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Pannonia
Pannonia
was an ancient province of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum
Noricum
and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia
Pannonia
was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia
Slovakia
and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Prior to Roman conquest 2.2 Under Roman rule 2.3 Post-Roman

3 Cities and auxiliary forts 4 Economy and country features 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External links

Name[edit] Further information: Pannonii Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia
Pannonia
is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, water, wet" (cf. English fen, "marsh"; Hindi pani, "water").[7] Others believe that the name is related to the god of the nature, goats and shepherds Pan and/or pan, the Proto-Slavic/Proto-Indo-European word for lord/master, which could mean Pan's Land or Land of the Master(s), which is more probable due the fact the Ionian fleet supplied Pannonia
Pannonia
via Black Sea
Black Sea
and Danube, and Panionium
Panionium
festivities were also well known in the region to its Celtic, Adriatic Veneti
Adriatic Veneti
and Scythian inhabitants. The Ionian Danube fleet reached as far as Boio-Aria (Bavaria), populated until the late 8th century CE by Celts
Celts
and Slavs
Slavs
under Aryan
Aryan
rulers (druids, župans).[8] Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia (present-day Hungary) and Dacia
Dacia
(present-day Romania).[9] He also gives us some dramaticised description[10] of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them (inter se rixantes). He mentions its gigantic oaks.[11] But even he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest. He mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that "shine like fires at night". Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee. The impenetrable nature of the Hercynian Silva hindered the last concerted Roman foray into the forest, by Drusus, during 12..9 BCE: Florus
Florus
asserts that Drusus invisum atque inaccessum in id tempus Hercynium saltum (Hercynia saltus, the "Hercynian ravine-land") [12] patefecit.[13] History[edit]

This article is part of the histories of several countries:

Part of a series on the

History of Austria

Early history

Hallstatt culture Noricum
Noricum
- Pannonia
Pannonia
- Raetia Marcomanni
Marcomanni
- Lombards
Lombards
- Bavarians
Bavarians
- Suebi Avars Samo's Realm Carantania East Francia Duchy of Bavaria
Duchy of Bavaria
- Margraviate of Austria House of Babenberg Privilegium Minus

Habsburg era

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World War I

Assassination of Franz Ferdinand World War I

Interwar years

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World War II

National Socialism

Post-war Austria

Allied-occupied Austria Second Austrian Republic

Topics

Jews Jews in Vienna Military history Music

Austria
Austria
portal

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Part of a series on the

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Early history

Prehistory Roman Dalmatia Roman Pannonia

Middle Ages

Bosnia in the Early Middle Ages Zachumlia
Zachumlia
- Travunia Banate of Bosnia Kingdom of Bosnia

Ottoman era

Ottoman conquest Ottoman era (Eyalet / Vilayet)

Habsburgs

Habsburg era (Bosnian crisis)

Yugoslavia

Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Drina Banovina) World War II SFR Yugoslavia (SR Bosnia and Herzegovina) Breakup of Yugoslavia

Contemporary

Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian War (Herzeg-Bosnia / Western Bosnia) Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina) (Republika Srpska)

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
portal

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Part of a series on the

History of Croatia

Early history

Prehistoric Croatia Roman Pannonia Roman Dalmatia Origins of the Croats White Croatia White Croats

Middle Ages

Avar Khaganate Duchy of Dalmatian Croatia Duchy of Pannonian Croatia Southern Dalmatia March of Istria Kingdom of Croatia Union with Hungary Republic of Dubrovnik Republic of Poljica

Modernity

Ottoman Croatia Republic of Venice Kingdom of Croatia Croatian Military Frontier Illyrian Provinces Kingdom of Illyria Kingdom of Slavonia Kingdom of Dalmatia Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia

20th century

World War I

State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs

Kingdom of Yugoslavia Banovina of Croatia

World War II

Independent State of Croatia Federal State of Croatia

Socialist Republic of Croatia

Contemporary Croatia

Independence War of independence Croatia
Croatia
since 1995

Timeline

Croatia
Croatia
portal

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Part of a series on the

History of Hungary

Early history

Hungarian prehistory Hungary
Hungary
before the Hungarians Roman Pannonia Hungarian conquest

Medieval

Principality 895–1000

High Medieval Kingdom 1000–1301

Late Medieval Kingdom 1301–1526

Ottoman Wars 1366–1526

Early modern

Habsburg kingdom 1526–1867

Eastern kingdom 1526–1570

Ottoman Hungary 1541–1699

Principality of Transylvania 1570–1711

Late modern

Rákóczi's War 1703–1711

Revolution of 1848 1848–1849

Austria-Hungary 1867–1918

Lands of the Crown 1867–1918

World War I 1914–1918

Interwar period 1918–1941

First Hungarian Republic 1918–1920

Hungarian Soviet Republic 1919

Kingdom of Hungary 1920–1946

World War II 1941–1945

Contemporary

Second Hungarian Republic 1946–1949

Hungarian People's Republic 1949–1989

Revolution of 1956 1956

Third Hungarian Republic since 1989

By topic

Christianity Military Music Nobility

Hungarians Jews Székelys

Hungary
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portal

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Part of a series on the

History of Serbia

By century

9th 10th

Prehistory

Paleolithic Mesolithic Neolithic Bronze Age Iron
Iron
Age

Pre-Roman

Illyrians Autariatae Dardani Triballi Moesi Scordisci Dacians

Early Roman

Illyricum Pannonia Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior Dalmatia Moesia Moesia
Moesia
Superior Dacia Dacia
Dacia
Aureliana

Late Roman

Moesia
Moesia
Prima Dacia
Dacia
Mediterranea Dacia
Dacia
Ripensis Dardania Praevalitana Pannonia
Pannonia
Secunda Diocese of Moesia Diocese of Dacia Diocese of Pannonia Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Early Middle Ages

White Serbia around 600 AD

Principality of Serbia Duklja, Travunia, Zachlumia, Narentines, Raška, Bosnia

7th–10th century

Catepanate of Ras around 969–976

High Middle Ages

Duklja
Duklja
(Zeta) 11th–12th century

Theme of Sirmium 1018–1071

Grand Principality 1071–1217

Kingdom of Serbia 1217–1346

King Dragutin's realm 1282–1325

Empire · Fall 1346–1371

Prince Lazar's Serbia 1371–1402

Despotate of Serbia 1402–1537

Early Modern

Serbia
Serbia
under Turkish rule 1459–1804

Jovan Nenad / Radoslav Čelnik 1526–1530

Banate of Lugoj and Caransebeș 16th–17th

Habsburg occupation 1686–1699

Great Serb Migrations 1690 and 1737–1739

Military Frontier 1702–1882

Habsburg Serbia 1718–1739

Koča's frontier 1788–1791

Serbia
Serbia
1804–1918

Revolution 1804–1815

Principality of Serbia 1815–1882

Serbian Vojvodina 1848–1849

Serbia
Serbia
and Banat 1849–1860

Kingdom of Serbia 1882–1918

Serbia
Serbia
since 1918

Kingdom of Yugoslavia 1918–1941

Axis occupation 1941–1944

Federal unit of Yugoslavia 1944–1992

Federal unit of FRY (S&M) 1992–2006

Republic of Serbia 2006–present

Serbia
Serbia
portal

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Part of a series on the

History of Slovenia

Italy / Noricum / Pannonia Slavic settlement of the Eastern Alps Avars Samo's Realm Carantania Carneola Holy Roman Empire March of Carniola Windic March Duchy of Carniola Venetian Republic Illyrian Provinces Kingdom of Illyria Inner Austria Julian March Drava
Drava
Banovina World War II in the Slovene Lands Socialist Republic of Slovenia Republic of Slovenia

Slovenia
Slovenia
portal

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Prior to Roman conquest[edit] Further information: Prehistoric Hungary, Prehistoric Croatia, Prehistoric Serbia, Prehistoric Slovenia, Prehistoric Bosnia and Herzegovina, Prehistoric Austria, and Prehistoric Slovakia The first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii (Pannonians), a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia
Pannonia
until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia
Siscia
(Sisak). The country was not, however, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of which was thus extended as far as the Danube. Under Roman rule[edit]

Seuso and his wife at Lacus Pelso (today Lake Balaton)

The Roman empire in the time of Hadrian
Hadrian
(ruled 117-138 AD), showing, on the middle Danube
Danube
river, the imperial provinces of Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior
Pannonia Inferior
and the 2 legions deployed in each in 125

Map showing Constantine I's conquests of areas of present-day eastern Hungary, western Romania
Romania
and northern Serbia, in the first decades of the 4th century (pink color).

In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, and were overcome by Tiberius
Tiberius
and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia
Pannonia
in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes (Quadi, Marcomanni) necessitated the presence of a large number of troops (seven legions in later times), and numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube. Some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan
Trajan
divided the province into Pannonia
Pannonia
Superior (western part with the capital Carnuntum), and Pannonia
Pannonia
Inferior (eastern part with the capitals in Aquincum
Aquincum
and Sirmium[14]). According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona
Arrabona
in the north to Servitium
Servitium
in the south; later, the boundary was placed further east. The whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias (Pannoniae). Pannonia Superior
Pannonia Superior
was under the consular legate, who had formerly administered the single province, and had three legions under his control. Pannonia Inferior
Pannonia Inferior
was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison; after Marcus Aurelius, it was under a consular legate, but still with only one legion. The frontier on the Danube
Danube
was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum
Aquincum
by Hadrian. Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made:

Pannonia Prima
Pannonia Prima
in the northwest, with its capital in Savaria / Sabaria, it included Upper Pannonia
Pannonia
and the major part of Central Pannonia
Pannonia
between the Raba and Drava, Pannonia Valeria
Pannonia Valeria
in the northeast, with its capital in Sopianae, it comprised the remainder of Central Pannonia
Pannonia
between the Raba, Drava and Danube, Pannonia Savia
Pannonia Savia
in the southwest, with its capital in Siscia, Pannonia Secunda
Pannonia Secunda
in the southeast, with its capital in Sirmium

Diocletian
Diocletian
also moved parts of today's Slovenia
Slovenia
out of Pannonia
Pannonia
and incorporated them in Noricum. In 324 AD, Constantine I
Constantine I
enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia
Pannonia
to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia
Serbia
and western Romania
Romania
up to the limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes.[citation needed] In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium
Sirmium
and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum
Noricum
Mediterraneum and Noricum
Noricum
Ripense.[citation needed]

Pannonia
Pannonia
in the 1st century

Pannonia
Pannonia
in the 2nd century

Pannonia
Pannonia
in the 4th century

Pannonia
Pannonia
with Constantine I
Constantine I
"limes" in 330 AD

Post-Roman[edit]

Gerulata- a Roman military camp located near today's Rusovce, Slovakia.

Following the Migrations Period
Migrations Period
in the middle of the 5th century, Pannonia
Pannonia
was ceded to the Huns
Huns
by Theodosius II. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
were settled by Marcian in the province as foederati. The Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a time in the 6th century, and a Byzantine province of Pannonia
Pannonia
with its capital at Sirmium
Sirmium
was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia. Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century, and the Franks, who named a frontier march the March of Pannonia
Pannonia
in the late 8th century. The term Pannonia
Pannonia
was also used for a Slavic duchy that was vassal to the Franks. Between the 5th and the 10th centuries, the romanized population of Pannonia
Pannonia
developed the Romance Pannonian language, mainly around Lake Balaton in present-day western Hungary, where there was the keszthely culture. This language and the related culture became extinct with the arrival of the Magyars. Cities and auxiliary forts[edit]

Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác
Tác
- Hungary

Aquincum, Hungary

Ruins of Imperial Palace in Sirmium

The native settlements consisted of pagi (cantons) containing a number of vici (villages), the majority of the large towns being of Roman origin. The cities and towns in Pannonia
Pannonia
were:

Now in Austria:

Carnuntum
Carnuntum
(Petronell, Bad Deutsch-Altenburg) Vindobona
Vindobona
(Vienna)

Now in Bosnia and Hercegovina:

Saldae (Brčko) Serbinum
Serbinum
or Servitium
Servitium
(Gradiška)

Now in Croatia:

Ad Novas (Zmajevac) Andautonia
Andautonia
(Ščitarjevo) Aqua Viva (Petrijanec) Aquae Balisae
Aquae Balisae
(Daruvar) Certissa
Certissa
(Đakovo) Cibalae
Cibalae
(Vinkovci) Cornacum
Cornacum
(Sotin) Cuccium
Cuccium
(Ilok) Iovia
Iovia
or Iovia
Iovia
Botivo (Ludbreg) Marsonia
Marsonia
(Slavonski Brod) Mursa
Mursa
(Osijek) Siscia
Siscia
(Sisak) Teutoburgium
Teutoburgium
(Dalj)

Now in Hungary:

Ad Flexum (Mosonmagyaróvár) Ad Mures
Ad Mures
(Ács) Ad Statuas (Vaspuszta) Ad Statuas (Várdomb) Alisca
Alisca
(Szekszárd) Alta Ripa
Alta Ripa
(Tolna) Aquincum
Aquincum
(Óbuda, Budapest) Arrabona
Arrabona
(Győr) Brigetio
Brigetio
(Szőny) Caesariana (Baláca) Campona (Nagytétény) Cirpi (Dunabogdány) Contra- Aquincum
Aquincum
(Budapest) Contra Constantiam
Contra Constantiam
(Dunakeszi) Gorsium-Herculia
Gorsium-Herculia
(Tác) Intercisa
Intercisa
(Dunaújváros) Iovia
Iovia
(Szakcs) Lugio (Dunaszekcső) Lussonium (Dunakömlőd) Matrica
Matrica
(Százhalombatta) Morgentianae
Morgentianae
( Tüskevár
Tüskevár
(?)) Mursella
Mursella
(Mórichida) Quadrata (Lébény) Sala (Zalalövő) Savaria or Sabaria
Sabaria
(Szombathely) Scarbantia
Scarbantia
(Sopron) Solva (Esztergom) Sopianae
Sopianae
(Pécs) Ulcisia Castra
Ulcisia Castra
(Szentendre) Valcum (Fenékpuszta)

Now in Serbia:

Acumincum
Acumincum
(Stari Slankamen) Ad Herculae
Ad Herculae
(Čortanovci) Bassianae
Bassianae
(Donji Petrovci) Bononia (Banoštor) Burgenae
Burgenae
(Novi Banovci) Cusum (Petrovaradin) Graio
Graio
(Sremska Rača) Onagrinum
Onagrinum
(Begeč) Rittium
Rittium
(Surduk) Sirmium
Sirmium
(Sremska Mitrovica) Taurunum
Taurunum
(Zemun)

Now in Slovakia:

Gerulata
Gerulata
(Rusovce)

Now in Slovenia:

Celeia
Celeia
(Celje) Neviodunum
Neviodunum
(Drnovo) Poetovio
Poetovio
(Ptuj)

Economy and country features[edit]

Ancient peoples in Pannonia

The country was fairly productive, especially after the great forests had been cleared by Probus and Galerius. Before that time, timber had been one of its most important exports. Its chief agricultural products were oats and barley, from which the inhabitants brewed a kind of beer named sabaea. Vines and olive trees were little cultivated. Pannonia
Pannonia
was also famous for its breed of hunting dogs. Although no mention is made of its mineral wealth by the ancients, it is probable that it contained iron and silver mines. Its chief rivers were the Dravus, Savus, and Arrabo, in addition to the Danuvius (less correctly, Danubius), into which the first three rivers flow. Legacy[edit] The ancient name Pannonia
Pannonia
is retained in the modern term Pannonian plain. See also[edit]

Pannonian plain Roman provinces Diocese of Pannonia

References[edit]

^ Vienna, Anthony Haywood, Caroline (CON) Sieg, Lonely Planet Vienna, 2010, page 21. ^ The third book of history: containing ancient history in connection with ancient geography, Samuel Griswold Goodrich, Jenks, Palmer, 1835, page 111. ^ The Archaeology of Roman Pannonia, Alfonz Lengyel, George T. Radan, University Press of Kentucky, 1980, page 247. ^ People and nature in historical perspective, Péter Szabó, Central European University Press, 2003, page 144. ^ Historical outlook: a journal for readers, students and teachers of history, Том 9, American Historical Association, National Board for Historical Service, National Council for the Social Studies, McKinley Publishing Company, 1918, page 194. ^ THE COTTAGE CYCLOPEDIA OF HISTORY AND BIOGRAPHY, ED.M.PIERCE, 1869, page 915. ^ J. Pokorny, Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, No. 1481 Archived 2011-06-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "The Bavarian Troy". David Heath. Retrieved 2017-02-24.  ^ Pliny, iv.25 ^ The threatening nature of the pathless woodland in Pliny is explored by Klaus Sallmann, "Reserved for Eternal Punishment: The Elder Pliny's View of Free Germania (HN. 16.1–6)" The American Journal of Philology 108.1 (Spring 1987:108–128) pp 118ff. ^ Pliny xvi.2 ^ Compare the inaccessible Carbonarius Saltus west of the Rhine ^ Florus, ii.30.27. ^ The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation, Taylor & Francis, page 381.

Sources[edit]

Radomir Popović, Rano hrišćanstvo u Panoniji, Vojvođanski godišnjak, sveska I, Novi Sad, 1995. Petar Milošević, Arheologija i istorija Sirmijuma, Novi Sad, 2001.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pannonia.

Pannonia Pannonia Pannonia Pannonia
Pannonia
map Pannonia
Pannonia
map Aerial photography: Gorsium - Tác
Tác
- Hungary Aerial photography: Aquincum
Aquincum
- Budapest
Budapest
- Hungary

Coordinates: 44°54′00″N 19°01′12″E / 44.9000°N 19.0200°E / 44.9000; 19.0200

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