
Lithuania
and Ruthenia
Ruthenia
to western Europe. It would become a major centre for the fur trade by the late 16th century. Suburban settlements developed around the city walls, on the river islands and on the right bank, with some (Ostrów Tumski, Śródka, Chwaliszewo, Ostrówek) obtaining their own town charters. However the city's development was hampered by regular major fires and floods. On 2 May 1536 a fire destroyed 175 buildings, including the castle, the town hall, the monastery and the suburban settlement called St. Martin.[11] In 1519 the Lubrański Academy
Lubrański Academy
had been established in Poznań
Poznań
as an institution of higher education (but without the right to award degrees, which was reserved to Kraków's Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
University). However a Jesuits' college, founded in the city in 1571 during the Counter-Reformation, had the right to award degrees from 1611 until 1773, when it was combined with the Academy. In the second half of the 17th century and most of the 18th, Poznań was severely affected by a series of wars (and attendant military occupations, lootings and destruction) – the Second and Third Northern Wars, the War of the Polish Succession, the Seven Years' War and the Bar Confederation
Bar Confederation
rebellion. It was also hit by frequent outbreaks of plague, and by floods, particularly that of 1736, which destroyed most of the suburban buildings. The population of the conurbation declined (from 20,000 around 1600 to 6,000 around 1730), and Bambergian and Dutch settlers ( Bambrzy
Bambrzy
and Olędrzy) were brought in to rebuild the devastated suburbs. In 1778 a "Committee of Good Order" (Komisja Dobrego Porządku) was established in the city, which oversaw rebuilding efforts and reorganised the city's administration. However, in 1793, in the Second Partition of Poland, Poznań, came under the control of the Kingdom of Prussia, becoming part of (and initially the seat of) the province of South Prussia.

Posnania (Poznań), c. 1617, view from north

The Prussian authorities expanded the city boundaries, making the walled city and its closest suburbs into a single administrative unit. Left-bank suburbs were incorporated in 1797, and Ostrów Tumski, Chwaliszewo, Śródka, Ostrówek and Łacina (St. Roch) in 1800. The old city walls were taken down in the early 19th century, and major development took place to the west of the old city, with many of the main streets of today's city centre being laid out. In the Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising of 1806, Polish soldiers and civilian volunteers assisted the efforts of Napoleon by driving out Prussian forces from the region. The city became a part of the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807, and was the seat of Poznań Department
Poznań Department
– a unit of administrative division and local government. However, in 1815, following the Congress of Vienna, the region was returned to Prussia, and Poznań
Poznań
became the capital of the semi-autonomous Grand Duchy of Posen. The city continued to expand, and various projects were funded by Polish philanthropists, such as the Raczyński Library
Raczyński Library
and the Bazar hotel. The city's first railway, running to Stargard, opened in 1848. Due to its strategic location, the Prussian authorities intended to make Poznań
Poznań
into a fortress city, building a ring of defensive fortifications around it. Work began on the citadel (Fort Winiary) in 1828, and in subsequent years the entire set of defences (Festung Posen) was completed.

Jesuits' College was one of the most prestigious schools in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

A Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising during the Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions of 1848
was ultimately unsuccessful, and the Grand Duchy lost its remaining autonomy, Poznań
Poznań
becoming simply the capital of the Prussian Province of Posen. It would become part of the German Empire
German Empire
with the unification of German states in 1871. Polish patriots continued to form societies (such as the Central Economic Society for the Grand Duchy of Poznań), and a Polish theatre
Polish theatre
(Teatr Polski, still functioning) opened in 1875; however the authorities made efforts to Germanize the region, particularly through the Prussian Settlement Commission (founded 1886). Germans accounted for 38% of the city's population in 1867, though this percentage would later decline somewhat, particularly after the region returned to Poland. Another expansion of Festung Posen
Festung Posen
was planned, with an outer ring of more widely spaced forts around the perimeter of the city. Building of the first nine forts began in 1876, and nine intermediate forts were built from 1887. The inner ring of fortifications was now considered obsolete and came to be mostly taken down by the early 20th century (although the citadel remained in use). This made space for further civilian construction, particularly the Imperial Palace (Zamek), completed 1910, and other grand buildings around it (including today's central university buildings and the opera house). The city's boundaries were also significantly extended to take in former suburban villages: Piotrowo and Berdychowo in 1896, Łazarz, Górczyn, Jeżyce and Wilda in 1900, and Sołacz in 1907.

Poznań International Fairs
Poznań International Fairs
were held for the first time in 1925

At the end of World War I, the final Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–1919) brought Poznań
Poznań
and most of the region back to newly reborn Poland, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles. The local German populace had to acquire Polish citizenship or leave the country. This led to a great migration of the ethnic German settlers, whose numbers decreased from 65,321 in 1910 to 5,980 in 1926 and further to 4,387 in 1934.[12] In the interwar Second Polish Republic, the city again became the capital of Poznań
Poznań
Voivodeship. Poznań's university (today called Adam Mickiewicz University) was founded in 1919, and in 1925 the Poznań International Fairs
Poznań International Fairs
began. In 1929 the fairs site was the venue for a major National Exhibition (Powszechna Wystawa Krajowa, popularly PeWuKa) marking the tenth anniversary of independence; it attracted around 4.5 million visitors. The city's boundaries were again expanded in 1925 (to include Główna, Komandoria, Rataje, Starołęka, Dębiec, Szeląg and Winogrady) and 1933 (Golęcin, Podolany).

Details in the interior of the Collegiate Church in Poznań, one of the most stunning and best preserved examples of baroque architecture in Poland. The construction of the temple began in 1651 and took almost half a century to complete

During the German occupation of 1939–1945, Poznań
Poznań
was incorporated into the Third Reich
Third Reich
as the capital of Reichsgau Wartheland. Many Polish inhabitants were executed, arrested, expelled to the General Government or used as forced labour; at the same time many Germans and Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
were settled in the city. The German population increased from around 5,000 in 1939 (some 2% of the inhabitants) to around 95,000 in 1944.[13][14] The pre-war Jewish population of about 2,000[15] were mostly murdered in the Holocaust. A concentration camp was set up in Fort VII, one of the 19th-century perimeter forts. The camp was later moved to Żabikowo south of Poznań. The Nazi authorities significantly expanded Poznań's boundaries to include most of the present-day area of the city; these boundaries were retained after the war. Poznań
Poznań
was captured by the Red Army, assisted by Polish volunteers, on 23 February 1945 following the Battle of Poznań, in which the German army conducted a last-ditch defence in line with Hitler's designation of the city as a Festung. The Citadel was the last point to be taken, and the fighting left much of the city, particularly the Old Town, in ruins. Due to the expulsion and flight of German population Poznań's post-war population was almost uniformly Polish. The city again became a voivodeship capital; in 1950 the size of Poznań Voivodeship
Poznań Voivodeship
was reduced, and the city itself was given separate voivodeship status. This status was lost in the 1975 reforms, which also significantly reduced the size of Poznań
Poznań
Voivodeship. The Poznań 1956 protests
Poznań 1956 protests
are seen as an early instance of discontent with communist rule. In June 1956, a protest by workers at the city's Cegielski
Cegielski
locomotive factory developed into a series of strikes and popular protests against the policies of the government. After a protest march on 28 June was fired on, crowds attacked the communist party and secret police headquarters, where they were repulsed by gunfire. Riots continued for two days until being quelled by the army; 67 people were killed according to official figures. A monument to the victims was erected in 1981 at Plac Mickiewicza.[16] The post-war years had seen much reconstruction work on buildings damaged in the fighting. From the 1960s onwards intensive housing development took place, consisting mainly of pre-fabricated concrete blocks of flats, especially in Rataje and Winogrady, and later (following its incorporation into the city in 1974) Piątkowo. Another infrastructural change (completed in 1968) was the rerouting of the river Warta
Warta
to follow two straight branches either side of Ostrów Tumski. The most recent expansion of the city's boundaries took place in 1987, with the addition of new areas mainly to the north, including Morasko, Radojewo and Kiekrz. The first free local elections following the fall of communism took place in 1990. With the Polish local government reforms of 1999, Poznań
Poznań
again became the capital of a larger province (Greater Poland
Poland
Voivodeship). It also became the seat of a powiat (" Poznań
Poznań
County"), with the city itself gaining separate powiat status. Recent infrastructural developments include the opening of the fast tram route (Poznański Szybki Tramwaj, popularly Pestka) in 1997, and Poznań's first motorway connection (part of the A2 autostrada) in 2003. In 2006 Poland's first F-16 Fighting Falcons
F-16 Fighting Falcons
came to be stationed at the 31st Air Base
31st Air Base
in Krzesiny in the south-east of the city. Poznań
Poznań
continues to host regular trade fairs and international events, including the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2008. It was one of the host cities for UEFA Euro 2012. Geography[edit]

Półwiejska Street
Street
is one of the city's many pedestrianised central streets.

Poznań
Poznań
covers an area of 261.3 km2 (100.9 sq mi), and has coordinates in the range 52°17'34''–52°30'27''N, 16°44'08''–17°04'28''E. Its highest point, with an altitude of 157 m (515 ft), is the summit of Góra Moraska (Morasko Hill) within the Morasko
Morasko
meteorite nature reserve in the north of the city. The lowest altitude is 60 m (197 ft), in the Warta valley.

Lake Malta

Poznań's main river is the Warta, which flows through the city from south to north. As it approaches the city centre it divides into two branches, flowing west and east of Ostrów Tumski (the cathedral island) and meeting again further north. The smaller Cybina
Cybina
river flows through eastern Poznań
Poznań
to meet the east branch of the Warta (that branch is also called Cybina
Cybina
– its northern section was originally a continuation of that river, while its southern section has been artificially widened to form a main stream of the Warta). Other tributaries of the Warta
Warta
within Poznań
Poznań
are the Junikowo Stream (Strumień Junikowski), which flows through southern Poznań
Poznań
from the west, meeting the Warta
Warta
just outside the city boundary in Luboń; the Bogdanka and Wierzbak, formerly two separate tributaries flowing from the north-west and along the north side of the city centre, now with their lower sections diverted underground; the Główna, flowing through the neighbourhood of the same name in north-east Poznań; and the Rose Stream (Strumień Różany) flowing east from Morasko
Morasko
in the north of the city. The course of the Warta
Warta
in central Poznań
Poznań
was formerly quite different from today: the main stream ran between Grobla and Chwaliszewo, which were originally both islands. The branch west of Grobla (the Zgniła Warta
Warta
– "rotten Warta") was filled in late in the 19th century, and the former main stream west of Chwaliszewo was diverted and filled in during the 1960s. This was done partly to prevent floods, which did serious damage to Poznań frequently throughout history.

The view of Poznań's Old Town

Poznań's largest lake is Jezioro Kierskie ( Kiekrz
Kiekrz
Lake) in the extreme north-west of the city (within the city boundaries since 1987). Other large lakes include Malta (an artificial lake on the lower Cybina, formed in 1952), Jezioro Strzeszyńskie (Strzeszyn Lake) on the Bogdanka, and Rusałka, an artificial lake further down the Bogdanka, formed in 1943. The latter two are popular bathing places. Kiekrz
Kiekrz
Lake is much used for sailing, while Malta is a competitive rowing and canoeing venue. The city centre (including the Old Town, the former islands of Grobla and Chwaliszewo, the main street Święty Marcin
Święty Marcin
and many other important buildings and districts) lies on the west side of the Warta. Opposite it between the two branches of the Warta
Warta
is Ostrów Tumski, containing Poznań
Poznań
Cathedral
Cathedral
and other ecclesiastical buildings, as well as housing and industrial facilities. Facing the cathedral on the east bank of the river is the historic district of Śródka. Large areas of apartment blocks, built from the 1960s onwards, include Rataje in the east, and Winogrady
Winogrady
and Piątkowo north of the centre. Older residential and commercial districts include those of Wilda, Łazarz and Górczyn to the south, and Jeżyce to the west. There are also significant areas of forest within the city boundaries, particularly in the east adjoining Swarzędz, and around the lakes in the north-west. For more details on Poznań's geography, see the articles on the five districts: Stare Miasto, Nowe Miasto, Jeżyce, Grunwald and Wilda.

A panoramic view of Poznań, taken from the city's north-eastern suburbs in Nowe Miasto

Climate[edit] The climate of Poznań
Poznań
is within the transition zone between a humid continental and oceanic climate and with relatively cold winters and warm summers. Snow is common in winter, when night-time temperatures are typically below zero. In summer temperatures may often reach 30 °C (86 °F). Annual rainfall is more than 500 mm (20 in), among the lowest in Poland. The rainiest month is July, mainly due to short but intense cloudbursts and thunderstorms. The number of hours of sunshine are among the highest in the country. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).[17]

Climate data for Poznań

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.5 (56.3) 17.6 (63.7) 21.5 (70.7) 29.3 (84.7) 31.6 (88.9) 36.5 (97.7) 38.7 (101.7) 37.0 (98.6) 30.4 (86.7) 25.6 (78.1) 17.1 (62.8) 13.9 (57) 38.7 (101.7)

Average high °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.9 (37.2) 8.3 (46.9) 13.6 (56.5) 19.4 (66.9) 22.1 (71.8) 24.6 (76.3) 24.5 (76.1) 19.3 (66.7) 13.9 (57) 6.7 (44.1) 3.2 (37.8) 13.4 (56.1)

Daily mean °C (°F) −1.2 (29.8) −0.7 (30.7) 4.0 (39.2) 9.8 (49.6) 14.9 (58.8) 18.2 (64.8) 20.1 (68.2) 19.8 (67.6) 15.3 (59.5) 9.9 (49.8) 4.4 (39.9) 0.2 (32.4) 9.6 (49.3)

Average low °C (°F) −4.6 (23.7) −4.3 (24.3) −0.3 (31.5) 6.0 (42.8) 10.3 (50.5) 14.3 (57.7) 15.5 (59.9) 15.1 (59.2) 11.3 (52.3) 5.9 (42.6) 2.1 (35.8) −2.8 (27) 5.7 (42.3)

Record low °C (°F) −28.5 (−19.3) −24.0 (−11.2) −16.1 (3) −8.6 (16.5) −1.5 (29.3) 1.5 (34.7) 4.7 (40.5) 3.9 (39) −3.8 (25.2) −8.3 (17.1) −13.6 (7.5) −19.2 (−2.6) −28.5 (−19.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 33 (1.3) 27 (1.06) 38 (1.5) 31 (1.22) 50 (1.97) 57 (2.24) 76 (2.99) 61 (2.4) 42 (1.65) 34 (1.34) 35 (1.38) 40 (1.57) 524 (20.63)

Average precipitation days 14 12 11 9 11 12 13 13 9 12 14 12 142

Average relative humidity (%) 81 82 75 68 63 68 70 72 74 77 80 82 74

Mean monthly sunshine hours 56 67 118 179 230 237 236 229 171 122 55 40 1,740

Source: Polish Central Statistical Office

Administrative division[edit] Main article: Administrative division of Poznań

Notable highrises in central Poznań

Poznań
Poznań
is divided into 42 neighbourhoods (see osiedle), each of which has its own elected council with certain decision-making and spending powers. The first uniform elections for these councils covering the whole area of the city were held on 20 March 2011. For certain administrative purposes, the old division into five districts (dzielnicas) is used – although these ceased to be governmental units in 1990. These were:

Stare Miasto ("Old Town"), population 161,200, area 47.1 km2 (18.2 sq mi), covering the central and northern parts of the city Nowe Miasto ("New Town"), population 141,424, area 105.1 km2 (40.6 sq mi), including all parts of the city on the right (east) bank of the Warta Grunwald, population 125,500, area 36.2 km2 (14.0 sq mi), covering the south-western parts of the city Jeżyce, population 81,300, area 57.9 km2 (22.4 sq mi), covering the north-western parts of the city Wilda, population 62,290, area 15.0 km2 (5.8 sq mi), in the southern part of the city

Many citizens of Poznań
Poznań
thanks to the strong economy of the city and high salaries started moving to suburbs of the Poznań County
Poznań County
(powiat) in the 90's. Although the number of inhabitants in Poznań
Poznań
itself was decreasing for the past two decades, the suburbs gained almost twice as much inhabitants. Thus, Poznań
Poznań
urban area has been growing steadily over past years and has already reached 1.0 million inhabitants when student population is included, whereas the entire metropolitan zone may have reached 1.5–1.7 million inhabitants when satellite cities and towns (so-called second Poznań
Poznań
ring counties such as Września, Gniezno
Gniezno
and Kościan) are included. The complex infrastructure, population density, number of companies and gross product per capita of Poznań
Poznań
suburbs may be only compared to Warsaw suburbs. It is interesting to note that many parts of closer suburbs (for example Tarnowo Podgorne, Komorniki, Suchy Las, Dopiewo) produce more in terms of GDP
GDP
per capita than the city itself. Economy[edit] See also: List of corporations in Poznań

Stary Browar (Old Brewery) in Poznań

Pixel building – headquarters of Allegro company

Poznań
Poznań
has been an important trade centre since the Middle Ages. Starting in the 19th century, local heavy industry began to grow. Several major factories were built, including the Hipolit Cegielski steel mill and railway factory (see H. Cegielski
Cegielski
- Poznań
Poznań
S.A.). Nowadays Poznań
Poznań
is one of the major trade centres in Poland. Poznań is regarded as the second most prosperous city in Poland
Poland
after Warsaw. The city of Poznań
Poznań
produced PLN 31.8 billion of Poland's gross domestic product in 2006. It boasts a GDP
GDP
per capita of 200,4% (2008) of Poland's average. Furthermore, Poznań
Poznań
had very low unemployment rate of 2.3% as of May 2009. For comparison, Poland's national unemployment rate was over 10%.

Andersia Tower
Andersia Tower
(left) and Poznań Financial Centre
Poznań Financial Centre
(right)

Many Western European companies have established their Polish headquarters in Poznań
Poznań
or in the nearby towns of Tarnowo Podgórne and Swarzędz. Most foreign investors are German and Dutch companies (see List of corporations in Poznań), with a few others. Investors are mostly from the food processing, furniture, automotive and transport and logistics industries. Foreign companies are primarily attracted by low labour costs and by the relatively good road and railway network, good vocational skills of workers and relatively liberal employment laws. The recently built Stary Browar shopping centre contains many high-end shops and is considered one of the best in Europe. It has won an award for the best shopping centre in the world in the medium-sized commercial buildings category. Other notable shopping centres in the city include Galeria Malta, one of the largest in Central Europe, and the shops at the Hotel Bazar, a historical hotel and commercial centre in the Old Town. Selected major corporations based in Poznań
Poznań
and the city's vicinity include QXL Poland
Poland
Sp. z o.o. (Allegro), Poznań, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals SA, Poznań, Grupa Raben, near Kórnik, Poznań
Poznań
metro, Kuehne & Nagel sp. z o.o., Gądki
Gądki
near Poznań, H. Cegielski- Poznań
Poznań
SA, Poznań, and Solaris Bus & Coach sp. z. o.o., Bolechowo, Poznań
Poznań
metro. The abbreviation "Sp. z o.o." stands for "Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością", or Limited Liability Company, the equivalent of British Ltd. or German GmbH. The abbreviation for Public Limited Company (a stock company or PLC) is "Spółka Akcyjna" or S.A. Transport[edit] See also: Tramways in Poznań Poznań
Poznań
has an extensive public transport system, mostly consisting of trams, such as the Poznań
Poznań
Fast Tram, and both urban and suburban buses. The main railway station is Poznań Central Station
Poznań Central Station
to the southwest of the city centre; there is also the smaller Poznań Wschód and Poznań
Poznań
Garbary station northeast of the centre and a number of other stations on the outskirts of the city. The main east-west A2 motorway runs south of the city connecting it with Berlin in the west and Łódż and Warsaw
Warsaw
in the east; other main roads run in the direction of Warsaw, Bydgoszcz, Wągrowiec, Oborniki, Katowice, Wrocław, Buk
Buk
and Berlin. Poznań
Poznań
has one of the biggest airports in the west of Poland
Poland
called Poznań-Ławica Airport. In 2016 it handled approximately 1.71 million passengers.

A2 Motorway
Motorway
in Poznań 

Solaris Tramino Tram 

Solaris Urbino Bus 

Poznań
Poznań
Central Station 

Greater Poland
Poland
Railways 

Culture and sights[edit]

Poznań's new city logo

Poznań
Poznań
has many historic buildings and sights, mostly concentrated around the Old Town and other parts of the city centre. Many of these lie on the Royal-Imperial Route in Poznań
Poznań
– a tourist walk leading through the most important parts of the city showing its history, culture and identity. Portions of the city centre are listed as one of Poland's official national Historic Monuments (Pomnik historii), as designated 28 November 2008, along with other portions of the city's historic core. Its listing is maintained by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

The former Imperial Castle is now one of Poznań's premier cultural-theatrical institutions.

Results of new extensive archaeological research performed on Poznan's Ostrow Tumski by Prof. dr hab. Hanna Kocka-Krec from Instytut Prahistorii UAM indicate that Poznań
Poznań
indeed was a central site of the early Polish State (recent discovery of first Polish ruler, Mieszko I's Palatium). Thus, the Ostrow Tumski Island is more important than it was thought previously, and may have been as important as Gniezno in the Poland
Poland
of first Piasts. Though it is currently under construction, Ostrow Tumski of Poznan should soon have a very rich historical exposition and be a very interesting place for visitors. It promises to include many attractions, such as the above-mentioned Cathedral, Church of St. Mary the Virgin, Lubranski Academy
Lubranski Academy
and they opened in 2012 "Genius Loci Archeological Park" as well as planned to be opened in 2013 Interactive Center of Ostrow Tumski History ("ICHOT") that presents a multimedia museum of the Polish State through many different periods. The Palatium in Poznan will be also transformed into a museum, although more funds are needed. When all the expositions are ready, in a couple of years, Ostrow Tumski may be as worth visiting as the Wawel
Wawel
castle of Cracow. There is a very famous sentence illustrating the importance of Ostrow Tumski in Poznań
Poznań
by the Pope John Paul II: " Poland
Poland
began here". A popular venue is Malta, a park with an artificial lake in its centre. On one bank of the lake there are ski and sleigh slopes (Malta Ski), on the opposite bank a huge complex of swimming pools including an Olympic-size one (Termy Maltanskie). An important cultural event in Poznań
Poznań
is the annual Malta theatre festival, which takes place at many city venues, usually in late June and early July. It hosts mainly modern experimental off-theatre performances, often taking place on squares and other public spaces. It also includes cinema, visual, music and dancing events. Malta Theatre Festival gave birth to many off-theater groups, expressing new ideas in an already rich theatrical background of the city. Thus, Poznań
Poznań
with a great deal of off-theaters and their performances has recently become a new Polish off-theater performance centre.

Poznań
Poznań
Old Town, filled with many picturesque tenements, is a major tourist attraction

The mechanized goats, which butt heads daily at noon, are the official symbol of Poznań

Classical music events include the Henryk Wieniawski Violin Competition (held every 5 years), and classical music concerts by the city's Philharmonic Orchestra held each month in the University
University
Aula. Especially popular are concerts by the Poznań
Poznań
Nightingales. Poznan is also home to new forms of music such as rap and hip-hop made by a great deal of bands and performers ("Peja", "Mezo" and others). Poznań
Poznań
is also known for its rock music performers (Muchy, Malgorzata Ostrowska).

Poznań
Poznań
City
City
Hall, located on the Old Market Square, used to serve as the Seat of local government until 1939, and now houses a museum

Poznan apart from many traditional theatres with a long history ("Teatr Nowy", "Teatr Wielki", "Teatr Polski", "Teatr Muzyczny" and several others) is also home to a growing number of alternative theatre groups, some of them stemming from International Malta Festival: "Teatr Strefa Ciszy", "Teatr Porywcze Cial", "Teatr Usta Usta", "Teatr u Przyjaciol", "Teatr Biuro Podrozy", "Teatr Osmego Dnia" and many others – it is believed that even up to 30 more or less known groups may work in the city. Every year on 11 November, Poznanians celebrate The Day of St. Martin. A procession of horses, with St. Martin at the head, parades along St Martin Street, in front of The Imperial Castle. Everybody can eat delicious croissants, the regional product of Poznań. Poznań
Poznań
hosted the 2009 European Young Adults Meeting of the ecumenical Christian Taizé Community. Poznań
Poznań
also stages the "Ale Kino!" International Young Audience Film Festival in December and "Off Cinema" festival of independent films. Other festival: "Transatlantyk" (film music festival by Jan A.P. Kaczmarek started in 2011), Maski Theater Festival, Dance International Workshops by Polish Dance Theater, Made in Chicago (Jazz Festival), Ethno Port, Festival of Ice Sculpture, Animator, Science and Art Festival, Tzadik (Jewish music festival), Meditations Biennale (Modern Art). The full list of cultural annual events is even longer. Poznań
Poznań
has several cinemas, including multiplexes and smaller cinemas, an opera house, several other theatres, and museums. The "Rozbrat" squat serves as a home for squatters and as a centre of independent and open-minded culture. It hosts frequent gigs, an anarchistic library, vernissages, exhibitions, annual birthday festival (each October), poetry evenings and graffiti festivals. The city centre has many clubs, pubs and coffee houses, mainly in the area of the Old Town. Grażyna Kulczyk's effort to build the Museum of Contemporary and Performance Arts in Poznań
Poznań
was rejected.[18][19] Education[edit] Main article: Education in Poznań Poznań
Poznań
is one of the four largest academic centres in Poland. The number of students in the city of Poznań
Poznań
is about 140,000 (fourth/third after Warsaw, Cracow and close to Wrocław
Wrocław
student population). Every one of four inhabitants in Poznań
Poznań
is a student. Since Poznań
Poznań
is smaller than Warsaw
Warsaw
or Cracow still having a very large number of students it makes the city even more vibrant and dense "academic hub" than both former and current capitals of Poland. The city has many state-owned universities. Adam Mickiewicz University (abbreviated UAM in Polish, AMU in English) is one of the most influential and biggest universities in Poland:

The Raczyński Library, 1822–1828

The Collegium Minus – Adam Mickiewicz University

Grand Theatre

Polish Theatre

Adam Mickiewicz University University
University
of Fine Arts in Poznań Academy of Music in Poznań Poznań
Poznań
University
University
of Economics Poznań
Poznań
University
University
of Medical Sciences Poznań
Poznań
University
University
of Technology Poznań
Poznań
University
University
School of Physical Education University
University
of Social Sciences and Humanities University
University
of Life Sciences in Poznań

"Adam Mickiewicz University" is one of the three best universities in Poland
Poland
after University
University
of Warsaw
Warsaw
and Jagiellonian
Jagiellonian
University
University
of Cracow. They all have a very high number of international student and scientist exchange, research grants and top publications. In northern suburbs of Poznań
Poznań
a very large " Morasko
Morasko
Campus" has been built (Faculty of Biology, Physics, Mathematics, Chemistry, Political Sciences, Geography). The majority of faculties are already open, although a few more facilities will be constructed. The campus infrastructure belongs to the most impressive among Polish universities. Also, there are plans for "Uniwersytecki Park Historii Ziemii" (Earth History Park), one of the reason for the park construction is a " Morasko
Morasko
meteorite nature reserve" situated close by, it is one of the rare sites of Europe where a number of meteorites fell and some traces may be still seen. There is also a great number of smaller, mostly private-run colleges and institutions of higher education ("Uczelnie w Poznaniu"):

WSB Universities
WSB Universities
– WSB University
University
in Poznań[20] Arcybiskupie Seminarium Duchowne w Poznaniu Wielkopolska Wyższa Szkoła Turystyki i Zarządzania w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Biznesu Wyższa Szkoła Bezpieczeństwa w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Edukacji i Terapii w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Edukacji Integracyjnej i Interkulturowej w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Handlu i Rachunkowości Wyższa Szkoła Handlu i Usług w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Hotelarstwa i Gastronomii Wyższa Szkoła Języków Obcych im. Samuela Bogumiła Lindego Wyższa Szkoła Komunikacji i Zarządzania w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Logistyki Wyższa Szkoła Nauk Humanistycznych i Dziennikarstwa Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiki i Administracji im. Mieszka I w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Umiejętności Społecznych w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania i Bankowości w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa "Kadry dla Europy" w Poznaniu Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa Pielęgnacji Zdrowia i Urody Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne Towarzystwa Chrystusowego

Poznan with its almost 30 colleges and universities has the second richest educational offer in Poland
Poland
after Warsaw. Scientific and regional organisations[edit]

Poznań
Poznań
Society of Friends of Arts and Sciences Poznań
Poznań
Supercomputing and Networking Center Western Institute

Sports[edit]

Stadion Miejski interior

The city's new municipal stadium

Poznań
Poznań
is famous for its football teams, Warta
Warta
Poznań, which was one of the most successful clubs in pre-war history, and Lech Poznań, who are currently one of the biggest clubs in the country, frequently playing in European cups and have many fans from all over the region. Lech plays at the Municipal Stadium, which hosted the 2012 European Championship group stages as well as the opening game and the final of the U-19 Euro Championship in June 2006. Warta
Warta
plays at the small Dębińska Road Stadium; a former training ground for Edmund Szyc Stadium however since the latter fell into disrepair in 1998 and was sold in 2001 it became the teams main ground; the club does have aims to restore and return to the historical 60 000 capacity stadium.[21] The city's third professional football team Olimpia Poznań
Olimpia Poznań
ceased activity in 2004, focusing on other sports, and remains one of the best judo and tennis clubs in the country, the latter hosting the Poznań Open
Poznań Open
tournament at the Tennis
Tennis
Park. The club is a large sports complex surrounded by Lake Rusałka, and apart from the tennis facilities boasts a large city recreation area: mountain biking facilities including a four-cross track; an athletics stadium (capacity 3000); and a football-speedway stadium (capacity 20 000), which fell into vast disrepair until it was acquired by the city council from the police in 2013 and was renovated. The football-speedway stadium hosts speedway club PSŻ Poznań, rugby union side NKR Chaos, American football
American football
team the Poznań
Poznań
Patriots, and football team Poznaniak Poznań. The city has the largest circuit in Poland, Tor Poznań, located in the suburbs in Przeźmierowo. Lake Malta
Lake Malta
hosted the World Rowing Championships in 2009 and has previously hosted some regattas in the Rowing World Cup. It also hosted the ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships (sprint canoe) in 1990 and 2001, and again in 2010. Also near the lake the "Malta Ski" year-long skiing complex hosts minor sport competitions, and is also equipped with a toboggan run and a minigolf course. There is also a roller rink with a roller skating club nearby. Poznań
Poznań
has experience as a host for international sporting events such as the official 2009 EuroBasket.[22] The city is also considered to be the hotbed of Polish field hockey, with several top teams: Warta
Warta
Poznań; Grunwald Poznań; which also has shooting, wrestling, handball and tennis sections; Pocztowiec Poznań; and AZS AWF Poznań, the student club which also fields professional teams in women's volleyball and basketball (AZS Poznań). Other clubs include: Posnania Poznań, one of the best rugby union clubs in the country; Polonia Poznań, formerly a multi-sports club with many successes in rugby, however today only a football section remains; KKS Wiara Lecha, football club formed by the supporters of Lech Poznań; and Odlew Poznań, arguably the most famous amateur club in the country due to their extensive media coverage and humorous exploits. There are also numerous rhythmic gymnastics and synchronised swimming clubs, as well as numerous less notable amateur football teams. Poznań
Poznań
bid for the 2014 Summer Youth Olympics
2014 Summer Youth Olympics
but lost to Nanjing, with the Chinese city receiving 47 votes over Poznań's 42. Politics[edit] Municipal politics[edit]

Old marketplace and city hall

Since the end of the communist era in 1989, Poznań
Poznań
municipality and suburban area have invested heavily in infrastructure, especially public transport and administration. There is massive investment from foreign companies in Poznań
Poznań
as well as in communities west and south of Poznań
Poznań
(namely, Kórnik
Kórnik
and Tarnowo Podgórne). City
City
investments into transportation were mostly into public transport. While the number of cars since 1989 has at least doubled, municipal policy concentrated on improving public transport. Limiting car access to the city centre, building new tram lines (including Poznański Szybki Tramwaj) and investing in new rolling stock (such as modern Combino
Combino
trams by Siemens and Solaris low-floor buses) actually increased the level of ridership. Future investments into transportation include the construction of a third bypass of Poznań, and the completion of A2 (E30) motorway towards Berlin. New cycle lanes are being built, linking to existing ones, and an attempt is currently being made to develop a Karlsruhe-style light rail system for commuters. All this is made more complicated (and more expensive) by the heavy neglect of transport infrastructure throughout the Communist era.

Members of Sejm
Sejm
elected in 2005 from Poznań
Poznań
constituency:

Arkady Radosław Fiedler, PO Waldy Dzikowski, PO Maria Pasło-Wiśniewska, PO Dariusz Lipiński, PO Michał Stuligrosz, PO Tomasz Górski, PiS Jan Filip Libicki, PiS Małgorzata Stryjska, PiS Jacek Tomczak, PiS Krystyna Łybacka, SLD

Members of European Parliament
European Parliament
elected from Poznań
Poznań
constituency:

Filip Kaczmarek, PO Jan Kułakowski, UW Marcin Libicki, PiS Jan Masiel, Samoobrona Marek Siwiec, SLD Witold Tomczak, LPR

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Poznań
Poznań
is twinned with:[23][24]

Assen, Netherlands, since 1992[23] Brno, Czech Republic, since 1966[23][25][26] Kharkiv, Ukraine, since 1998[23][27] Győr, Hungary, since 2008[23] Hannover, Germany, since 1979[23][28] Nottinghamshire, United Kingdom, since 1994[23] Jyväskylä, Finland, since 1979[23] Kutaisi, Georgia[23] Nablus, Palestine, since 1997[23] Pozuelo de Alarcón, Spain, since 1992[23] Ra'anana, Israel, since 2010[23][29] Rennes, France, since 1998[23] Shenzhen, China, since 1993[23][30][31][32] Toledo, United States, since 1991[23] Bay City, United States, since 1977[33][34]

Gallery[edit]

Poznań
Poznań
Town Hall

Town Hall at night

Houses on the Old Market Square

Grand Theatre

Bamberka Fountain

Proserpine Fountain

Stary Browar shopping centre

Adam Mickiewicz University

University
University
by night

Poznań
Poznań
Cathedral

Jesuit
Jesuit
(Parish) Church

Jesuit
Jesuit
College

The apse of St. Florian's Church

Poznań
Poznań
Philharmonic

Poznań
Poznań
University
University
Library

Stary Browar (Old Brewery)

Dworzec Zachodni tram stop

Liberty Square Fountain

Spring of Nations Square

Collegium Maius

Hygieia
Hygieia
Statue

Poznań
Poznań
Cathedral
Cathedral
- rear view

Okrąglak Department Store

Saint Francis Church

Interior of the Collegiate Church

Tram
Tram
in Poznań, Greater Poland

Academy of Music

Collegium Chemicum Novum

Bank headquarters

Guard house

Raczyński Library

Termy Maltańskie - Sport pools

Western Institute

Lubrański Academy

Wilson's Park

Notable residents[edit] See also: Category:People from Poznań

Anna Anderson
Anna Anderson
(c. 1900–1984), pretender of Grand Duchess Anastasia of Russia Ryszard "Peja" Andrzejewski (born 1976), rapper Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière
Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière
(1886–1941), German U-boat commander Isidor Ascheim
Isidor Ascheim
(1891–1968), painter and printmaker Stanisław Barańczak
Stanisław Barańczak
(1946–2014), poet Hanna Banaszak
Hanna Banaszak
(born 1957), singer, poet Herbert Baum
Herbert Baum
(1912–1942) resistance fighter Zygmunt Bauman
Zygmunt Bauman
(born 1925), sociologist Heinrich Caro
Heinrich Caro
(1834–1910), chemist Hipolit Cegielski
Cegielski
(1815–1868), businessman Dezydery Chłapowski
Dezydery Chłapowski
(1788–1848), general August Cieszkowski
August Cieszkowski
(1814–1894), philosopher Antoni Czubiński (1928–2003), historian Leopold Damrosch
Leopold Damrosch
(1832–1885), conductor Ludwig Dessoir, (1810–1874), actor Franciszek Dobrowolski (1830–1896), theater director Tytus Działyński
Tytus Działyński
(1796–1861), political activist Małgorzata Dydek (1974–2011), basketball player Akiva Eiger
Akiva Eiger
(1761–1837), Rabbi
Rabbi
of Poznań
Poznań
(1815–1837) Ewaryst Estkowski
Ewaryst Estkowski
(1820–1856), teacher Gerard Ettinger (1909–2002), designer and manufacturer of leather goods[35] Krystyna Feldman
Krystyna Feldman
(1916–2007), actress Wojciech Fibak
Wojciech Fibak
(born 1952), tennis player Gerhard Flesch (1909–1948), German Nazi Gestapo and SS officer executed for war crimes Fredrak Fraske (1872–1973), the last surviving United States
United States
veteran of the Indian Wars Johannes Gad
Johannes Gad
(1842–1926), neurophysiologist Jean Gebser (1905–1973), human consciousness scientist Eduard Gerhard
Eduard Gerhard
(1795–1867), archaeologist Arkadiusz Głowacki
Arkadiusz Głowacki
(born 1979), footballer Friedrich Goltz
Friedrich Goltz
(1834–1902), physiologist Konstanty Gorski
Konstanty Gorski
(1859–1924), composer and violinist Paul von Hindenburg
Paul von Hindenburg
(1847–1934), Field Marshal and President of the Weimar Republic Maksymilian Jackowski
Maksymilian Jackowski
(1815–1905), activist Anna Jantar (1950–1980), a popular Polish singer, who perished in a plane crash. Alfred Jodl
Alfred Jodl
(1890–1946), German WW2 military commander executed for war crimes John Jonston
John Jonston
(1603–1675), naturalist and physician Jan A.P. Kaczmarek
Jan A.P. Kaczmarek
(born 1954), composer Richard Kandt
Richard Kandt
(1867–1918), doctor and explorer Ernst Hartwig Kantorowicz (1895–1963), historian Marek Karpinski, computer scientist Günther von Kluge
Günther von Kluge
(1882–1944), Field Marshal Krzysztof Komeda
Krzysztof Komeda
(1931–1969), jazz musician Leo Königsberger
Leo Königsberger
(1837–1921), mathematician Antoni Kraszewski (1797–1870), politician Germaine Krull (1897–1985), photographer Gerard Labuda (born 1916), historian Arthur Liebehenschel
Arthur Liebehenschel
(1901–1948), Nazi commandant of Auschwitz
Auschwitz
and Majdanek
Majdanek
executed for war crimes Jarosław Leitgeber
Jarosław Leitgeber
(1848–1933), purveyor of Polish books under partitions Paul Leonhardt
Paul Leonhardt
(1877–1934), chess master Karol Libelt
Karol Libelt
(1807–1875), philosopher Karol Marcinkowski
Karol Marcinkowski
(1800–1848), physician and social activist Władysław Markiewicz (born 1920), sociologist Teofil Matecki (1810–1886), philosopher Heinrich Mendelssohn (1881–1959), building tycoon Karl-Friedrich Merten
Karl-Friedrich Merten
(1905–1993), U-boat commander Małgorzata Musierowicz
Małgorzata Musierowicz
(born 1945), novelist Andrzej Niegolewski (1787–1857), colonel Władysław Niegolewski
Władysław Niegolewski
(1814–1880), politician Władysław Oleszczyński
Władysław Oleszczyński
(1809–1866), sculptor Lilli Palmer
Lilli Palmer
(1914–1986), actress Janusz Pałubicki (born 1948), politician Kazimierz Piwarski, (1903–1968), historian Gustaw Potworowski, (1800–1860), activist Edward Raczyński (1786–1845), politician Cyryl Ratajski
Cyryl Ratajski
(1875–1942), mayor of Poznań Antoni Radziwiłł
Antoni Radziwiłł
(1775–1833), aristocrat Marian Rejewski
Marian Rejewski
(1905–1980), cryptoanalist, Enigma codemachine codebreaker Richard Rothe
Richard Rothe
(1799–1867), Lutheran theologian Jerzy Różycki
Jerzy Różycki
(1909–1942), cryptoanalist, Enigma codemachine codebreaker Klaudia Rynkowska (born 1986), gymnast Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
Dame Elisabeth Schwarzkopf
(1915–2006), operatic and concert lyric soprano, born in Jarocin Michał Sczaniecki (1910–1977), historian Urszula Sipinska
Urszula Sipinska
(born 1947), singer-songwriter, pianist and architect Bohdan Smoleń
Bohdan Smoleń
(born 9 June 1947), comedian and actor Józef Struś
Józef Struś
(1510–1568), scientist and mayor of Poznań Sir Paweł Edmund Strzelecki
Paweł Edmund Strzelecki
(20 July 1797 – 6 October 1873), Polish explorer and geologist Rafał Szukała (born 1971), butterfly swimmer Roman Szymański (1840–1908), political activist Mirosław Szymkowiak (born 1976) football player Jerzy Topolski
Jerzy Topolski
(1928–1998), historian Lech Trzeciakowski
Lech Trzeciakowski
(1931–2017), historian Jorge Veytia
Jorge Veytia
(born 1981), jurist Hubert Wagner
Hubert Wagner
(1941-2002), volleyball player and head coach of Poland men's national volleyball team Jan Węglarz (born 1947), computer scientist Leon Wegner (1824–1873), economist Roman Wilhelmi
Roman Wilhelmi
(1936–1991), actor Ray Wilson (born 1968), former vocalist of Genesis Tommy Wiseau, actor and film director Zygmunt Wojciechowski, (1900–1955), historian and founder of the Western Institute Anna Wolff-Powęska, historian Henryk Zygalski
Henryk Zygalski
(1906–1978), cryptoanalist, Enigma codemachine codebreaker Judah Loew ben Bezalel
Judah Loew ben Bezalel
(1512 or 1526-1609), important Talmudic scholar, Jewish mystic, and philosopher

See also[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Posen (city).

Poland
Poland
portal European Union portal

Tourism in Poland History of Poland Royal coronations in Poland
Poland
including in Poznań
Poznań
cathedral Poznań
Poznań
Fortress

References[edit]

^ "Poznan". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ "Liczba ludności aglomeracji poznańskiej wzrasta :: Aktualności :: Portal
Portal
Metropolii Poznań". Aglomeracja.poznan.pl. 21 July 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "RZĄDOWE CENTRUM STUDIÓW STRATEGICZNYCH" (PDF). Funduszestrukturalne.gov.pl. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Wielkopolskie Biuro Planowania Przestrzennego – POZNAŃSKI OBSZAR METROPOLITALNY". Wbpp.poznan.pl. 29 April 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Delimitacja Poznańskiego Obszaru Metropolitalnego". Wbpp.poznan.pl. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Delimitacja Poznańskiego Obszaru Metropolitalnego. Od pomysłu do planu Derc Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Ekonomia". Wydawnictwoumk.pl. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "High quality of life - Study - Poznan.pl". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ "Quality of Life in Poznan". Retrieved 25 April 2017.  ^ Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 87, 156, 159. ISBN 3-11-017061-2.  ^ Brather, Sebastian (2001). Archäologie der westlichen Slawen. Siedlung, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft im früh- und hochmittelalterlichen Ostmitteleuropa. Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 30. Walter de Gruyter. p. 87. ISBN 3-11-017061-2. Das städtische Bürgertum war auch in Polen und Böhmen zunächst überwiegend deutscher Herkunft. [English: Also in Poland
Poland
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Bibliography[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Poznań

Frieder Monzer: Posen, Thorn, Bromberg (mit Großpolen, Kujawien und Südostpommern), Trescher Reiseführer, Berlin
Berlin
2011 Gotthold Rhode: Geschichte der Stadt Posen, Neuendettelsau 1953 Collective work, Poznań. Dzieje, ludzie kultura, Poznań
Poznań
1953 Robert Alvis, Religion and the Rise of Nationalism: A Profile of an East-Central European City, Syracuse University
University
Press, Syracuse 2005 K. Malinowski (red.), Dziesięć wieków Poznania (in three volumes), Poznań
Poznań
1956 Collective work, Poznań, Poznań
Poznań
1958 Collective work, Poznań. Zarys historii, Poznań
Poznań
1963 Cz. Łuczak, Życie społeczno-gospodarcze w Poznaniu 1815–1918, Poznań
Poznań
1965 J. Topolski (red.), Poznań. Zarys dziejów, Poznań
Poznań
1973 Zygmunt Boras, Książęta Piastowscy Wielkopolski, Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań
Poznań
1983 Jerzy Topolski
Jerzy Topolski
(red.), Dzieje Poznania, Wydawnictwo PWN, Warszawa, Poznań
Poznań
1988 Alfred Kaniecki, Dzieje miasta wodą pisane, Wydawnictwo Aquarius, Poznań
Poznań
1993 Witold Maisel (red.), Przywileje miasta Poznania XIII-XVIII wieku. Privilegia civitatis Posnaniensis saeculorum XIII-XVIII. Władze Miasta Poznania, Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk, Wydawnictwa Żródłowe Komisji Historycznej, Tom XXIV, Wydawnictwo PTPN, Poznań
Poznań
1994 Wojciech Stankowski, Wielkopolska, Wydawnictwo WSiP, Warszawa 1999

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Poznań.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Poznań.

Official website of the City MPK – Public Transport Official Site Poznań
Poznań
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Poznań
Poznań
Multimedia City
City
Guide – Official Municipality Site A Photo Gallery of Poznań
Poznań
by a tourist Interaktywny Poznań
Poznań
– city guide You are in Poznań
Poznań
– online bulletin for Foreigners Guide for Foreign tourists.

Links to related articles

v t e

Poznań

Districts

Stare Miasto Old Town Winogrady Piątkowo Morasko Nowe Miasto Ostrów Tumski Śródka Rataje Jeżyce Podolany Strzeszyn Kiekrz Grunwald Wilda Administrative division

Attractions

Cathedral Old Town Hall Royal Castle Imperial Castle St. John's Church Raczyński Library Święty Marcin Royal-Imperial Route Cytadela Forts City
City
Stadium Arena Piątkowo transmitter Stary Browar Trams Lake Malta Lake Rusałka Kiekrz
Kiekrz
Lake Morasko
Morasko
meteorite reserve

Events

History of Poznań

Timeline

Greater Poland
Poland
uprising (1918–1919) Posen speeches Battle of Poznań
Poznań
(1945) Poznań
Poznań
1956 protests

v t e

Historical administrative divisions of Greater Poland

12–13th century

Duchy of Greater Poland

until 1768

Poznań / Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeships

until 1793

Poznań / Kalisz / Gniezno
Gniezno
Voivodeships Netze District

until 1806

South Prussia

until 1815

Poznań / Kalisz / Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
Departments

until 1837 1848

Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeship Grand Duchy of Posen

until 1918

Province of Posen Kalisz / Warsaw
Warsaw
Governorates

until 1939

Poznań / Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeships Posen-West Prussia

until 1945

Reichsgau Wartheland

until 1975

Poznań
Poznań
Voivodeship

until 1998

Poznań / Kalisz / Leszno / Konin / Piła Voivodeships

since 1998

Greater Poland
Poland
Voivodeship

v t e

Historical capitals of Poland

Gniezno
Gniezno
(10th century–1038) Poznań
Poznań
(10th century–1038) Kraków
Kraków
(1038-1079) Płock
Płock
(1079-1138) Kraków
Kraków
(1138-1290) Poznań
Poznań
(1290-1296) Kraków
Kraków
(1296-1795) Warsaw
Warsaw
(1596-1795) Warsaw
Warsaw
(since 1918)

Capitals of the Duchy of Warsaw

Warsaw
Warsaw
(1807-1815)

De facto capitals

Łowicz
Łowicz
(1572-1573) Lublin
Lublin
(1944-1945) Łódź
Łódź
(1945-1947)

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Counties of Greater Poland
Poland
Voivodeship

City
City
counties

Poznań
Poznań
(capital) Kalisz Konin Leszno

Land counties

Chodzież Czarnków-Trzcianka Gniezno Gostyń Grodzisk Wielkopolski Jarocin Kalisz Kępno Koło Konin Kościan Krotoszyn Leszno Międzychód Nowy Tomyśl Oborniki Ostrów Wielkopolski Ostrzeszów Piła Pleszew Poznań Rawicz Słupca Śrem Środa Wielkopolska Szamotuły Turek Wągrowiec Wolsztyn Września Złotów

v t e

Poznań
Poznań
County

Seat: Poznań
Poznań
(not part of the county)

Urban gminas

Luboń Puszczykowo

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina Buk Gmina Kórnik Gmina Kostrzyn Gmina Mosina Gmina Murowana Goślina Gmina Pobiedziska Gmina Stęszew Gmina Swarzędz

Rural gminas

Gmina Czerwonak Gmina Dopiewo Gmina Kleszczewo Gmina Komorniki Gmina Rokietnica Gmina Suchy Las Gmina Tarnowo Podgórne

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 158250702 LCCN: n80009830 GND: 4046868-9 BNF:

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