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Popular culture (also called mass culture and pop culture) is generally recognized by members of a society as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or prevalent in a society at a given point in time. Popular culture also encompasses the activities and feelings produced as a result of interaction with these dominant objects. Heavily influenced in modern times by mass media, this collection of ideas permeates the everyday lives of people in a given society. Therefore, popular culture has a way of influencing an individual's attitudes towards certain topics.[1] However, there are various ways to define pop culture.[2] Because of this, popular culture is something that can be defined in a variety of conflicting ways by different people across different contexts.[3] It is generally viewed in contrast to other forms of culture such as folk cults, working-class culture, or high culture, and also through different high praised perspectives such as psychoanalysis, structuralism, postmodernism, and more. The most common pop-culture categories are: entertainment (such as film, music, television and video games), sports, news (as in people/places in the news), politics, fashion, technology, and slang.[4]

Popular culture in the West has been critiqued for its being a system of commercialism that privileges products selected and mass-marketed by the upper-class capitalist elite; such criticisms are most notable in many Marxist theorists such as Marcuse, Adorno, Horkheimer, Gramsci, Debord, Jameson, Eagleton, as well as certain postmodern philosophers such as Lyotard, who has written about the commercialisation of information under capitalism,[5] and Baudrillard, as well as others.[6]

  • ^ John Storey. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, pp. 4–8
  • ^ Sérgio Campos Gonçalves, "Cultura e Sociedade de Consumo: um olhar em retrospecto", InRevista – Núcleo de Produção Científica em Comunicação – UNAERP (Ribeirão Preto), v. 3, pp. 18–28, 2008, ISSN 1980-6418.
  • ^ Baudrillard. J. (1998). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. Page 86
  • ^ Robert Weimann [de], Shakespeare and the Popular Tradition (1967)
  • ^ Robert Shaughnessy, The Cambridge companion to Shakespeare and popular culture (2007) p. 24
  • ^ Danesi, Marcel (2018-07-12). Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. TAMU Libraries: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 6,7. ISBN 9781538107447.
  • ^ On the Ambiguity of the Three Wise Monkeys A. W. Smith Folklore, Vol. 104, No. 1/2 (1993), pp. 144–150
  • ^ Adorno & Horkheimer: Dialectic of Enlightenment. Page 106.
  • ^ Adorno & Horkheimer: Dialectic of Enlightenment. Page 100.
  • ^ Held, D. (1980).Introduction to Critical Theory: Horkheimer to Habermas.Berkeley, University of California Press.
  • ^ https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/09/15/naysayers
  • ^ Zipes, J. (2002). Page 175 Sticks and Stones: The Troublesome Success of Children's Literature from Slovenly Peter to Harry Potter.
  • ^ Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. 1988. Page 19-20. Noam Chomsky & Edward S. Herman
  • ^ Baudrillard. J. (1998). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. Page 80
  • ^ Baudrillard. J. (1998). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. Page 110
  • ^ Baudrillard. J. (1998). The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. Page 61
  • ^ https://baudrillardstudies.ubishops.ca/the-matrix-decoded-le-nouvel-observateur-interview-with-jean-baudrillard/
  • ^ "Pop Culture: An Overview | Issue 64 | Philosophy Now". philosophynow.org. Retrieved 2018-07-06.
  • ^ Danesi, Marcel (2018-07-12). Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. TAMU Libraries: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 9781538107447.
  • ^ Danesi, Marcel (2018-07-12). Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. TAMU Libraries: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 157. ISBN 9781538107447.
  • ^ Danesi, Marcel (2018-07-12). Popular Culture: Introductory Perspectives. TAMU Libraries: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 195. ISBN 9781538107447.
  • ^ "Film History". Greatest Films. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
  • ^ a b Popular Music. (2015). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia
  • ^ "Definition of "popular music" | Collins English Dictionary". www.collinsdictionary.com. Retrieved 2015-11-15.
  • ^ a b Arnold, Denis (1983). The New Oxford Companion Music, Volume 1: A–

    It is tempting to confuse pop music with popular music. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the musicologist's ultimate reference resource, identifies popular music as the music since industrialization in the 1800s that is most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class. This would include an extremely wide range of music from vaudeville and minstrel shows to heavy metal. Pop music, on the other hand, has primarily come into usage to describe music that evolved out of the rock 'n roll revolution of the mid-1950s and continues in a definable path to today.

  • ^ John Storey. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, pp. 4–8
  • ^ Sérgio Campos Gonçalves, "