New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city
in the United States
. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the most densely populated
major city in the United States.
Located at the southern tip of the State of New York
, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area
, the largest metropolitan area
in the world by urban landmass
. With almost 20 million people in its metropolitan statistical area
and approximately 23 million in its combined statistical area
, it is one of the world's most populous megacities
. New York City has been described as the cultural
, financial, and media capital of the world, significantly influencing commerce,
entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports, and is the most photographed
city in the world. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations
, New York is an important center for international diplomacy
, and has sometimes been called the capital of the world
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors
, New York City is composed of five boroughs
, each of which is a county of the State of New York
. The five boroughs—Brooklyn
, the Bronx
, and Staten Island
—were created when local governments were consolidated
into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States
. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York,
making it the most linguistically
diverse city in the world. New York is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States,
the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world as of 2016.
, the New York metropolitan area is estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product
) of $2.0 trillion. If the New York metropolitan area were a sovereign state
, it would have the eighth-largest economy
in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaire
s of any city in the world.
New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded on the southern tip of Manhattan
Island by Dutch
colonists in 1624. The settlement was named New Amsterdam
( nl|Nieuw Amsterdam
|link=yes) in 1626 and was chartered as a city in 1653.
The city came under English control in 1664 and was renamed New York after King Charles II of England
granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York
The city was regained by the Dutch in July 1673 and was renamed New Orange for one year and three months; the city has been continuously named New York since November 1674. New York City was the capital of the United States
from 1785 until 1790,
and has been the largest U.S. city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty
greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U.S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is a symbol of the U.S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity, entrepreneurship,
and environmental sustainability,
and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. In 2019, New York was voted the greatest city in the world per a survey of over 30,000 people from 48 cities worldwide, citing its cultural diversity.
Many districts and landmarks
in New York City are well known, including three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013.
A record 62.8 million tourists visited New York City in 2017. Times Square
is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District
, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry
. Many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers
, and parks
are known around the world. The Empire State Building
has become the global standard of reference to describe the height and length of other structures. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. Providing continuous 24/7 service and contributing to the nickname
''The City That Never Sleeps
'', the New York City Subway
is the largest single-operator rapid transit
system worldwide, with rail stations. The city has over 120 colleges and universities
, including Columbia University
, New York University
, Rockefeller University
, and the City University of New York
system, which is the largest urban public university system in the United States. Anchored by Wall Street
in the Financial District
of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the world's leading financial center
and the most financially powerful city in the world, and is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges
by total market capitalization
, the New York Stock Exchange
In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York
, who would become King James II of England
. James's older brother, King Charles II
, appointed the Duke proprietor
of the former territory of New Netherland
, including the city of New Amsterdam
, when England seized it from the Dutch.
In the precolonial era
, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian
Native Americans, including the Lenape
. Their homeland, known as Lenapehoking
, included Staten Island, Manhattan, the Bronx, the western portion of Long Island
(including the areas that would later become the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens), and the Lower Hudson Valley
The first documented visit into New York Harbor
by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano
, a Florentine
explorer in the service of the French crown
He claimed the area for France and named it ''Nouvelle Angoulême'' (New Angoulême
expedition, led by the Portuguese
captain Estêvão Gomes
sailing for Emperor Charles V
, arrived in New York Harbor
in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named ''Río de San Antonio'' (Saint Anthony's River). The Padrón Real
of 1527, the first scientific map to show the East Coast of North America
continuously, was informed by Gomes' expedition and labeled the northeastern United States
as ''Tierra de Esteban Gómez'' in his honor.
In 1609, the English explorer Henry Hudson
rediscovered New York Harbor while searching for the Northwest Passage
to the Orient
for the Dutch East India Company
He proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River
(now the Hudson River
), named first by Hudson as the ''Mauritius'' after Maurice, Prince of Orange
. Hudson's first mate described the harbor as "a very good Harbour for all windes" and the river as "a mile broad" and "full of fish".
Hudson sailed roughly north, past the site of the present-day New York State capital city
, in the belief that it might be an oceanic tributary
before the river became too shallow to continue.
He made a ten-day exploration of the area and claimed the region for the Dutch East India Company. In 1614, the area between Cape Cod
and Delaware Bay
was claimed by the Netherlands
and called ''Nieuw-Nederland'' (New Netherland
The first non-Native American inhabitant of what would eventually become New York City was Juan Rodriguez
to Dutch as ''Jan Rodrigues''), a merchant from Santo Domingo
. Born in Santo Domingo of Portuguese
descent, he arrived in Manhattan during the winter of 1613–14, trapping for pelts and trading with the local population as a representative of the Dutch. Broadway
, from 159th Street to 218th Street in Upper Manhattan
, is named Juan Rodriguez Way in his honor.
A permanent European presence near New York Harbor began in 1624—making New York the 12th oldest continuously occupied
European-established settlement in the continental United States
—with the founding of a Dutch fur trading
settlement on Governors Island
. In 1625, construction was started on a citadel
and Fort Amsterdam
, later called ''Nieuw Amsterdam'' (New Amsterdam), on present-day Manhattan Island.
[GovIsland Park-to-Tolerance: through Broad Awareness and Conscious Vigilance](_blank)
Tolerance Park. Retrieved February 9, 2017. See Legislative Resolutions Senate No. 5476 and Assembly No. 2708.
The colony of New Amsterdam was centered on what would later be known as Lower Manhattan. It extended from the lower tip of Manhattan to modern day Wall Street
, where a 12-foot wooden stockade
was built in 1653 to protect against Native American and British raids. In 1626, the Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit
, acting as charged by the Dutch West India Company
, purchased the island of Manhattan from the ''Canarsie'', a small Lenape band, for "the value of 60 guilders
" (about $900 in 2018). A disproved legend claims that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
Following the purchase, New Amsterdam grew slowly.
To attract settlers, the Dutch instituted the patroon system
in 1628, whereby wealthy Dutchmen (''patroons'', or patrons) who brought 50 colonists to New Netherland would be awarded swaths of land, along with local political autonomy and rights to participate in the lucrative fur trade. This program had little success.
Since 1621, the Dutch West India Company had operated as a monopoly
in New Netherland, on authority granted by the Dutch States General
. In 1639–1640, in an effort to bolster economic growth, the Dutch West India Company relinquished its monopoly over the fur trade, leading to growth in the production and trade of food, timber, tobacco, and slaves (particularly with the Dutch West Indies
In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant
began his tenure as the last Director-General
of New Netherland. During his tenure, the population of New Netherland grew from 2,000 to 8,000. Stuyvesant has been credited with improving law and order in the colony; however, he also earned a reputation as a despotic leader. He instituted regulations on liquor sales, attempted to assert control over the Dutch Reformed Church
, and blocked other religious groups (including Quakers
, and Lutherans
) from establishing houses of worship.
The Dutch West India Company would eventually attempt to ease tensions between Stuyvesant and residents of New Amsterdam.
In 1664, unable to summon any significant resistance, Stuyvesant surrendered New Amsterdam to English troops, led by Colonel Richard Nicolls
, without bloodshed.
The terms of the surrender permitted Dutch residents to remain in the colony and allowed for religious freedom.
In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda
after the Second Anglo-Dutch War
, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of what is now Suriname
(on the northern South America coast) they had gained from the English; and in return, the English kept New Amsterdam
. The fledgling settlement was promptly renamed "New York" after the Duke of York
(the future King James II and VII), who would eventually be deposed in the Glorious Revolution
. After the founding, the duke gave part of the colony to proprietors George Carteret
and John Berkeley
. Fort Orange
, north on the Hudson River
, was renamed Albany
after James's Scottish title. The transfer was confirmed in 1667 by the Treaty of Breda
, which concluded the Second Anglo-Dutch War
On August 24, 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War
, Dutch captain Anthony Colve
seized the colony of New York from the English at the behest of Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest
and rechristened it "New Orange" after William III
, the Prince of Orange
The Dutch would soon return the island to England under the Treaty of Westminster
of November 1674.
Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemic
s brought on by contact with the Europeans caused sizeable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. New York experienced several yellow fever
epidemics in the 18th century, losing ten percent of its population to the disease in 1702 alone.
Province of New York
New York grew in importance as a trading port while as a part of the colony of New York
in the early 1700s.
It also became a center of slavery
, with 42% of households holding slaves by 1730, the highest percentage outside Charleston
, South Carolina
. Most slaveholders held a few or several domestic slaves, but others hired them out to work at labor. Slavery became integrally tied to New York's economy through the labor of slaves throughout the port, and the banks and shipping tied to the American South
. Discovery of the African Burying Ground
in the 1990s, during construction of a new federal courthouse
near Foley Square
, revealed that tens of thousands of Africans had been buried in the area in the colonial period.
The 1735 trial and acquittal in Manhattan of John Peter Zenger
, who had been accused of seditious libel
after criticizing colonial governor William Cosby
, helped to establish the freedom of the press
in North America.
In 1754, Columbia University
was founded under charter by King George II
as King's College in Lower Manhattan.
The Stamp Act Congress
met in New York in October 1765, as the Sons of Liberty
, organized in the city, skirmished over the next ten years with British troops stationed there.
The Battle of Long Island
, the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War
, was fought in August 1776 within the modern-day borough of Brooklyn.
After the battle, in which the Americans were defeated, the British made the city their military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist
refugees and escaped slaves who joined the British lines for freedom newly promised by the Crown for all fighters. As many as 10,000 escaped slaves crowded into the city during the British occupation. When the British forces evacuated
at the close of the war in 1783, they transported 3,000 freedmen
for resettlement in Nova Scotia
They resettled other freedmen
in England and the Caribbean
The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House
on Staten Island between American delegates, including Benjamin Franklin
, and British general Lord Howe
on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began, the Great Fire of New York
occurred, a large conflagration on the West Side
of Lower Manhattan, which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church
In 1785, the assembly of the Congress of the Confederation
made New York City the national capital shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the U.S. under the Articles of Confederation
and the first capital under the Constitution of the United States
. New York City as the U.S. capital hosted several events of national scope in 1789—the first President of the United States, George Washington
, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress
and the Supreme Court of the United States
each assembled for the first time; and the United States Bill of Rights
was drafted, all at Federal Hall
on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia
to become the largest city in the United States, but by the end of that year, pursuant to the Residence Act
, the national capital was moved to Philadelphia.
Over the course of the nineteenth century, New York City's population grew from 60,000 to 3.43 million. Under New York State's abolition
act of 1799, children of slave mothers were to be eventually liberated but to be held in indentured servitude
until their mid-to-late twenties. Together with slaves freed by their masters after the Revolutionary War and escaped slaves, a significant free-Black population gradually developed in Manhattan. Under such influential United States founders
as Alexander Hamilton
and John Jay
, the New York Manumission Society
worked for abolition and established the African Free School
to educate Black children.
[''New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War'' online exhibit](_blank)
New-York Historical Society, (November 17, 2006 to September 3, 2007, physical exhibit). Retrieved May 10, 2012
It was not until 1827 that slavery was completely abolished in the state, and free Blacks struggled afterward with discrimination. New York interracial abolitionist activism continued; among its leaders were graduates of the African Free School. New York city's population jumped from 123,706 in 1820 to 312,710 by 1840, 16,000 of whom were Black.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by development relating to its status as a national and international trading center
, as well as by European immigration. The city adopted the Commissioners' Plan of 1811
, which expanded the city street grid
to encompass almost all of Manhattan. The 1825 completion of the Erie Canal
through central New York
connected the Atlantic port to the agricultural markets and commodities of the North American interior via the Hudson River
and the Great Lakes
. Local politics became dominated by Tammany Hall
, a political machine
supported by Irish
and German immigrants
Several prominent American literary figures
lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant
, Washington Irving
, Herman Melville
, Rufus Wilmot Griswold
, John Keese
, Nathaniel Parker Willis
, and Edgar Allan Poe
. Public-minded members of the contemporaneous business elite lobbied for the establishment of Central Park
, which in 1857 became the first landscaped park
in an American city.
The Great Irish Famine
brought a large influx of Irish immigrants; more than 200,000 were living in New York by 1860, upwards of a quarter of the city's population. There was also extensive immigration from the German provinces, where revolutions had disrupted societies, and Germans comprised another 25% of New York's population by 1860.
candidates were consistently elected to local office, increasing the city's ties to the South and its dominant party. In 1861, Mayor Fernando Wood
called upon the aldermen
to declare independence from Albany and the United States after the South seceded, but his proposal was not acted on.
Anger at new military conscription
laws during the American Civil War
(1861–1865), which spared wealthier men who could afford to pay a $300 () commutation fee to hire a substitute, led to the Draft Riots of 1863
, whose most visible participants were ethnic Irish working class.
The draft riots deteriorated into attacks on New York's elite, followed by attacks on Black New Yorkers and their property after fierce competition for a decade between Irish immigrants and black people for work. Rioters burned the Colored Orphan Asylum to the ground, with more than 200 children escaping harm due to efforts of the New York Police Department
, which was mainly made up of Irish immigrants.
At least 120 people were killed.
Eleven Black men were lynched over five days, and the riots forced hundreds of blacks to flee the city for Williamsburg
, Brooklyn, and New Jersey. The Black population in Manhattan fell below 10,000 by 1865, which it had last been in 1820. The White working class had established dominance.
Violence by longshoremen
against Black men was especially fierce in the docks area.
It was one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation
of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway
in 1904, first built as separate private systems, helped bind the new city together.
Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication.
In 1904, the steamship
'' caught fire in the East River
, killing 1,021 people on board.
In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire
, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union
and major improvements in factory safety standards.
New York's non-white population was 36,620 in 1890. New York City was a prime destination in the early twentieth century for African Americans during the Great Migration
from the American South, and by 1916, New York City had become home to the largest urban African diaspora
in North America.
The Harlem Renaissance
of literary and cultural life flourished during the era of Prohibition
The larger economic boom generated construction of skyscrapers competing in height and creating an identifiable skyline
New York became the most populous urbanized area
in the world in the early-1920s, overtaking London. The metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in the early-1930s, becoming the first megacity
in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression
saw the election of reformer Fiorello La Guardia
as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.
Returning World War II
veterans created a post-war economic boom
and the development of large housing tract
s in eastern Queens and Nassau County
as well as similar suburban areas in New Jersey. New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street
leading America's place as the world's dominant economic power. The United Nations Headquarters
was completed in 1952, solidifying New York's global geopolitical
influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism
in the city precipitated New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.
The Stonewall riots
were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community
against a police raid
that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn
in the Greenwich Village
neighborhood of Lower Manhattan.
They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation
and the modern fight for LGBT rights
Wayne R. Dynes
, author of the Encyclopedia of Homosexuality
, wrote that drag queen
s were the only "transgender folks around" during the June 1969 Stonewall riots
. The transgender
community in New York City played a significant role in fighting for LGBT equality
during the period of the Stonewall riots and thereafter.
In the 1970s, job losses due to industrial restructuring
caused New York City to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued to increase through that decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the mid 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to revised police strategies, improving economic opportunities, gentrification
, and new residents, both American transplants and new immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley
, emerged in the city's economy.
New York's population reached all-time highs in the 2000 census
and then again in the 2010 census.
New York City suffered the bulk of the economic damage and largest loss of human life in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks
Two of the four airliners highjacked that day were flown into the twin towers of the World Trade Center, destroying them and killing 2,192 civilians, 343 firefighters, and 71 law enforcement officers. The North Tower became the tallest building ever to be destroyed anywhere then or subsequently.
The area was rebuilt
with a new One World Trade Center
, a 9/11 memorial and museum
, and other new buildings and infrastructure.
The World Trade Center PATH station
, which had opened on July 19, 1909 as the Hudson Terminal, was also destroyed in the attacks. A temporary station was built and opened on November 23, 2003. An permanent rail station designed by Santiago Calatrava
, the World Trade Center Transportation Hub
, the city's third-largest hub, was completed in 2016. The new One World Trade Center is the tallest skyscraper in the Western Hemisphere
and the sixth-tallest building in the world
height, with its spire
reaching a symbolic in reference to the year of U.S. independence
The Occupy Wall Street
protests in Zuccotti Park
in the Financial District
of Lower Manhattan began on September 17, 2011, receiving global attention and popularizing the Occupy movement
and economic inequality
In March 2020, the first case of COVID-19
in the city was confirmed in Manhattan. The city rapidly became the global epicenter of the pandemic
during the early phase, before the infection became widespread across the world and the rest of the nation. As of March 2021, New York City has recorded over 30,000 deaths
from COVID-19-related complications.
During the Wisconsin glaciation
, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City area was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet
over in depth.
The erosive forward movement of the ice (and its subsequent retreat) contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island
and Staten Island
. That action also left bedrock
at a relatively shallow depth, providing a solid foundation
for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers.
New York City is situated in the northeastern United States
, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C.
. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River
, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading port. Most of New York City is built on the three islands of Long Island
, Manhattan, and Staten Island.
The Hudson River
flows through the Hudson Valley
into New York Bay
. Between New York City and Troy, New York
, the river is an estuary
. The Hudson River separates the city from the U.S. state of New Jersey
. The East River
—a tidal strait
—flows from Long Island Sound
and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River
, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson rivers, separates most of Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River
, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County
, is the only entirely freshwater
river in the city.
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation
along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times; reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan
, with developments such as Battery Park City
in the 1970s and 1980s.
Some of the natural relief in topography has been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The city's total area is ; of the city is land and of this is water.
[New York State Gazetteer from 2010 United States Census](_blank)
United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
The highest point in the city is Todt Hill
on Staten Island, which, at above sea level
, is the highest point on the eastern seaboard south of Maine
. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodland
s as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt
is sometimes referred to collectively as the ''Five Boroughs''. There are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods
throughout the boroughs, many with a definable history and character.
If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States (Staten Island would be ranked 37th as of 2020); these same boroughs are coterminous with the four most densely populated counties in the United States: New York (Manhattan), Kings (Brooklyn), Bronx, and Queens.
(New York County) is the geographically smallest and most densely populated borough, is home to Central Park
and most of the city's skyscrapers, and is sometimes locally known as ''The City''.
Manhattan's population density of 72,033 people per square mile (27,812/km) in 2015 makes it the highest of any county in the United States
and higher than the density of any individual American city
Manhattan is the cultural, administrative, and financial center
of New York City and contains the headquarters of many major multinational corporation
s, the United Nations Headquarters
, Wall Street
, and a number of important universities. The borough of Manhattan is often described as the financial and cultural center of the world.
Most of the borough is situated on Manhattan Island
, at the mouth of the Hudson River. Several small islands also compose part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island
, Wards Island
, and Roosevelt Island
in the East River, and Governors Island
and Liberty Island
to the south in New York Harbor
Manhattan Island is loosely divided into the Lower
, and Uptown
regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side
and the Upper West Side
, and above the park is Harlem
, bordering the Bronx (Bronx County).
Harlem was predominantly occupied by Jewish and Italian Americans in the 19th century until the Great Migration
. It was the center of the Harlem Renaissance
The borough of Manhattan also includes a small neighborhood on the mainland, called Marble Hill
, which is contiguous with the Bronx. New York City's remaining four boroughs are collectively referred to as the ''Outer Boroughs''.
(Kings County), on the western tip of Long Island
, is the city's most populous borough. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social, and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods
, and a distinctive architectural heritage. Downtown Brooklyn
is the largest central core neighborhood in the Outer Boroughs. The borough has a long beachfront shoreline including Coney Island
, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the U.S. Marine Park
and Prospect Park
are the two largest parks in Brooklyn. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship
and high tech
nology startup firms
and of postmodern art
(Queens County), on Long Island north and east of Brooklyn, is geographically the largest borough, the most ethnically diverse
county in the United States,
and the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.
Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough has since developed both commercial and residential prominence. Downtown Flushing
has become one of the busiest central core neighborhoods in the outer boroughs. Queens is the site of Citi Field
, the baseball stadium
of the New York Mets
, and hosts the annual U.S. Open tennis tournament
at Flushing Meadows-Corona Park
. Additionally, two of the three busiest airports serving the New York metropolitan area, John F. Kennedy International Airport
and LaGuardia Airport
, are located in Queens. The third is Newark Liberty International Airport
, New Jersey.
(Bronx County) is New York City's northernmost borough and the only New York City borough that lies mainly on the mainland United States. It is the location of Yankee Stadium
, the baseball park of the New York Yankees
, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing
complex in the United States, Co-op City
. It is also home to the Bronx Zoo
, the world's largest metropolitan zoo,
which spans and houses more than 6,000 animals. The Bronx is also the birthplace of hip hop music
Pelham Bay Park
is the largest park in New York City, at .
(Richmond County) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
, and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry
, a daily commuter
ferry which provides unobstructed views of the Statue of Liberty
, Ellis Island
, and Lower Manhattan. In central Staten Island, the Staten Island Greenbelt
spans approximately , including of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
File:Long Island City from One World Observatory 2017.jpg|The growing skyline of Long Island City, Queens, facing the East River in May 2017
File:1650 Grand Concourse.jpg|The Grand Concourse in the Bronx, foreground, with Manhattan in the background in February 2018
File:Verrazano - Narrows Bridge4.jpg|The Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connecting Staten Island to Brooklyn across The Narrows
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles and from distinct time periods, from the Dutch Colonial Pieter Claesen Wyckoff House
in Brooklyn, the oldest section of which dates to 1656, to the modern One World Trade Center
, the skyscraper at Ground Zero
in Lower Manhattan and the most expensive office tower
in the world by construction cost.
, with its many skyscrapers, is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world
. , New York City had 6,455 high-rise buildings, the third most in the world after Hong Kong and Seoul
. Of these, , 550 completed structures were at least high, with more than fifty completed skyscrapers taller than
. These include the Woolworth Building
, an early example of Gothic Revival architecture
in skyscraper design, built with massively scaled Gothic detailing; completed in 1913, for 17 years it was the world's tallest building.
The 1916 Zoning Resolution
in new buildings and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size
, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below. The Art Deco
style of the Chrysler Building
(1930) and Empire State Building
(1931), with their tapered tops and steel spire
s, reflected the zoning requirements. The buildings have distinctive ornamentation, such as the eagles at the corners of the 61st floor on the Chrysler Building, and are considered some of the finest examples of the Art Deco
style. A highly influential example of the international style
in the United States is the Seagram Building
(1957), distinctive for its façade using visible bronze-toned I-beam
s to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building
(2000) is a prominent example of green design
in American skyscrapers
and has received an award from the American Institute of Architects
and AIA New York State for its design.
The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses
s and shabby tenement
s that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930. In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In neighborhoods such as Riverdale
(in the Bronx), Ditmas Park
(in Brooklyn), and Douglaston
(in Queens), large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival
Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835
[Lankevich (1998), pp. 82–83; ]
A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the roof-mounted wooden water tower
. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes. Garden apartments
became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, such as Jackson Heights
According to the United States Geological Survey
, an updated analysis of seismic hazard
in July 2014 revealed a "slightly lower hazard for tall buildings" in New York City than previously assessed. Scientists estimated this lessened risk based upon a lower likelihood than previously thought of slow shaking near the city, which would be more likely to cause damage to taller structures from an earthquake in the vicinity of the city.
Under the Köppen climate classification
, using the isotherm, New York City features a humid subtropical climate
(Cfa), and is thus the northernmost major city on the North American continent with this categorization. The suburbs to the immediate north and west lie in the transitional zone between humid subtropical and humid continental climate
By the Trewartha classification
, the city is defined as having an oceanic climate (Do). Annually, the city averages 234 days with at least some sunshine.
The city lies in the USDA 7b plant hardiness zone
Winters are chilly and damp, and prevailing wind patterns that blow sea breeze
s offshore temper the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean; yet the Atlantic and the partial shielding from colder air by the Appalachian Mountains
keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh
, and Indianapolis
. The daily mean temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is .
Accessed November 13, 2017.
Temperatures usually drop to several times per winter,
yet can also reach for several days even in the coldest winter month. Spring and autumn are unpredictable and can range from cool to warm, although they are usually mild with low humidity. Summers are typically hot and humid, with a daily mean temperature of in July.
Nighttime temperatures are often enhanced due to the urban heat island
effect. Daytime temperatures exceed on average of 17 days each summer and in some years exceed , although this is a rare achievement, last occurring on July 23, 2011.
Similarly, readings of are also extremely rare, last occurring on February 14, 2016. Extreme temperatures have ranged from , recorded on February 9, 1934, up to on July 9, 1936;
the coldest recorded wind chill was on the same day as the all-time record low. The record cold daily maximum was on December 30, 1917, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum was , last recorded on July 22, 2011.
The average water temperature of the nearby Atlantic Ocean ranges from in February to in August.
The city receives of precipitation annually, which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall between 1981 and 2010 has been ; this varies considerably between years. Hurricane
s and tropical storm
s are rare in the New York area. Hurricane Sandy
brought a destructive storm surge
to New York City on the evening of October 29, 2012, flooding numerous streets, tunnels, and subway lines in Lower Manhattan and other areas of the city and cutting off electricity in many parts of the city and its suburbs. The storm and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawall
s and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of the city and the metropolitan area to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.
The coldest month on record is January 1857, with a mean temperature of whereas the warmest months on record are July 1825 and July 1999, both with a mean temperature of .
The warmest year on record is 2012, with a mean temperature of . The coldest year is 1836, with a mean temperature of .
The driest month on record is June 1949, with of rainfall. The wettest month was August 2011, with of rainfall. The driest year on record is 1965, with of rainfall. The wettest year was 1983, with of rainfall. The snowiest month on record is February 2010, with of snowfall. The snowiest season ''(Jul–Jun)'' on record is 1995–1996, with of snowfall. The least snowy season was 1972–1973, with of snowfall. The earliest seasonal trace of snowfall occurred on October 10, in both 1979 and 1925. The latest seasonal trace of snowfall occurred on May 9, in both 2020 and 1977.
The city of New York has a complex park system, with various lands operated by the National Park Service
, the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation
, and the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation
. In its 2018 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land
reported that the park system in New York City was the ninth-best park system among the fifty most populous U.S. cities. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
Gateway National Recreation Area
contains over in total, most of it surrounded by New York City, including the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge
. In Brooklyn and Queens, the park contains over of salt marsh
, islands, and water, including most of Jamaica Bay
. Also in Queens, the park includes a significant portion of the western Rockaway Peninsula
, most notably Jacob Riis Park
and Fort Tilden
. In Staten Island, Gateway National Recreation Area includes Fort Wadsworth
, with historic pre-Civil War era Battery Weed
and Fort Tompkins
, and Great Kills Park
, with beaches, trails, and a marina
The Statue of Liberty National Monument and Ellis Island Immigration Museum
are managed by the National Park Service and are in both the states of New York and New Jersey
. They are joined in the harbor by Governors Island National Monument
, in New York. Historic sites under federal management on Manhattan Island include Castle Clinton National Monument
; Federal Hall National Memorial
; Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace National Historic Site
; General Grant National Memorial
("Grant's Tomb"); African Burial Ground National Monument
; and Hamilton Grange National Memorial
. Hundreds of private properties are listed on the National Register of Historic Places
or as a National Historic Landmark
such as, for example, the Stonewall Inn
, part of the Stonewall National Monument
in Greenwich Village
, as the catalyst of the modern gay rights movement
There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park Preserve
, a natural area that includes extensive riding trails
, and Riverbank State Park
, a facility that rises over the Hudson River.
s play at the Bronx Zoo
, the world's largest metropolitan zoo.
New York City has over of Urban park|municipal parkland
and of public beaches. The largest municipal park in the city is Pelham Bay Park
in the Bronx, with .
* Central Park
park in middle-upper Manhattan, is the most visited urban park in the United States and one of the most filmed locations in the world, with 40 million visitors in 2013. The park has a wide range of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks
, the Central Park Zoo
, the Central Park Conservatory Garden
, and the Jackie Onassis Reservoir
. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle
with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theater, and the historic Carousel. On October 23, 2012, hedge fund
manager John A. Paulson
announced a $100 million gift to the Central Park Conservancy
, the largest ever monetary donation to New York City's park system.
* Washington Square Park
is a prominent landmark in the Greenwich Village
neighborhood of Lower Manhattan. The Washington Square Arch
at the northern gateway to the park is an iconic symbol of both New York University
and Greenwich Village.
* Prospect Park
in Brooklyn has a meadow, a lake, and extensive woodland
s. Within the park is the historic Battle Pass, prominent in the Battle of Long Island.
* Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
in Queens, with its making it the city's fourth largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair
and the 1964 World's Fair
and is host to the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
and the annual U.S. Open Tennis Championships
* Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, , is given over to open space and parks, including Pelham Bay Park, Van Cortlandt Park
, the Bronx Zoo
, and the New York Botanical Gardens
* In Staten Island, the Conference House Park
contains the historic Conference House
, site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution which was conducted in September 1775, attended by Benjamin Franklin
representing the Americans and Lord Howe
representing the British Crown
. The historic Burial Ridge
, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City, is within the park.
Brooklyn is home to Fort Hamilton
, the U.S. military's
only active duty installation within New York City, aside from Coast Guard
operations. The facility was established in 1825 on the site of a small battery utilized during the American Revolution
, and it is one of America's longest serving military forts. Today Fort Hamilton serves as the headquarters of the North Atlantic Division
of the United States Army Corps of Engineers
and for the New York City Recruiting Battalion. It also houses the 1179th Transportation Brigade, the 722nd Aeromedical Staging Squadron, and a military entrance processing station. Other formerly active military reservations still utilized for National Guard
and military training or reserve operations in the city include Fort Wadsworth
in Staten Island and Fort Totten
New York City is the most populous city in the United States,
with an estimated 8,336,817 residents ,
incorporating more immigration into the city than outmigration since the 2010 United States census
More than twice as many people live in New York City as compared to Los Angeles, the second-most populous U.S. city,
and within a smaller area. New York City gained more residents between April 2010 and July 2014 (316,000) than any other U.S. city.
New York City's population is about 43% of New York State's population,
and about 36% of the population of the New York metropolitan area
In 2017, the city had an estimated population density of , rendering it the nation's most densely populated of all municipalities (of more than 100,000), with several small cities (of fewer than 100,000) in adjacent Hudson County, New Jersey
having greater density
, as per the 2010 census. Geographically co-extensive with New York County, the borough of Manhattan's 2017 population density of makes it the highest of any county in the United States
and higher than the density of any individual American city
Race and ethnicity
The city's population in 2010 was 44% white
(33.3% non-Hispanic white), 25.5% Black or African American
(23% non-Hispanic black), 0.7% Native American or Alaska Native
, and 12.7% Asian
Hispanics or Latinos
of any race represented 28.6% of the population,
while Asians constituted the fastest-growing segment of the city's population between 2000 and 2010; the non-Hispanic white
population declined three percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades; and for the first time since the U.S. Civil War, the number of black people declined over a decade.
Throughout its history, New York has been a major port of entry
for immigrants into the United States. More than 12 million European
immigrants were received at Ellis Island
between 1892 and 1924. The term "melting pot
" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side
. By 1900, Germans
constituted the largest immigrant group, followed by the Irish
, and Italians
. In 1940, whites represented 92% of the city's population.
Approximately 37% of the city's population is foreign born
, and more than half of all children are born to mothers who are immigrants as of 2013.
[''The Newest New Yorkers: 2013''](_blank)
New York City Department of City Planning, December 2013. Retrieved February 9, 2017. "The immigrant share of the population has also doubled since 1965, to 37 percent. With foreign-born mothers accounting for 51 percent of all births, approximately 6-in-10 New Yorkers are either immigrants or the children of immigrants."
In New York, no single country or region of origin dominates.
The ten largest sources of foreign-born individuals in the city were the Dominican Republic
, and Trinidad and Tobago
, while the Bangladeshi-born
immigrant population has become one of the fastest growing in the city, counting over 74,000 by 2011.
Asian Americans in New York City
, according to the 2010 census, number more than one million, greater than the combined totals of San Francisco
and Los Angeles
. New York contains the highest total Asian population of any U.S. city proper. The New York City borough of Queens is home to the state's largest Asian American population and the largest Andean
, and Bolivian
) populations in the United States, and is also the most ethnically diverse urban area in the world.
The Chinese population constitutes the fastest-growing nationality in New York State; multiple satellites of the original Manhattan Chinatown
, in Brooklyn
, and around Flushing, Queens
, are thriving as traditionally urban enclaves—while also expanding rapidly eastward into suburban Nassau County
on Long Island
, as the New York metropolitan region and New York State have become the top destinations for new Chinese immigrants, respectively, and large-scale Chinese immigration
continues into New York City and surrounding areas,
with the largest metropolitan Chinese diaspora outside Asia,
including an estimated 812,410 individuals in 2015.
In 2012, 6.3% of New York City was of Chinese ethnicity
, with nearly three-fourths living in either Queens or Brooklyn, geographically on Long Island. A community numbering 20,000 Korean-Chinese
(''Chaoxianzu'' or ''Joseonjok'') is centered in Flushing, Queens
, while New York City is also home to the largest Tibetan
population outside China, India, and Nepal
, also centered in Queens.
made up 1.2% of the city's population, and Japanese
were the largest Southeast Asian
ethnic group at 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese
, who made up 0.2% of New York City's population in 2010. Indians
are the largest South Asian
group, comprising 2.4% of the city's population, with Bangladeshis and Pakistanis
at 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Queens is the preferred borough of settlement for Asian Indians, Koreans, Filipinos and Malaysians
and other Southeast Asians; while Brooklyn is receiving large numbers of both West Indian
and Asian Indian immigrants.
New York City has the largest European
and non-Hispanic white
population of any American city. At 2.7 million in 2012, New York's non-Hispanic white population is larger than the non-Hispanic white populations of Los Angeles (1.1 million), Chicago (865,000), and Houston (550,000) combined. The non-Hispanic white population was 6.6 million in 1940. The non-Hispanic white population has begun to increase since 2010.
The European diaspora
residing in the city is very diverse. According to 2012 Census estimates, there were roughly 560,000 Italian Americans, 385,000 Irish Americans, 253,000 German American
s, 223,000 Russian Americans
, 201,000 Polish American
s, and 137,000 English American
s. Additionally, Greek
and French American
s numbered 65,000 each, with those of Hungarian
descent estimated at 60,000 people. Ukrainian
and Scottish American
s numbered 55,000 and 35,000, respectively. People identifying ancestry from Spain numbered 30,838 total in 2010.
People of Norwegian
descent both stood at about 20,000 each, while people of Czech
, and Welsh
descent all numbered between 12,000 and 14,000. Arab American
s number over 160,000 in New York City, with the highest concentration in Brooklyn. Central Asians
, primarily Uzbek American
s, are a rapidly growing segment of the city's non-Hispanic white population, enumerating over 30,000, and including more than half of all Central Asian immigrants to the United States, most settling in Queens or Brooklyn. Albanian American
s are most highly concentrated in the Bronx.
The wider New York City metropolitan statistical area, with more than twenty million people, about fifty percent more than second-place Los Angeles
is also ethnically diverse
, with the largest foreign-born population of any metropolitan region
in the world. The New York region continues to be by far the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States, substantially exceeding the combined totals of Los Angeles and Miami
It is home to the largest Jewish
communities outside Israel
, with the Jewish population in the region numbering over 1.5 million in 2012 and including many diverse Jewish sects, predominantly from around the Middle East and Eastern Europe, and including a rapidly growing Orthodox Jewish
population, the largest outside Israel
The metropolitan area is also home to 20% of the nation's Indian Americans
and at least 20 Little India
enclaves, and 15% of all Korean Americans
and four Koreatowns
the largest Asian Indian
population in the Western Hemisphere; the largest Russian American,
Italian American, and African American populations; the largest Dominican American
, Puerto Rican American
, and South American
and second-largest overall Hispanic
population in the United States, numbering 4.8 million;
and includes multiple established Chinatown
s within New York City alone.
, Guyana, Peru
, and Brazil
were the top source countries from South America for legal immigrants to the New York City region in 2013; the Dominican Republic, Jamaica
, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean
, and Nigeria
from Africa; and El Salvador
, and Guatemala
in Central America. Amidst a resurgence of Puerto Rican migration to New York City
, this population had increased to approximately 1.3 million in the metropolitan area .
Since 2010, a ''Little Australia
'' has emerged and is growing rapidly representing the Australasia
n presence in Nolita, Manhattan
In 2011, there were an estimated 20,000 Australian residents of New York City, nearly quadruple the 5,537 in 2005. Qantas Airways
of Australia and Air New Zealand
have been exploring the possibilities of long-haul flight
s from New York to Sydney and Auckland
, respectively, which would both rank among the longest non-stop flight
s in the world.
Accessed May 23, 2019.
A Little Sri Lanka
has developed in the Tompkinsville
neighborhood of Staten Island.
Sexual orientation and gender identity
The New York metropolitan area is home to a prominent self-identifying gay
community estimated at nearly 570,000 individuals, the largest in the United States
and one of the world's largest. Same-sex marriages in New York
were legalized on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to take place beginning 30 days thereafter. Charles Kaiser, author of ''The Gay Metropolis: The Landmark History of Gay Life in America'', wrote that in the era after World War II
, "New York City became the literal gay metropolis for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from within and without the United States: the place they chose to learn how to live openly, honestly and without shame."
The annual New York City Pride March
(or gay pride parade
) traverses southward down Fifth Avenue
and ends at Greenwich Village
in Lower Manhattan; the parade rivals the Sao Paulo Gay Pride Parade
as the largest pride parade in the world, attracting tens of thousands of participants and millions of sidewalk spectators each June.
The annual Queens Pride Parade
is held in Jackson Heights
and is accompanied by the ensuing ''Multicultural Parade''.
Stonewall 50 – WorldPride NYC 2019
was the largest international Pride celebration
in history, produced by Heritage of Pride
and enhanced through a partnership with the I ❤ NY
program's LGBT division, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall uprising, with 150,000 participants and five million spectators attending in Manhattan alone.
Accessed July 3, 2019.
New York City is also home to the largest transgender
population in the world, estimated at more than 50,000 in 2018, concentrated in Manhattan and Queens; however, until the June 1969 Stonewall riots, this community had felt marginalized and neglected by the gay community.
Brooklyn Liberation March, the largest transgender-rights
demonstration in LGBTQ history, took place on June 14, 2020 stretching from Grand Army Plaza
to Fort Greene, Brooklyn
, focused on supporting Black transgender lives, drawing an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 participants.
The New York area is the 14th-most religious metropolis in the United States. Largely a result of Western European missionary work and colonialism, Christianity
is the largest religion as of 2014.
[Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles](_blank) Roman Catholicism
Pew Research Center. Retrieved July 30, 2015.
is the largest Christian denomination (33%), followed by Protestantism
(23%), and other Christians
(3%). The Roman Catholic population are primarily served by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New York
and Diocese of Brooklyn
. Eastern Catholics
are divided into numerous jurisdictions throughout the city. Evangelical Protestantism
is the largest branch of Protestantism in the city (9%), followed by Mainline Protestant
ism (8%), while the converse is usually true for other cities and metropolitan areas.
In Evangelicalism, Baptists
are the largest group; in Mainline Protestantism, Reformed Protestants
are the largest. The majority of historically African American churches
are affiliated with the National Baptist Convention (USA)
and Progressive National Baptist Convention
. The Church of God in Christ
is one of the largest predominantly-black Pentecostal
denominations in the area. Less than 1% of the population was Mormon. The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America
and other Orthodox Christians (mainstream and independent) were the largest Eastern Christian
groups. The American Orthodox Catholic Church
(initially led by Aftimios Ofiesh
) was founded in New York City in 1927.
, with approximately 1.1 million adherents
, more than half of whom live in Brooklyn
, is the second largest religion.
The ethnoreligious population makes up 18.4% of the city and its religious demographic makes up 8%. The first recorded Jewish settler was Jacob Barsimson
, who arrived in August 1654 on a passport from the Dutch West India Company. Following the assassination of Alexander II of Russia
, for which many blamed "the Jews", the 36 years beginning in 1881 experienced the largest wave of Jewish immigration to the United States. In 2012, the largest Jewish denominations were Orthodox
, and Conservative Judaism
. Reform Jewish
communities are prevalent through the area. Congregation Emanu-El of New York
in Manhattan is the largest Reform synagogue in the world. Islam
ranks the third largest religion in New York City, with estimates ranging between 600,000 and 1,000,000 observers, including 10% of the city's public school children. Powers Street Mosque
in Brooklyn is one of the oldest continuously operating mosques in the U.S., and the first Islamic organization in the city and state. These three largest groups are followed by Hinduism
, and a variety of other religions, as well as atheism. In 2014, 24% of New Yorkers self-identified with no organized religious affiliation; a little over 3% of New Yorkers were atheist
Wealth and income disparity
New York City, like other large cities, has a high degree of income disparity
, as indicated by its Gini coefficient
of 0.55 as of 2017. In the first quarter of 2014, the average weekly wage in New York County (Manhattan) was $2,749, representing the highest total among large counties in the United States. As of 2017, New York City was home to the highest number of billionaire
s of any city in the world at 103,
including former Mayor Michael Bloomberg
. New York also had the highest density of millionaires per capita among major U.S. cities in 2014, at 4.6% of residents. New York City is one of the relatively few American cities levying an income tax
(about 3%) on its residents.
As of 2018, there were 78,676 homeless people
in New York City.
New York City is a global hub
of business and commerce, as a center for banking and finance, retailing, world trade, transportation, tourism, real estate, new media
, traditional media
, advertising, legal services
, insurance, theater, fashion, and the arts in the United States; while Silicon Alley
, metonymous for New York's broad-spectrum high tech
nology sphere, continues to expand. The Port of New York and New Jersey
is also a major economic engine, handling record cargo volume in 2017, over 6.7 million TEUs
Many Fortune 500
corporations are headquartered in New York City, as are a large number of multinational corporation
s. One out of ten private sector
jobs in the city is with a foreign company. New York City has been ranked first among cities across the globe in attracting capital
, business, and tourists. New York City's role as the top global center for the advertising industry
is metonymously reflected as "Madison Avenue"
The city's fashion industry
provides approximately 180,000 employees with $11 billion in annual wages.
Other important sectors include medical research
and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities. Manufacturing accounts for a significant but declining share of employment. The city's apparel and garment industry
, historically centered on the Garment District
in Manhattan, peaked in 1950, when more than 323,000 workers were employed in the industry in New York. In 2015, fewer than 23,000 New York City residents were employed in the manufacture of garments, accessories, and finished textiles, although efforts to revive the industry were underway. Food processing is a $5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents.
Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food
export, with up to $234 million worth of exports each year.
Entrepreneurs were forming a "Chocolate District" in Brooklyn
, while Godiva
, one of the world's largest chocolatier
s, continues to be headquartered in Manhattan
New York City's most important economic sector lies in its role as the headquarters for the U.S. financial industry
, metonymously known as ''Wall Street''. The city's securities
industry, enumerating 163,400 jobs in August 2013, continues to form the largest segment of the city's financial sector and an important economic engine, accounting in 2012 for 5.0 percent of the city's private sector jobs, 8.5 percent ($3.8 billion) of its tax revenue, and 22 percent of the city's total wages, including an average salary of $360,700. Many large financial companies are headquartered in New York City, and the city is also home to a burgeoning number of financial startup companies
is home to the New York Stock Exchange
, at 11 Wall Street
, and the NASDAQ
, at 165 Broadway
, representing the world's largest and second largest stock exchange
s, respectively, when measured both by overall average daily trading volume and by total market capitalization
of their listed companies in 2013.
fees on Wall Street totaled approximately $40 billion in 2012, while in 2013, senior New York City bank officers who manage risk and compliance
functions earned as much as $324,000 annually. In fiscal year 2013–14, Wall Street's securities industry
generated 19% of New York State's tax revenue.
New York City remains the largest global center for trading in public equity
and debt capital markets
, driven in part by the size and financial development
of the U.S. economy
New York also leads in hedge fund
management; private equity
; and the monetary volume of mergers and acquisitions
. Several investment banks
and investment managers
headquartered in Manhattan are important participants in other global financial centers.
New York is also the principal commercial banking
center of the United States.
Many of the world's largest media conglomerate
s are also based in the city. Manhattan contained over 500 million square feet (46.5 million m2
) of office space in 2018,
making it the largest office market in the United States, while Midtown Manhattan
, with 400 million square feet (37.2 million m2
) in 2018,
is the largest central business district in the world.
Tech and biotech
, centered in Manhattan, has evolved into a metonym
for the sphere encompassing the New York City metropolitan region's high technology industries involving the Internet, new media
, telecommunications, digital media
, software development
, game design
, financial technology
("''FinTech''"), and other fields within information technology that are supported by its entrepreneurship ecosystem
and venture capital
investments. In 2015, Silicon Alley generated over $7.3 billion in venture capital investment across a broad spectrum of high technology enterprises,
most based in Manhattan, with others in Brooklyn, Queens, and elsewhere in the region.
High technology startup companies
and employment are growing in New York City and the region, bolstered by the city's position in North America as the leading Internet hub and telecommunications center, including its vicinity to several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines
, New York's intellectual capital
, and its extensive outdoor wireless connectivity
. Verizon Communications
, headquartered at 140 West Street
in Lower Manhattan, was at the final stages in 2014 of completing a $3 billion fiberoptic telecommunications
upgrade throughout New York City. , New York City hosted 300,000 employees in the tech sector. The technology sector has been claiming a greater share of New York City's economy since 2010.
, founded in 2016, is a non-profit organization which represents New York City's technology industry with government, civic institutions, in business, and in the media, and whose primary goals are to further augment New York's substantial tech talent base and to advocate for policies that will nurture tech companies to grow in the city.
sector is also growing in New York City, based upon the city's strength in academic scientific research and public and commercial financial support. On December 19, 2011, then Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg announced his choice of Cornell University
and Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
to build a $2 billion graduate school
of applied science
s called Cornell Tech
on Roosevelt Island
with the goal of transforming New York City into the world's premier technology capital. By mid-2014, Accelerator, a biotech investment firm, had raised more than $30 million from investors, including Eli Lilly and Company
, and Johnson & Johnson
, for initial funding to create biotechnology startups
at the Alexandria Center for Life Science, which encompasses more than on East 29th Street
and promotes collaboration among scientists and entrepreneurs at the center and with nearby academic, medical, and research institutions. The New York City Economic Development Corporation
's Early Stage Life Sciences Funding Initiative and venture capital partners, including Celgene
, General Electric
Ventures, and Eli Lilly, committed a minimum of $100 million to help launch 15 to 20 ventures in life sciences
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was assessed at $1.072 trillion for the 2017 fiscal year
, an increase of 10.6% from the previous year, with 89% of the increase coming from market effects.
[''Department of Finance Publishes Fiscal Year 2017 Tentative Assessment Roll''](_blank)
New York City Department of Finance, January 15, 2016. "Today, Jacques Jiha, Commissioner for the Department of Finance, announced the publication of the Tentative Property Assessment Roll for fiscal year 2017, which shows the total Market Value for the upcoming year at about $1.072 trillion, an increase of $102.5 billion, or 10.6 percent from the 2016 Fiscal Year."
The Time Warner Center
is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $1.1 billion in 2006.
New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue
was sold on July 2, 2007 for $510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m2
), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m2
) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.
In 2014, Manhattan was home to six of the top ten ZIP codes
in the United States by median housing price. Fifth Avenue
in Midtown Manhattan commands the highest retail rents in the world, at in 2017. In 2019, the most expensive home sale ever in the United States achieved completion in Manhattan, at a selling price of $238 million, for a penthouse apartment
overlooking Central Park
In June 2019, sweeping reforms to NYC rental properties were made. In January 2020, the New York State Department of State
issued clarifying guidelines to the reforms that provided for the elimination of decades of broker fees, which have been unique to the NYC housing market in the United States.
Tourism is a vital industry for New York City, which has witnessed a growing combined volume of international and domestic tourists, receiving an eighth consecutive annual record of approximately 62.8 million visitors in 2017.
Tourism had generated an all-time high $61.3 billion in overall economic impact for New York City in 2014,
pending 2015 statistics. Approximately 12 million visitors to New York City were from outside the United States, with the highest numbers from the United Kingdom, Canada, Brazil
, and China.
''I Love New York
'' (stylized I ❤
NY) is both a logo and a song that are the basis of an advertising campaign and have been used since 1977 to promote tourism in New York City
, and later to promote New York State as well. The trademarked
logo, owned by New York State Empire State Development
, appears in souvenir shops and brochures throughout the city and state, some licensed, many not. The song is the state song
of New York.
Major tourist destinations in Manhattan include Times Square
; Broadway theater
productions; the Empire State Building
; the Statue of Liberty
; Ellis Island
; the United Nations Headquarters
; the World Trade Center
(including the National September 11 Museum
and One World Trade Center
); museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art
; green spaces such as Central Park
and Washington Square Park
; the Stonewall Inn
; Rockefeller Center
; ethnic enclaves including the Manhattan Chinatown
, Curry Hill
, Spanish Harlem
, Little Italy
, and Little Australia
shopping along Fifth
and Madison Avenue
s; and events such as the Halloween Parade
in Greenwich Village
; the Brooklyn Bridge
(shared with Brooklyn); the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
; the lighting of the Rockefeller Center Christmas Tree
; the St. Patrick's Day parade
; seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime; the Tribeca Film Festival
; and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage.
Points of interest in the boroughs outside Manhattan include numerous ethnic enclaves; Flushing Meadows-Corona Park
and the Unisphere
in Queens; the Bronx Zoo
; Coney Island
, Brooklyn; and the New York Botanical Garden
in the Bronx. Manhattan was on track to have an estimated 90,000 hotel rooms at the end of 2014, a 10% increase from 2013. In October 2014, the Anbang Insurance Group, based in China, purchased the Waldorf Astoria New York
for $1.95 billion, making it the world's most expensive hotel ever sold.
Media and entertainment
New York City has been described as the media capital of the world. The city is a prominent location for the American entertainment industry
, with many films, television series, books, and other media being set there. , New York City was the second largest center for filmmaking and television production in the United States, producing about 200 feature films annually, employing 130,000 individuals. The filmed entertainment industry has been growing in New York, contributing nearly $9 billion to the New York City economy alone as of 2015. By volume, New York is the world leader in independent film
production—one-third of all American independent films are produced there.
The Association of Independent Commercial Producers is also based in New York. In the first five months of 2014 alone, location filming
for television pilots in New York City exceeded the record production levels for all of 2013, with New York surpassing Los Angeles as the top North American city for the same distinction during the 2013–2014 cycle.
New York City is also a center for the advertising, music, newspaper, digital media, and publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America. Some of the city's media conglomerate
s and institutions include Time Warner
, the Thomson Reuters Corporation
, the Associated Press
, Bloomberg L.P.
, the News Corporation
, The New York Times Company
, the Hearst Corporation
, and Viacom
. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency
networks have their headquarters in New York. Two of the top three record labels'
headquarters are in New York: Sony Music Entertainment
and Warner Music Group
. Universal Music Group
also has offices in New York. New media
enterprises are contributing an increasingly important component to the city's central role in the media sphere.
More than 200 newspapers and 350 consumer magazines have an office in the city,
and the publishing industry employs about 25,000 people. Two of the three national daily newspapers with the largest circulations
in the United States are published in New York: ''The Wall Street Journal
'' and ''The New York Times
'', which has won the most Pulitzer Prize
s for journalism
and is considered the U.S. media's "newspaper of record". Tabloid
newspapers in the city include ''The New York Daily News
'', which was founded in 1919 by Joseph Medill Patterson
, and ''The New York Post
'', founded in 1801 by Alexander Hamilton
. The city also has a comprehensive ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. ''El Diario La Prensa
'' is New York's largest Spanish-language
daily and the oldest in the nation. ''The New York Amsterdam News
'', published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. ''The Village Voice
'', historically the largest alternative newspaper
in the United States, announced in 2017 that it would cease publication of its print edition and convert to a fully digital venture.
The television and radio industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy. The three major American broadcast network
s are all headquartered in New York: ABC
, and NBC
. Many cable networks are based in the city as well, including CNN
, Fox News
, Food Network
, and Comedy Central
. News 12 Networks
operated News 12 The Bronx and News 12 Brooklyn. The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYC Media
, which has produced several original Emmy Award
-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government. WBAI
, with news and information programming, is one of the few socialist
radio stations operating in the United States.
New York is also a major center for non-commercial educational
media. The oldest public-access television
channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network
, founded in 1971. WNET
is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national Public Broadcasting Service
(PBS) television programming. WNYC
, a public radio
station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
Education and scholarly activity
Primary and secondary education
The New York City Public Schools
system, managed by the New York City Department of Education
, is the largest public school system in the United States, serving about 1.1 million students in more than 1,700 separate primary and secondary schools. The city's public school system includes nine specialized high schools
to serve academically and artistically gifted student
s. The city government pays the Pelham Public Schools
to educate a very small, detached section of the Bronx.
The New York City Charter School Center assists the setup of new charter school
s. There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city.
Higher education and research
More than 600,000 students are enrolled in New York City's more than 120 higher education institutions, the highest number of any city in the world, with more than half a million in the City University of New York
(CUNY) system alone , including both degree and professional programs. According to Academic Ranking of World Universities
, New York City has, on average, the best higher education institutions of any global city
. New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College
, Columbia University
, Cooper Union
, Fordham University
, New York University
, New York Institute of Technology
, Rockefeller University
, and Yeshiva University
; several of these universities are ranked among the top universities in the world.
The public CUNY system is one of the largest universities in the nation, comprising 24 institutions across all five boroughs: senior colleges, community college
s, and other graduate/professional schools. The public State University of New York
(SUNY) system includes campuses in New York City, including: Downstate Health Sciences University
, Fashion Institute of Technology
, Maritime College
, and the College of Optometry
. The city also hosts other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as: St. John's University
, The Juilliard School
, Manhattan College
, The College of Mount Saint Vincent
, Parsons School of Design
, The New School
, Pratt Institute
, New York Film Academy
, The School of Visual Arts
, The King's College, and Wagner College
Much of the scientific research
in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences
. New York City has the most postgraduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, with 127 Nobel laureate
s having roots in local institutions ;
while in 2012, 43,523 licensed physicians were practicing in New York City. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center
, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center
, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
, and Weill Cornell Medical College
, being joined by the Cornell University
/Technion-Israel Institute of Technology
venture on Roosevelt Island
. The graduates of SUNY Maritime College
in the Bronx earned the highest average annual salary of any university graduates in the United States, $144,000 as of 2017.
The New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC) operates the public hospitals
and clinics in New York City. A public benefit corporation
with $6.7 billion in annual revenues, HHC is the largest municipal healthcare system in the United States serving 1.4 million patients, including more than 475,000 uninsured city residents.
HHC was created in 1969 by the New York State Legislature
as a public benefit corporation (Chapter 1016 of the Laws 1969). HHC operates 11 acute care
hospitals, five nursing homes, six diagnostic and treatment centers, and more than 70 community-based primary care
sites, serving primarily the poor and working class. HHC's MetroPlus Health Plan is one of the New York area's largest providers of government-sponsored health insurance and is the plan of choice for nearly half million New Yorkers.
HHC's facilities annually provide millions of New Yorkers services interpreted in more than 190 languages.
The most well-known hospital in the HHC system is Bellevue Hospital
, the oldest public hospital in the United States. Bellevue is the designated hospital for treatment of the President of the United States and other world leaders
if they become sick or injured while in New York City.
The president of HHC is Ramanathan Raju, MD, a surgeon and former CEO of the Cook County health system in Illinois. In August 2017, Mayor Bill de Blasio
signed legislation outlawing pharmacies from selling cigarettes once their existing licenses to do so expired, beginning in 2018.
Police and law enforcement
The New York Police Department
(NYPD) has been the largest police force in the United States by a significant margin, with more than 35,000 sworn officers. Members of the NYPD are frequently referred to by politicians, the media, and their own police cars by the nickname, ''New York's Finest''.
Crime has continued an overall downward trend in New York City since the 1990s. In 2012, the NYPD came under scrutiny for its use of a stop-and-frisk
program, which has undergone several policy revisions since then. In 2014, New York City had the third lowest murder rate among the largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1970s through 1990s.
Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005, and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases.
By 2002, New York City was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000.
In 1992, the city recorded 2,245 murders.
In 2005, the homicide rate
was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2009, the city recorded fewer than 461 homicide
s for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963.
In 2017, 60.1% of violent crime suspects were black, 29.6% Hispanic, 6.5% white, 3.6% Asian and 0.2% American Indian. New York City experienced 292 homicides in 2017,
s and criminologists have not reached consensus on the explanation for the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the NYPD, including its use of CompStat
and the broken windows theory
. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic
and demographic changes, including from immigration. Another theory is that widespread exposure to lead pollution from automobile exhaust, which can lower intelligence and increase aggression levels, incited the initial crime wave in the mid-20th century, most acutely affecting heavily trafficked cities like New York. A strong correlation was found demonstrating that violent crime rates in New York and other big cities began to fall after lead was removed from American gasoline in the 1970s. Another theory cited to explain New York City's falling homicide rate is the inverse correlation between the number of murders and the increasingly wet climate in the city.
has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves
and the Roach Guards
in the Five Points
in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia
, dominated by the Five Families
, as well as in gang
s, including the Black Spades
. The Mafia and gang presence has declined in the city in the 21st century.
The Fire Department of New York
(FDNY), provides fire protection
, technical rescue, primary response to biological, chemical, and radioactive hazards, and emergency medical services
for the five boroughs of New York City. The FDNY is the largest municipal fire department
in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department
. The FDNY employs approximately 11,080 uniformed firefighter
s and more than 3,300 uniformed EMTs
s. The FDNY's motto is ''New York's Bravest''.
The fire department faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types
that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures
, the FDNY also responds to fires that occur in the New York City Subway
. Secluded bridges and tunnels, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires, also present challenges.
The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center
in Downtown Brooklyn
, and the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island
. There are three Bureau of Fire Communications alarm offices which receive and dispatch alarms to appropriate units. One office, at 11 Metrotech Center in Brooklyn, houses Manhattan/Citywide, Brooklyn, and Staten Island Fire Communications; the Bronx and Queens offices are in separate buildings.
Public library system
The New York Public Library
, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the United States, serves Manhattan, the Bronx, and Staten Island.
Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library
, the nation's second largest public library system, while the Brooklyn Public Library
Culture and contemporary life
New York City has been described as the cultural capital of the world by New York's Baruch College
A book containing a series of essays titled ''New York, Culture Capital of the World, 1940–1965'' has also been published as showcased by the National Library of Australia
In describing New York, author Tom Wolfe
said, "Culture just seems to be in the air, like part of the weather."
Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance
, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States. The city became the center of stand-up comedy
in the early 20th century, jazz
in the 1940s, abstract expressionism
in the 1950s, and the birthplace of hip hop
in the 1970s.
The city's punk
scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s. New York has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature
The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance
in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism
(also known as the New York School
) in painting; and hip hop
, Tin Pan Alley
, certain forms of jazz
, and (along with Philadelphia
in music. New York City has been considered the dance capital of the world. The city is also frequently the setting for novels, movies (see List of films set in New York City
), and television programs. New York Fashion Week
is one of the world's preeminent fashion events and is afforded extensive coverage by the media. New York has also frequently been ranked the top fashion capital
of the world on the annual list compiled by the Global Language Monitor
One of the most common traits attributed to New York City is its fast pace,
which spawned the term ''New York minute
Journalist Walt Whitman
characterized New York's streets as being traversed by "hurrying, feverish, electric crowds".
New York City has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries
The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts
Wealthy business magnate
s in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as Carnegie Hall
and the Metropolitan Museum of Art
, which have become internationally renowned. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s, New York City theaters on Broadway
and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical
. Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart
, George M. Cohan
, and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. New York City itself is the subject or background
of many plays and musicals.
Broadway theatre is one of the premier forms of English-language theatre in the world, named after Broadway
, the major thoroughfare that crosses Times Square
, also sometimes referred to as "The Great White Way
". Forty-one venues in Midtown Manhattan's Theatre District
, each with at least 500 seats, are classified as Broadway theatres. According to The Broadway League
, Broadway shows sold approximately $1.27 billion worth of tickets in the 2013–2014 season, an 11.4% increase from $1.139 billion in the 2012–2013 season. Attendance in 2013–2014 stood at 12.21 million, representing a 5.5% increase from the 2012–2013 season's 11.57 million.
Performance artists displaying diverse skills are ubiquitous on the streets of Manhattan.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
, anchoring Lincoln Square
on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, is home to numerous influential arts organizations, including the Metropolitan Opera
, New York City Opera
, New York Philharmonic
, and New York City Ballet
, as well as the Vivian Beaumont Theater
, the Juilliard School
, Jazz at Lincoln Center
, and Alice Tully Hall
. The Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute
is in Union Square
, and Tisch School of the Arts
is based at New York University, while Central Park SummerStage
presents free music concerts in Central Park.
New York City is home to hundreds of cultural institutions and historic sites. Museum Mile
is the name for a section of Fifth Avenue running from 82nd to 105th streets on the Upper East Side
in an area sometimes called Upper Carnegie Hill
. The Mile, which contains one of the densest displays of culture in the world, is actually three blocks longer than one mile (1.6 km). Ten museums occupy the length of this section of Fifth Avenue.
The tenth museum, the Museum for African Art
, joined the ensemble in 2009, although its museum at 110th Street
, the first new museum constructed on the Mile since the Guggenheim
opened in late 2012. In addition to other programming, the museums collaborate for the annual Museum Mile Festival, held each year in June, to promote the museums and increase visitation.
Many of the world's most lucrative art auction
s are held in New York City.
New York City's food culture includes an array of international cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history. Central
and Eastern European
immigrants, especially Jewish
immigrants from those regions, brought bagel
, hot dog
es, and delicatessens
) to the city. Italian
immigrants brought New York-style pizza
and Italian cuisine
into the city, while Jewish immigrants and Irish
immigrants brought pastrami
and corned beef
, respectively. Chinese
and other Asian restaurants, sandwich joints, trattoria
s, and coffeehouse
s are ubiquitous throughout the city. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafel
s examples of modern New York street food
. The city is home to "nearly one thousand of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine
restaurants in the world", according to Michelin
. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
assigns letter grades to the city's restaurants based upon their inspection results. As of 2019, there were 27,043 restaurants in the city, up from 24,865 in 2017. The ''Queens Night Market'' in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park
attracts more than ten thousand people nightly to sample food from more than 85 countries.
New York City is well known for its street parade
s, which celebrate a broad array of themes, including holidays, nationalities, human rights, and major league sports team championship victories. The majority of parades are held in Manhattan. The primary orientation of the annual street parades is typically from north to south, marching along major avenues. The annual Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade
is the world's largest parade,
beginning alongside Central Park
and processing southward to the flagship Macy's Herald Square
store; the parade is viewed on telecasts worldwide and draws millions of spectators in person.
Other notable parades including the annual St. Patrick's Day Parade
in March, the LGBT Pride March
in June, the Greenwich Village Halloween Parade
in October, and numerous parades commemorating the independence days of many nations. Ticker-tape parades
celebrating championships won by sports teams as well as other heroic accomplishments march northward along the Canyon of Heroes
from Bowling Green
to City Hall Park
in Lower Manhattan.
Accent and dialect
The New York area is home to a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect
, alternatively known as ''Brooklynese'' or ''New Yorkese''. It has generally been considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English
The traditional New York area accent is characterized as non-rhotic
, so that the sound does not appear at the end of a syllable
or immediately before a consonant
; therefore the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk."
There is no in words like ''park'' or (with vowel backed and diphthongized
due to the low-back chain shift), ''butter'' , or ''here'' . In another feature called the low back chain shift, the vowel sound of words like ''talk'', ''law'', ''cross'', ''chocolate'', and ''coffee'' and the often homophonous
in ''core'' and ''more'' are tensed and usually raised more than in General American
English. In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" became a diphthong . This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the ''er'' and ''oy'' sounds, so that ''girl'' is pronounced "goil" and ''oil'' is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet).
The character Archie Bunker
from the 1970s television sitcom
''All in the Family
'' was an example of having used this pattern of speech.
The classic version of the New York City dialect is generally centered on middle
and working-class New Yorkers. The influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect,
and the traditional form of this speech pattern is no longer as prevalent among general New Yorkers as it has been in the past.
New York City is home to the headquarters of the National Football League
, Major League Baseball
, the National Basketball Association
, the National Hockey League
, and Major League Soccer
. The New York metropolitan area hosts the most
sports teams in the four major North American professional sports leagues with nine, one more than Los Angeles, and has 11 top-level professional sports teams if Major League Soccer is included, also one more than Los Angeles. Participation in professional sports in the city predates all professional leagues, and the city has been continuously hosting professional sports since the birth of the Brooklyn Dodgers
The city has played host to more than forty major professional teams in the five sports and their respective competing league. Four of the ten most expensive stadiums ever built worldwide (MetLife Stadium
, the new Yankee Stadium
, Madison Square Garden
, and Citi Field
) are located in the New York metropolitan area. Madison Square Garden, its predecessor
, the original Yankee Stadium
and Ebbets Field
, are sporting venues located in New York City, the latter two having been commemorated on U.S. postage stamps
. New York was the first of eight American cities to have won titles in all four major leagues (MLB, NHL, NFL and NBA), having done so following the Knicks' 1970 title
. In 1972, it became the first city to win titles in five sports when the Cosmos won the NASL final
New York has been described as the "Capital of Baseball". There have been 35 Major League Baseball World Series
and 73 pennants
won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Los Angeles
, and the San Francisco Bay Area
being the others) to have two baseball teams. Additionally, there have been 14 World Series in which two New York City teams played each other, known as a Subway Series
and occurring most recently in . No other metropolitan area has had this happen more than once (Chicago in , St. Louis in , and the San Francisco Bay Area in ).
The city's two Major League Baseball teams are the New York Mets
, who play at Citi Field
in Queens, and the New York Yankees
, who play at Yankee Stadium
in the Bronx. These teams compete in six games of interleague play
every regular season that has also come to be called the Subway Series
. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers
), who won the World Series once, and the New York Giants
(now the San Francisco Giants
), who won the World Series five times. Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two Minor League Baseball
teams in the city, the Brooklyn Cyclones
and Staten Island Yankees
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Giants
and the New York Jets
, although both teams play their home games at MetLife Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey
, which hosted Super Bowl XLVIII
The metropolitan area is home to three National Hockey League teams. The New York Rangers
, the traditional representative of the city itself and one of the league's Original Six
, play at Madison Square Garden
in Manhattan. The New York Islanders
, traditionally representing Nassau
Counties of Long Island
, play at Barclays Center
in Brooklyn and are planning a return to Nassau County by way of a new arena
just outside the border with Queens at Belmont Park
. The New Jersey Devils
play at Prudential Center
in nearby Newark, New Jersey
and traditionally represent the counties of neighboring New Jersey
which are coextensive with the boundaries of the New York metropolitan area and media market.
The city's National Basketball Association teams are the Brooklyn Nets
, which played in and were named for New Jersey until 2012, and the New York Knicks
, while the New York Liberty
is the city's Women's National Basketball Association
team. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament
, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. The city is well known for its links to basketball, which is played in nearly every park in the city by local youth, many of whom have gone on to play for major college programs and in the NBA.
In soccer, New York City is represented by New York City FC
of Major League Soccer, who play their home games at Yankee Stadium and the New York Red Bulls
, who play their home games at Red Bull Arena
in nearby Harrison, New Jersey
. Historically, the city is known for the New York Cosmos
, the highly successful former professional soccer team which was the American home of Pelé
. A new version of the New York Cosmos
was formed in 2010, and began play in the second division North American Soccer League
in 2013. The Cosmos play their home games at James M. Shuart Stadium
on the campus of Hofstra University
, just outside the New York City limits in Hempstead, New York
The annual United States Open Tennis Championships
is one of the world's four Grand Slam
tennis tournaments and is held at the National Tennis Center
in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park
, Queens. The New York City Marathon
, which courses through all five boroughs, is the world's largest running marathon,
with 51,394 finishers in 2016 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race.
The Millrose Games
is an annual track and field
meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile
. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden
each year. The city is also considered the host of the Belmont Stakes
, the last, longest and oldest of horse racing's Triple Crown races
, held just over the city's border at Belmont Park
on the first or second Sunday of June. The city also hosted the 1932 U.S. Open
golf tournament and the 1930
PGA Championships, and has been host city for both events several times, most notably for nearby Winged Foot Golf Club
. The Gaelic games
are played in Riverdale, Bronx
at Gaelic Park
, home to the New York GAA
, the only North American team to compete at the senior inter-county
Environmental impact reduction
New York City has focused on reducing its environmental impact
and carbon footprint
use in New York City is the highest in the United States. Also, by 2010, the city had 3,715 hybrid
taxis and other clean diesel
vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most of any city in North America.
New York City is the host of Climate Week NYC
, the largest Climate Week to take place globally and regarded as major annual climate summit.
New York's high rate of public transit use
, more than 200,000 daily cyclists , and many pedestrian commuters
make it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States.
Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%. In both its 2011 and 2015 rankings, Walk Score
named New York City the most walkable
large city in the United States, and in 2018, ''Stacker'' ranked New York the most walkable U.S. city. Citibank
sponsored the introduction of 10,000 public bicycles for the city's bike-share
project in the summer of 2013. New York City's numerical "in-season cycling indicator" of bicycling in the city had hit an all-time high of 437 when measured in 2014.
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark ''Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency
'' Supreme Court case forcing the EPA
to regulate greenhouse gas
es as pollutants. The city is a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings
, including the Hearst Tower
Mayor Bill de Blasio has committed to an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions between 2014 and 2050 to reduce the city's contributions to climate change
, beginning with a comprehensive "Green Buildings" plan.
Water purity and availability
New York City is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed
. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system
, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States the majority of whose drinking water is pure enough not to require purification by water treatment
plants. The city's municipal water system is the largest in the United States, moving over one billion gallons of water per day.
The Croton Watershed
north of the city is undergoing construction of a $3.2 billion water purification plant to augment New York City's water supply by an estimated 290 million gallons daily, representing a greater than 20% addition to the city's current availability of water. The ongoing expansion of New York City Water Tunnel No. 3
, an integral part of the New York City water supply system, is the largest capital construction project in the city's history, with segments serving Manhattan and the Bronx completed, and with segments serving Brooklyn and Queens planned for construction in 2020. In 2018, New York City announced a $1 billion investment to protect the integrity of its water system and to maintain the purity of its unfiltered water supply.
According to the 2016 World Health Organization
Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database, the annual average concentration in New York City's air of particulate matter measuring 2.5micrometers or less (PM2.5
) was 7.0micrograms per cubic meter, or 3.0micrograms below the recommended limit of the WHO Air Quality Guidelines for the annual mean PM2.5
. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
, in partnership with Queens College
, conducts the New York Community Air Survey to measure pollutants at about 150 locations.
, a a long estuary
that forms part of the border between the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens, has been designated a Superfund
site for environmental clean-up and remediation of the waterway's recreational and economic resources for many communities. One of the most heavily used bodies of water in the Port of New York and New Jersey
, it had been one of the most contaminated industrial sites in the country,
containing years of discarded toxin
s, an estimated of spilled oil, including the Greenpoint oil spill
, raw sewage
from New York City's sewer system,
and other accumulation.
Government and politics
New York City has been a metropolitan municipality
with a mayor–council form of government
since its consolidation in 1898. In New York City, the city government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply, and welfare services.
and council members are elected to four-year terms. The City Council
is a unicameral
body consisting of 51 council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. Each term for the mayor and council members lasts four years and has a three consecutive-term limit
, which is reset after a four-year break. The ''New York City Administrative Code
'', the ''New York City Rules
'', and the ''City Record
'' are the code of local laws, compilation of regulations, and official journal, respectively.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district
of the state Unified Court System
, of which the Criminal Court
and the Civil Court
are the local courts, while the New York Supreme Court
conducts major trials and appeals. Manhattan hosts the First Department of the Supreme Court, Appellate Division
while Brooklyn hosts the Second Department. There are also several extrajudicial administrative court
s, which are executive agencies and not part of the state Unified Court System.
Uniquely among major American cities, New York is divided between, and is host to the main branches of, two different U.S. district courts
: the District Court for the Southern District of New York
, whose main courthouse is on Foley Square
near City Hall in Manhattan and whose jurisdiction includes Manhattan and the Bronx; and the District Court for the Eastern District of New York
, whose main courthouse is in Brooklyn and whose jurisdiction includes Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit
and U.S. Court of International Trade
are also based in New York, also on Foley Square in Manhattan.
The present mayor is Bill de Blasio
, the first Democrat since 1993. He was elected in 2013
with over 73% of the vote, and assumed office on January 1, 2014.
The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of April 2016, 69% of registered voters in the city are Democrats and 10% are Republicans
. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since President Calvin Coolidge
won the five boroughs in 1924
. In 2012
, Democrat Barack Obama
became the first presidential candidate of any party to receive more than 80% of the overall vote in New York City, sweeping all five boroughs. Party platform
s center on affordable housing, education, and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city. Thirteen out of 27 U.S. congressional district
s in the State of New York include portions of New York City.
New York is one of the most important sources of political fundraising
in the United States. At least four of the top five ZIP Codes in the nation for political contributions were in Manhattan for the 2004
, and 2008
elections. The top ZIP Code, 10021 on the Upper East Side
, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush
and John Kerry
. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes
(or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). City residents and businesses also sent an additional $4.1 billion in the 2009–2010 fiscal year
to the state of New York than the city received in return.
New York City's comprehensive transportation system is both complex and extensive.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, accounts for one in every three users of mass transit in the United States, and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in the New York City Metropolitan Area.
The iconic New York City Subway
system is the largest rapid transit
system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with , and by length of routes. Nearly all of New York's subway system is open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including Hong Kong
, and Tokyo
. The New York City Subway is also the busiest metropolitan rail transit system in the Western Hemisphere
, with 1.76 billion passenger rides in 2015, while Grand Central Terminal
, also referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station
by number of train platform
Public transport is essential in New York City. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where 91% of commuters travel in automobiles to their workplace.
According to the New York City Comptroller
, workers in the New York City area spend an average of 6hours and 18 minutes getting to work each week, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities. New York is the only U.S. city in which a majority (52%) of households do not have a car; only 22% of Manhattanites own a car. Due to their high usage of mass transit
, New Yorkers spend less of their household income on transportation than the national average, saving $19 billion annually on transportation compared to other urban Americans.
New York City's commuter rail
network is the largest in North America.
The rail network, connecting New York City to its suburbs, consists of the Long Island Rail Road
, Metro-North Railroad
, and New Jersey Transit
. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station
and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines.
In Queens, the elevated AirTrain people mover
system connects JFK International Airport
to the New York City Subway and the Long Island Rail Road; a separate AirTrain system is planned alongside the Grand Central Parkway
to connect LaGuardia Airport
to these transit systems. For intercity rail
, New York City is served by Amtrak
, whose busiest station by a significant margin is Pennsylvania Station on the West Side
of Manhattan, from which Amtrak provides connections to Boston
, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor
, and long-distance train service to other North American cities.
The Staten Island Railway
rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island, operating 24 hours a day. The Port Authority Trans-Hudson
(PATH train) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey
, primarily Hoboken
, Jersey City
, and Newark
. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning three of the six rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24-hour schedules are wholly or partly in New York (the others are a portion of the Chicago 'L'
, the PATCO Speedline
serving Philadelphia, and the Copenhagen Metro
Multibillion-dollar heavy rail
transit projects under construction in New York City include the Second Avenue Subway
, and the East Side Access
New York City's public bus fleet
runs 24/7 and is the largest in North America. The Port Authority Bus Terminal
, the main intercity bus
terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
New York's airspace
is the busiest in the United States and one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The three busiest airports in the New York metropolitan area include John F. Kennedy International Airport
, Newark Liberty International Airport
, and LaGuardia Airport
; 130.5 million travelers used these three airports in 2016, and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. JFK and Newark Liberty were the busiest and fourth busiest U.S. gateways
for international air passengers, respectively, in 2012; , JFK was the busiest airport for international passengers
in North America.
Manhattan Skyline seen from John F. Kennedy Airport
Plans have advanced to expand passenger volume at a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport
near Newburgh, New York
, by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
. Plans were announced in July 2015 to entirely rebuild LaGuardia Airport in a multibillion-dollar project to replace its aging facilities. Other commercial airports in or serving the New York metropolitan area
include Long Island MacArthur Airport
, Trenton–Mercer Airport
and Westchester County Airport
. The primary general aviation airport serving the area is Teterboro Airport
The Staten Island Ferry
is the world's busiest ferry route
, carrying more than 23 million passengers from July 2015 through June 2016 on the route between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan and running 24 hours a day. Other ferry systems shuttle commuters between Manhattan and other locales within the city and the metropolitan area.
, a NYCEDC
initiative with routes planned to travel to all five boroughs, was launched in 2017, with second grade
rs choosing the names of the ferries. Meanwhile, Seastreak ferry
announced construction of a 600-passenger high-speed luxury ferry in September 2016, to shuttle riders between the Jersey Shore
and Manhattan, anticipated to start service in 2017; this would be the largest vessel in its class.
Taxis, vehicles for hire, and trams
Other features of the city's transportation infrastructure encompass 13,587 yellow taxicabs
; other vehicle for hire
companies; and the Roosevelt Island Tramway
, an aerial tramway
that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island
and Manhattan Island.
Streets and highways
Despite New York's heavy reliance on its vast public transit system, streets are a defining feature of the city. The Commissioners' Plan of 1811
greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, including Broadway
, Wall Street
, Madison Avenue
and Seventh Avenue
are also used as metonyms
for national industries there: the theater, finance, advertising, and fashion organizations, respectively.
New York City also has an extensive web of freeway
s and parkway
s, which link the city's boroughs to each other and to North Jersey
, Westchester County
, Long Island
, and southwestern Connecticut
through various bridges and tunnels
. Because these highways serve millions of outer borough and suburban residents who commute
into Manhattan, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic congestion
that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour
. Congestion pricing in New York City
will go into effect in 2022 at the earliest.
New York City is also known for its rules regarding turning at red lights. Unlike the rest of the United States, New York State prohibits right or left turns on red in cities with a population greater than one million, to reduce traffic collisions and increase pedestrian safety. In New York City, therefore, all turns at red lights are illegal unless a sign permitting such maneuvers is present.
New York City is located on one of the world's largest natural harbors, and the boroughs of Manhattan and Staten Island are primarily coterminous with islands of the same names, while Queens and Brooklyn are located at the west end of the larger Long Island, and the Bronx is located on New York State's mainland. This situation of boroughs separated by water led to the development of an extensive infrastructure of bridges and tunnels.
The George Washington Bridge
is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge,
connecting Manhattan to Bergen County, New Jersey
. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge
is the longest suspension bridge
in the Americas and one of the world's longest.
The Brooklyn Bridge
is an icon of the city itself. The towers of the Brooklyn Bridge are built of limestone
, and Rosendale cement, and their architectural style is neo-Gothic, with characteristic pointed arches above the passageways through the stone towers. This bridge was also the longest suspension bridge in the world from its opening until 1903, and is the first steel-wire suspension bridge. The Queensboro Bridge
is an important piece of cantilever architecture
. The Manhattan Bridge
, opened in 1909, is considered to be the forerunner of modern suspension bridge
s, and its design served as the model for many of the long-span suspension bridges around the world; the Manhattan Bridge, Throgs Neck Bridge
, Triborough Bridge
, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge are all examples of Structural Expressionism
Manhattan Island is linked to New York City's outer boroughs and New Jersey by several tunnels as well. The Lincoln Tunnel
, which carries 120,000 vehicles a day under the Hudson River between New Jersey and Midtown Manhattan, is the busiest vehicular tunnel in the world. The tunnel was built instead of a bridge to allow unfettered passage of large passenger and cargo ship
s that sailed through New York Harbor and up the Hudson River to Manhattan's piers. The Holland Tunnel
, connecting Lower Manhattan to Jersey City, New Jersey
, was the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Queens-Midtown Tunnel
, built to relieve congestion on the bridges connecting Manhattan with Queens and Brooklyn, was the largest non-federal project in its time when it was completed in 1940. President Franklin D. Roosevelt
was the first person to drive through it. The Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel
(officially known as the Hugh L. Carey Tunnel) runs underneath Battery Park
and connects the Financial District
at the southern tip of Manhattan to Red Hook
Cycling in New York City
is associated with mixed cycling conditions that include urban density, relatively flat terrain, congested roadways with "stop-and-go" traffic, and many pedestrians. The city's large cycling population includes utility cyclists
, such as delivery and messenger services; cycling club
s for recreational cyclists; and increasingly commuters
. Cycling is increasingly popular in New York City; in 2017 there were approximately 450,000 daily bike trips, compared with 170,000 daily bike trips in 2005. , New York City had of bike lanes, compared to of bike lanes in 2006. As of 2019, there are of segregated or "protected" bike lanes citywide.
New York City has taken actions to restrict the usage of e-bikes.
In 2006, the Sister City
Program of the City of New York, Inc. was restructured and renamed ''New York City Global Partners''. Through this program, New York City has expanded its international outreach to a network of cities worldwide, promoting the exchange of ideas and innovation
between their citizenry and policymakers. New York's ''historic sister cities'' are denoted below by the year they joined New York City's partnership network.
* Outline of New York City
* From Google Books
official tourism website of New York City
145,000 NYC photographs at the Museum of the City of New York
Category:1624 establishments in North America
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Category:1898 establishments in New York (state)
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Category:Cities in the New York metropolitan area
Category:Establishments in New Netherland
Category:Former capitals of the United States
Category:Former state capitals in the United States
Category:Populated coastal places in New York (state)
Category:Populated places established by the Dutch West India Company
Category:Populated places established in 1624
Category:Populated places established in 1898
Category:New York (state) populated places on the Hudson River
Category:Port cities and towns of the United States Atlantic coast