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October is the tenth month of the year in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and the sixth of seven months to have a length of 31 days. The eighth month in the old calendar of Romulus , October retained its name (from the Latin and Greek ''ôctō'' meaning "eight") after January and February were inserted into the calendar that had originally been created by the Romans. In Ancient Rome, one of three Mundus patet would take place on October 5, Meditrinalia October 11, Augustalia on October 12, October Horse on October 15, and Armilustrium on October 19. These dates do not correspond to the modern Gregorian calendar. Among the Anglo-Saxons, it was known as Ƿinterfylleþ, because at this full moon (''fylleþ'') winter was supposed to begin. October is commonly associated with the season of spring in parts of the Southern Hemisphere, and autumn in parts of the Northern Hemisphere, where it is the seasonal equivalent to April in the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa. October begins on the same day of the week as January in common years, but in leap years, no other month begins on the same day of the week as October. October ends on the same day of the week as February every year and January in common years only. In common years, it begins and ends on the same day of the week as May of the previous year and in leap years, it begins and ends on the same day of the week as August of the previous year and ends on the same day of the week as November of the previous year. In years immediately before common years, October starts on the same day of the week as April and July of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as July of the following year. In years immediately before leap years, it begins on the same day of the week as September and December of the following year and ends on the same day of the week as April and December of the following year.

October symbols

*October's birthstones are the tourmaline and opal. *Its birth flower is the calendula. *The zodiac signs for this month are Libra (until October 22) and Scorpio (from October 23 onwards).. Signs in UT/GMT for 1950–2030. *The French word octobre is shortened to 8bre.

October observances

''This list does not necessarily imply either official status or general observance.''

Non-Gregorian observances: 2020 dates

(All Baha'i, Islamic, and Jewish observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.) *List of observances set by the Bahá'í calendar *List of observances set by the Chinese calendar *List of observances set by the Hebrew calendar *List of observances set by the Islamic calendar *List of observances set by the Solar Hijri calendar

Month-long observances

*Black History Month in the United Kingdom *In Catholic Church tradition, October is the Month of the Holy Rosary. *Breast Cancer Awareness Month * Health Literacy Month *International Walk to School Month * Medical Ultrasound Awareness Month * Rett Syndrome Awareness Month * World Blindness Awareness Month *World Menopause Month * Vegetarian Awareness Month

United States

The last two to three weeks in October (and, occasionally, the first week of November) are normally the only time of the year during which all of the "Big Four" major professional sports leagues in the U.S. and Canada schedule games; the National Basketball Association begins its preseason and about two weeks later starts the regular season, the National Hockey League is about one month into its regular season, the National Football League is about halfway through its regular season, and Major League Baseball is in its postseason with the League Championship Series and World Series. There have been 19 occasions in which all four leagues have played games on the same day (an occurrence popularly termed a "sports equinox"), with the most recent of these taking place on October 27, 2019. Additionally, the Canadian Football League is typically nearing the end of its regular season during this period, while Major League Soccer is beginning the MLS Cup Playoffs. *American Archives Month *National Adopt a Shelter Dog Month *National Arts & Humanities Month *National Bullying Prevention Month *National Cyber Security Awareness Month *National Domestic Violence Awareness Month *Filipino American History Month *Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month *Polish American Heritage Month *National Work and Family Month

=United States, Health-related

= * American Pharmacist Month * Breast Cancer Awareness Month *Celebrating All of October Dwarfism/Little People/Short Stature/Skeletal Dysplasia Awareness https://www.littlepeopleoftheworld.org/dwarfism-awareness *Dwarfism/Little People Awareness Month *Eczema Awareness Month * National Dental Hygiene Month * National Healthy Lung Month * National Infertility Awareness Month * Liver Awareness Month * National Lupus Erythematosus Awareness Month * National Physical Therapy Month * National Spina Bifida Awareness Month * Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Awareness Month (United States)

=United States, Culinary

= * National Pizza Month * National Popcorn Poppin’ Month * National Pork Month * National Seafood Month

Movable observances, 2020 dates

*Oktoberfest celebrations (varies globally based on area) *World College Radio Day: October 2 *Astronomy Day: October 5 *World Cerebral Palsy Day: October 6 *Earth Science Week: October 10-16 *See also Movable Western Christian observances *See also Movable Eastern Christian observances

First Thursday: October 1

*National Poetry Day (UK, Ireland)

First Friday: October 2

*Children's Day (Singapore) *Lee National Denim Day (United States) *World Smile Day *Mahatma Gandhi's Birthday

First Sunday: October 4

*Daylight saving time begins (Australia) *Father's Day (Luxembourg) *Grandparents Day (Queensland, Australia, United Kingdom) *Teachers' Day (Belarus, Latvia, Ukraine)

First Full Week: October 4–10

*Albuquerque International Balloon Fiesta (United States) *Mental Illness Awareness Week (United States)

Week of October 9: October 4–10

*Fire Prevention Week (Canada, United States) **Fire Service Recognition Day (Canada), last day of Fire Prevention Week: October 10

Week of October 10: October 4–10

*Fiji Week (Fiji)

First Monday: October 5

* Child Health Day (United States) * Children's Day (Chile, Singapore) * Labour Day (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, South Australia, Queensland, Australia) * Peat Cutting Monday (Falkland Islands) * Thanksgiving (Saint Lucia) * World Architecture Day * World Habitat Day

First Tuesday: October 6

*National Night Out (Florida and Texas, United States)

First Wednesday: October 7

*Children's Day (Chile)

Second Thursday: October 8

*World Sight Day

Second Friday: October 9

*Arbor Day (Namibia) *World Egg Day

Second Saturday: October 10

*International Migratory Bird Day (Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean) *Home Movie Day (International observance) *National Tree Planting Day (Mongolia)

Second Sunday: October 11

*National Grandparents Day (Germany, Hong Kong)

Second Monday: October 12

*Columbus Day (United States) **Indigenous Peoples' Day (Parts of the United States) **Native American Day (South Dakota, United States) *Fraternal Day (Alabama, United States) *Health and Sports Day (Japan) *Mother's Day (Malawi) *Norfolk Island Agricultural Show Day (Norfolk Island) *Thanksgiving (Canada) *National Day (Republic of China)

Second Tuesday: October 13

*Ada Lovelace Day

Second Wednesday: October 14

*Policy Statement of Belgian Parliament (Belgium)

Wednesday of second full week in October: October 14

*National Fossil Day (United States)

Third Thursday: October 15

*International Credit Union Day

Third Saturday: October 17

*Sweetest Day (United States)

Third Sunday: October 18

*Teacher's Day (Brazil) *Mother's Day (Argentina)

Third Monday: October 19

*Heroes' Day (Jamaica) *Mother's Day (Argentina) *Nanomonestotse (Native American communities) *Boss's Day (United States, Canada, Lithuania and Romania)

Fourth Saturday: October 24

*Children's Day (Malaysia) *Make a Difference Day (United States)

Last Sunday: October 25

*European Summer Time ends *Grandparents Day (New South Wales, Australia) *Székely Autonomy Day (Romania)

Week of Fourth Wednesday: October 25–31

*Children's Week (Australia)

Fourth Monday: October 26

*Labour Day (New Zealand)

Last Monday: October 26

*October Holiday (Ireland)

Fourth Wednesday: October 28

*Children's Day (Australia)

Last Friday: October 30

*National Bandanna Day (Australia) *Nevada Day (Nevada, United States) (though the state was actually admitted on October 31, 1864) *Teacher's Day (Australia) (If the last Friday is on October 31, this holiday is moved to November 7)

Fixed observances

*October 1 **Armed Forces Day (South Korea) **Children's Day (El Salvador, Guatemala, Sri Lanka) **Day of Prosecutors (Azerbaijan) **Continuance of German-American Heritage Months, which runs from September 15 – October 15 (United States) **Continuance of National Hispanic Heritage Month which runs from September 15 – October 15 (United States), **Ground Forces Day (Russia) **Independence Day (Cyprus) **Independence Day (Nigeria) **Independence Day (Palau) **Independence Day (Tuvalu) **International Coffee Day **International Day of Older Persons **International Music Day **Lincolnshire Day (United Kingdom) **National Day of the People's Republic of China (People's Republic of China) **Pancasila Sanctity Day (Indonesia) **Teacher's Day (Uzbekistan) **Unification Day (Cameroon) **World Vegetarian Day *October 2 **Batik Day (Indonesia) **Feast of the Guardian Angels ***National Grandparents Day (Italy) **Gandhi's birthday-related observances: ***Gandhi Jayanti (India) ***International Day of Non-Violence ***World Day for Farmed Animals **Independence Day (Guinea) *October 3 **Gaecheonjeol (South Korea) **German Unity Day (Germany) **National Day (Iraq) **Morazán Day (Honduras) *October 4 ** Feast of Saint Francis of Assisi **Cinnamon Roll Day (Sweden) **Day of Peace and Reconciliation (Mozambique) **Independence Day (Lesotho) **World Animal Day **The beginning of World Space Week (October 4–10) *October 5 **Armed Forces Day (Indonesia) **Constitution Day (Vanuatu) **Engineer's Day (Bolivia) **International Day of No Prostitution **Republic Day (Portugal) **Teachers' Day (Pakistan) **Teachers' Day (Russia) **World Teachers' Day *October 6 **Day of Commemoration and National Mourning (Turkmenistan) **Dukla Pass Victims Day (Slovakia) **German-American Day (United States) **Memorial Day for the Martyrs of Arad (Hungary) **National Noodle Day (United States) **Teachers' Day (Sri Lanka) **Yom Kippur War commemorations: ***Armed Forces Day (Egypt) ***Tishreen Liberation Day (Syria) *October 7 **Our Lady of the Rosary **International Trigeminal Neuralgia Awareness Day **Teachers' Day (Laos) *October 8 **Air Force Day (India) **Arbor Day (Namibia) **National Independence Day (Croatia) **Navy Day (Peru) *October 9 **Hangul Day (South Korea) **Independence Day (Uganda) **Independence of Guayaquil (Ecuador) **Leif Erikson Day (United States, Iceland and Norway) **National Day of Commemorating the Holocaust (Romania) **Takayama Autumn Festival (Takayama, Japan) **World Post Day **Valencian Community Day (Spain) *October 10 **Arbor Day (Poland) **Capital Liberation Day (Vietnam) **Double Ten Day (Taiwan) **Fiji Day (Fiji) **Finnish Literature Day (Finland) **Independence Day (Cuba) **Party Foundation Day (North Korea) **World Mental Health Day *October 11 **General Pulaski Memorial Day (United States) **International Day of the Girl Child **International Newspaper Carrier Day **National Coming Out Day (multinational, including United States, United Kingdom and Switzerland among others) **Old Michaelmas Day (Celtic) **Revolution Day (Republic of Macedonia) *October 12 **Children's Day (Brazil) **Discovery of America by Columbus-related observances (''see also October 8''): ***Columbus Day (Honduras) ***Día de la Hispanidad or Fiesta Nacional de España, also Armed Forces Day (Spain) ***Día de la Raza (El Salvador, Uruguay) ***Día de la Resistencia Indígena, "Day of Indigenous Resistance" (Venezuela) ***Día de las Américas (Belize) ***Día de las Culturas, "Day of the Cultures" (Costa Rica) ***Día del Respeto a la Diversidad Cultural, "Day of respect for cultural diversity" (Argentina) **Discovery Day (The Bahamas, Colombia) **Feast for Life of Aleister Crowley, celebrated as "Crowleymas" (Thelema) **Fiesta Nacional de España (Spain) **Freethought Day **Independence Day (Equatorial Guinea), celebrates the independence of Equatorial Guinea from Spain in 1968. **UN Spanish Language Day (United Nations) *October 13 **Azerbaijani Railway Day (Azerbaijan) **Doi taikomatsuri October 13–15 (Shikokuchūō, Ehime, Japan) **International Day for Natural Disaster Reduction **National Police Day (Thailand) **Paramedics' Day (Poland) **Rwagasore Day (Burundi) *October 14 **World Standards Day *October 15 **Breast Health Day (Europe) **Evacuation Day (Tunisia) **Global Handwashing Day **King Father's Commemoration Day (Cambodia) **National Latino AIDS Awareness Day (United States) **Pregnancy and Infant Loss Remembrance Day (United States and Canada) **Spirit Day (International observance) **Teachers' Day (Brazil) **White Cane Safety Day (United States) *October 16 **World Food Day **World Anaesthesia Day *October 17 **Dessalines Day (Haiti) **Digital Society Day (India) **International Day for the Eradication of Poverty **Loyalty Day (Argentina) *October 18 **Alaska Day (Alaska, United States) **Independence Day (Azerbaijan) **Necktie Day (Croatia) **Persons Day (Canada) **World Menopause Day *October 19 **Constitution Day (Niue) **Mother Teresa Day (Albania) *October 20 **Arbor Day (Czech Republic) **Heroes' Day (Kenya) **Revolution Day (Guatemala) **Vietnamese Women's Day (Vietnam) **World Osteoporosis Day **World Statistics Day *October 21 **Apple Day (United Kingdom) **Armed Forces Day (Honduras) **Egyptian Naval Day (Egypt) **Indian Police Commemoration Day (India) **International Day of the Nacho **National Nurses' Day (Thailand) **Ndadaye Day (Burundi) **Overseas Chinese Day (Taiwan) **Trafalgar Day (the British Empire in the 19th and early 20th century) *October 22 **Fechner Day (International observance) **International Caps Lock Day **International Stuttering Awareness Day **Jidai Matsuri (Kyoto, Japan) **National Santri Day (Indonesia) **Wombat Day (Australia) *October 23 **Aviator's Day (Brazil) **Chulalongkorn Day (Thailand) **Day of the Macedonian Revolutionary Struggle (Republic of Macedonia) **Liberation Day (Libya) **Mole Day (International observance) **National Day (Hungary) **Paris Peace Agreement Day (Cambodia) *October 24 **Azad Kashmir Day (Pakistan) **Day of Special Forces of the Armed Forces (Russia) **Food Day (United States) **Independence Day (Zambia) **Suez Day (Egypt) **United Nations Day (International observance) **World Development Information Day **World Polio Day *October 25 **Armed Forces Day (Romania) **Constitution Day (Lithuania) **Customs Officer's Day (Russia) **Day of the Basque Country (Basque Country) **Retrocession Day (Taiwan) **Sovereignty Day (Slovenia) **Thanksgiving Day (Grenada) **The Hallowing of Nestorius (Nestorian Christianity) *October 26 **Accession Day (Jammu and Kashmir) **Angam Day (Nauru) **Armed Forces Day (Benin) **Intersex Awareness Day (International observance) **National Day (Austria) *October 27 **Black Cat Appreciation Day (United Kingdom) **Černová Tragedy Day (Slovakia) **Flag Day (Greece) **Independence Day (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines) **Independence Day (Turkmenistan) **Navy Day (United States) (unofficial, official date is October 13) **World Day for Audiovisual Heritage *October 28 **Day of the Establishment of an Independent Czecho-Slovak State (Czech Republic and Slovakia) **International Animation Day **Ohi Day (Greece, Cyprus) **Prefectural Earthquake Disaster Prevention Day (Gifu Prefecture, Japan) **Youth Pledge Day (Indonesia) *October 29 **Coronation Day (Cambodia) **Cyrus the Great Day (Iran) **National Cat Day (United States) **Republic Day (Turkey) **World Stroke Day *October 30 **Anniversary of the Declaration of the Slovak Nation (Slovakia) **Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions (former Soviet republics, except Ukraine) **Indonesian Banknote Day (Indonesia) **International Orthopaedic Nurses Day **Mischief Night (United States and Canada) ***Beggars Night (certain regions of the United States) ***Devil's Night (Michigan, United States) **Thevar Jayanthi (Thevar community, India) *October 31 **Start of Allhallowtide October 31 – November 6 **The first day of the Day of the Dead, celebrated until November 2 (Mexico) **Día de la Canción Criolla (Peru) **Eve of Winter, the eve of the first day of winter in the Northern hemisphere: ***Allantide (Cornwall, United Kingdom) ***Halloween (English-speaking countries, also in other locations) ***Hop-tu-Naa (Isle of Man, United Kingdom) ***Samhain in the Northern Hemisphere, Beltane in the Southern Hemisphere; begins on sunset of October 31 (Gaels, Welsh people and Neopagan Wheel of the Year) **Girl Scouts Founders Day (United States) **King Father's Birthday (Cambodia) **National Unity Day (India) **Reformation Day (Slovenia, parts of Germany, Chile, El Salvador, Dominican Republic, Evangelical Churches and Lutheran Churches) **Saci day (Brazil) **World Savings Day **Statehood Day Nevada, United States

Miscellaneous

*Eric Whitacre composed a piece based on this month, titled ''October''. *Neil Gaiman wrote a story personifying the month, titled "October in the Chair", for his 2006 collection ''Fragile Things''. *Ray Bradbury published a collection of short stories titled ''The October Country'' in 1955.

External links

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