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Nationality is a legal identification of a person in
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide ...
, establishing the person as a subject, a ''national'', of a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
. It affords the state jurisdiction over the person and affords the person the protection of the state against other states. Article 15 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...
states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality." By international
custom Custom may refer to: Sense: Customary * Convention (norm), a set of agreed, stipulated or generally accepted rules, norms, standards or criteria, often taking the form of a custom * Custom (law) or ''customary law'', laws and regulations establi ...
and conventions, it is the right of each state to determine who its nationals are. Such determinations are part of
nationality law Nationality law is the law of a sovereign state, and of each of its jurisdictions, that defines the legal manner in which a national identity is acquired and how it may be lost. In international law, the legal means to acquire nationality and forma ...
. In some cases, determinations of nationality are also governed by
public international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide ...
—for example, by
treaties A treaty is a formal legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually entered into by sovereign states and international organizations, but can sometimes include individuals, business entities, and other leg ...
on
statelessness In international law, a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law". Some stateless people are also refugees. However, not all refugees are stateless, and many people who are stat ...
and the
European Convention on NationalityThe European Convention on Nationality (E.T.S. No. 166) was signed in Strasbourg on 6 November 1997. It is a comprehensive convention of the Council of Europe dealing with the law of nationality. The Convention is open for signature by the member Sta ...
. The rights and duties of nationals vary from state to state,Weis, Paul.
Nationality and Statelessness in International Law
'. BRILL; 1979 ited 19 August 2012 . p. 29–61.
and are often complemented by
citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to a sovereign state (a country). Each state is free to determine the condit ...
law, in some contexts to the point where citizenship is synonymous with nationality. However, nationality differs technically and legally from citizenship, which is a different legal relationship between a person and a country. The noun "national" can include both
citizens Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to a sovereign state (a country). Each state is free to determine the condit ...
and non-citizens. The most common distinguishing feature of citizenship is that citizens have the right to participate in the
political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social science that studies ...
life of the state, such as by
voting Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate, in order to make a collective decision or express an opinion usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns. Democracies elect holders of high office by voting. R ...

voting
or standing for election. However, in most modern countries all nationals are citizens of the state, and full citizens are always nationals of the state. In older texts or other languages the word "nationality", rather than "ethnicity", is often used to refer to an
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, ...
(a group of people who share a common ethnic identity, language, culture, lineage, history, and so forth). This older meaning of "nationality" is not defined by political borders or
passport A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government to its citizens, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel. Standard passports may contain information suc ...
ownership and includes nations that lack a
independent state upright=1.0, Pedro surrounded by a crowd in Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822">Independence of Brazil">Brazil's independence on September 7, 1822. Independence is a condition of a person, nation, country, or state in which its residen ...
(such as the
Arameans The Arameans (Old Aramaic: 𐤀𐤓𐤌𐤉𐤀; Greek: Ἀραμαῖοι; Syriac: ܐܪ̈ܡܝܐ / Ārāmāyē) were an ancient Semitic-speaking people in the Near East, first recorded in historical sources from the late 12th century BCE. Aramean ...
, Scots,
Welsh Welsh may refer to: Related to Wales * Welsh, referring or related to Wales * Welsh language, a Brittonic Celtic language of the Indo-European language family, indigenous to the British Isles, spoken in Wales ** Patagonian Welsh, a dialect of Wels ...
,
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national identity, an identity and ...
,
Andalusians The Andalusians ( es, andaluces) are a sub-ethnic group of Spaniards and an ethnic group native to Andalusia, an autonomous community in southern Spain. Andalusia's statute of autonomy defines Andalusians as the Spanish citizens who reside in any ...
,
Basques The Basques ( or ; eu, euskaldunak ; es, vascos ; french: basques ) are a Southern European ethnic group, characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared genetic ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians. Basques are ind ...
,
Catalans The Catalans are a Romance-speaking ethnic group native to Catalonia. The current official category of "Catalans" is that of the citizens of Catalonia, an autonomous community in Spain and the inhabitants of the Roussillon historical region in s ...
,
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria ...
, Kabyles,
Baloch Baloch, also spelt Baloch, Beluch and in other ways, may refer to: * Baloch people, an ethnic group of Pakistan, Iran and Afghanistan * Baluch, a small itinerant community of Afghanistan * Balouch, Azad Kashmir, a town in Pakistan * Baloch (surname ...
,
Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser ex ...
,
Bosniaks The Bosniaks or Bosniacs ( bs, Bošnjaci, ; , ) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group native to the Southeast European historical region of Bosnia, which is today part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. A native minority of Bosniaks live in oth ...
,
Kashmiris Kashmiris, also known as Koshurs (), are first-language speakers of the Kashmiri language living mostly, but not exclusively, in the Kashmir Valley in the portion of the disputed Kashmir region administered by India.(a) (subscription required ...
,
Palestinians The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs ...
, Sindhi,
Tamils The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar ( ta, தமிழர், Tamiḻar, translit-std=ISO, in the singular or ta, தமிழர்கள், Tamiḻarkaḷ, translit-std=ISO, label=none, in the plural) or simply Tamils (), are a Dravidian ethn ...
,
Hmong Hmong may refer to: * Hmong people, a Southeast Asian ethnic group living mainly in southern China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand * Hmong cuisine * Hmong customs and culture ** Hmong music ** Hmong textile art * Hmong language, a continuum of closel ...
,
Inuit Inuit (; iu, ᐃᓄᐃᑦ 'the people', singular: Inuk, , dual: Inuuk, ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska (United States). The Inuit languages are part of the Inu ...
,
Copts The Copts ( cop, ⲛⲓⲣⲉⲙⲛ̀ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, translit=niremenkhemi; ar, الْقِبْط, ) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to North Africa who primarily inhabit the area of modern Egypt. Most ethnic Copts are Coptic Orthodox Christia ...
,
Māori Māori or Maori can refer to: Relating to the Māori people * Māori people of New Zealand, or members of that group * Māori language, the language of the Māori people of New Zealand * Māori culture * Cook Islanders, the Māori people of the Coo ...
,
Punjabis The Punjabis (Punjabi : , Punjabi : ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) or the Punjabi people, are an Indo-Aryan ethnolinguistic group associated with the Punjab region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent presently divi ...
, Wakhi,
Székelys The Székelys (), sometimes also referred to as Szeklers ( hu, Székelyek, ro, Secui, german: Szekler, la, Siculi, sk, Sikuli) are a subgroup of the Hungarian people living mostly in the Székely Land in Romania. A significant population descendi ...
, Xhosas and
Zulus Zulu people (/zuːluː/; Zulu: ''amaZulu'') are an Nguni ethnic group in Southern Africa. The Zulu people are the largest ethnic group and nation in South Africa with an estimated 10–12 million people living mainly in the province of KwaZulu- ...
). Individuals may also be considered nationals of groups with autonomous status that have ceded some power to a larger sovereign state. Nationality is also employed as a term for
national identity National identity is a person's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. It is the sense of "a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, and language." National identity may refer to the su ...
, with some cases of
identity politics Identity politics is a term that describes a political approach wherein people of a particular religion, race, social background, class or other identifying factor develop political agendas and organize based upon the interlocking systems of oppress ...
and
nationalism Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a group of people),Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity, 2010. pp. 9, 25–30; especially with the aim of gaining and ...
conflating the legal nationality as well as ethnicity with a national identity.


International law

Nationality is the status that allows a nation to grant rights to the subject and to impose obligations upon the subject. In most cases, no rights or obligations are automatically attached to this status, although the status is a necessary precondition for any rights and obligations created by the state. In European law, nationality is the status or relationship that gives the nation the right to protect a person from other nations. Diplomatic and consular protection are dependent upon this relationship between the person and the state. A person's status as being the national of a country is used to resolve the
conflict of laws Conflict may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Films * ''Conflict'' (1936 film), an American boxing film starring John Wayne * ''Conflict'' (1938 film), a French drama film directed by Léonide Moguy * ''Conflict'' (1945 film), an Am ...
. Within the broad limits imposed by a few treaties and international law, states may freely define who are and are not their nationals. However, since the ''Nottebohm'' case, other states are only required to respect the claim(s) by a state to protect an alleged national if the nationality is based on a true social bond. In the case of dual nationality, the states may determine the most effective nationality for the person, to determine which state's laws are the most relevant. There are also limits on removing a person's status as a national. Article 15 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...
states that "Everyone has the right to a nationality," and "No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality."


Legal protections

The following instruments address the right to a nationality: *
Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees Convention may refer to: * Convention (norm), a custom or tradition, a standard of presentation or conduct ** Treaty, an agreement in international law * Convention (meeting), meeting of a (usually large) group of individuals and/or companies in a ...
*
Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees The Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees is a key treaty in international refugee law. It entered into force on 4 October 1967, and 146 countries are parties. Where the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees had ...
*
Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons The Convention Relating to the Status of Stateless Persons is a 1954 United Nations multilateral treaty that aims to protect stateless individuals. Surrounding events The United Nations Charter and Universal Declaration of Human Rights were appro ...
*
Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness is a 1961 United Nations multilateral treaty whereby sovereign states agree to reduce the incidence of statelessness. The Convention was originally intended as a Protocol to the Convention Relati ...
*
European Convention on NationalityThe European Convention on Nationality (E.T.S. No. 166) was signed in Strasbourg on 6 November 1997. It is a comprehensive convention of the Council of Europe dealing with the law of nationality. The Convention is open for signature by the member Sta ...
*
African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child African(s) may refer to: * Anything from or pertaining to the continent of Africa: ** People who are native to Africa, descendants of natives of Africa, or individuals who trace their ancestry to indigenous inhabitants of Africa *** Ethnic groups ...
(art. 6) *
American Convention on Human Rights The American Convention on Human Rights, also known as the Pact of San José, is an international human rights instrument. It was adopted by many countries in the Western Hemisphere in San José, Costa Rica, on 22 November 1969. It came into force a ...
(art. 20) *
American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man The American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man, also known as the Bogota Declaration, was the world's first international human rights instrument of a general nature, predating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by less than a yea ...
(art. 19) * Arab Charter on Human Rights (art. 24) *
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly. Described as an international bill of rights for women, it was instituted o ...
(art. 9) *
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination alt=Membership of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination , 400px, Membership of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: The International Convention on the Elimination of All For ...
(art. 5(d)(iii)) *
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an international human rights treaty of the United Nations intended to protect the rights and dignity of persons with disabilities. Parties to the Convention are required to promote, prot ...
(art. 18) *
Convention on the Rights of the Child The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is an international human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children. The Conve ...

Convention on the Rights of the Child
(arts. 7 and 8) *
Council of Europe Convention on the Avoidance of Statelessness in Relation to State Succession The Council of Europe Convention on the Avoidance of Statelessness in Relation to State Succession is a treaty of the Council of Europe that aims to ensure that people are not left without a nationality when one or more states replace their sta ...
*
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the c ...
(art. 24(3)) * Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (
Maputo Protocol The Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, better known as the Maputo Protocol, is an international human rights instrument established by the African Union that went into effect in 2005. ...
) (art. 6(g) and (h)) *
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...
(art. 15)


National law

Nationals normally have the right to enter or return to the country they belong to.
Passports A passport is a travel document, usually issued by a country's government to its citizens, that certifies the identity and nationality of its holder primarily for the purpose of international travel. Standard passports may contain information suc ...
are issued to nationals of a state, rather than only to citizens, because passport is a travel document used to enter the country. However, nationals may not have the
right of abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country. A person who has the right of abode in a country does not need permission from the government to enter the country and can live and work there without ...
(the right to live permanently) in the countries that granted them passports.


Nationality versus citizenship

Conceptually,
citizenship Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country (and/or local jurisdiction) of belonging to thereof. In international law it is membership to a sovereign state (a country). Each state is free to determine the condit ...
is focused on the internal political life of the state and nationality is a matter of
international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally accepted in relations between nations. It establishes normative guidelines and a common conceptual framework to guide ...
. Article 15 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly that enshrines the rights and freedoms of all human beings. It was accepted by the General Assembly as Resolution 217 d ...
states that everyone has the right to nationality. As such nationality in international law can be called and understood as citizenship, or more generally as subject or belonging to a
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
, and not as ethnicity. This notwithstanding, around 10 million people are stateless. In the modern era, the concept of full citizenship encompasses not only active political rights, but full
civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals. They ensure one's entitlement to participate in the civil and political life of so ...
and
social rights Economic, social and cultural rights are socio-economic human rights, such as the right to education, right to housing, right to an adequate standard of living, right to health, victims' rights and the right to science and culture. Economic, soci ...
. Nationality is a necessary but not sufficient condition to exercise full political rights within a state or other
polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of institutionalized social relations, and have a capacity to mobilize resources. A polity can be any other group of p ...
. Nationality is required for full citizenship. Historically, the most significant difference between a national and a citizen is that the citizen has the right to vote for elected officials, and the right to be elected. This distinction between full citizenship and other, lesser relationships goes back to antiquity. Until the 19th and 20th centuries, it was typical for only a certain percentage of people who belonged to the state to be considered as full citizens. In the past, a number of people were excluded from citizenship on the basis of sex, socioeconomic class, ethnicity, religion, and other factors. However, they held a legal relationship with their government akin to the modern concept of nationality.


Nationality in context

United States nationality law United States nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United States nationality. In the United States, nationality is typically obtained through provisions in the U.S. Constitution, various laws, and international agreem ...
defines some persons born in some of the U.S. outlying possessions as U.S. nationals but not citizens.
British nationality law British nationality law details the conditions in which a person holds United Kingdom nationality. There are six different classes of British nationality, each with varying degrees of civil and political rights, due to the UK's historical status ...
defines six classes of British national, among which "British citizen" is one class (having the
right of abode The right of abode is an individual's freedom from immigration control in a particular country. A person who has the right of abode in a country does not need permission from the government to enter the country and can live and work there without ...
in the United Kingdom, along with some "
British subject The term "British subject" has several different meanings depending on the time period. Before 1949, it referred to almost all citizens of the British Empire (including the United Kingdom, Dominions, and colonies, but excluding protectorates an ...
s"). Similarly, in the
Republic of China Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
, commonly known as
Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The main island of Ta ...
, the status of
national without household registration A national without household registration (abbreviated NWOHR) is a person with Republic of China nationality who does not have household registration in Taiwan. Nationals with this status are subject to immigration controls when entering the Ta ...
applies to people who have the Republic of China nationality, but do not have an automatic entitlement to enter or reside in the Taiwan Area, and do not qualify for civic rights and duties there. Under the nationality laws of Mexican nationality law, Mexico, Colombian nationality law, Colombia, and some other Latin American countries, nationals do not become citizens until they turn the age of majority. Israeli law distinguishes nationality from citizenship. The nationality of an Arab citizen of Israel is "Arab", not Israeli, while the nationality of a Jewish citizen is "Jewish" not Israeli.


List of nationalities which do not have full citizenship rights


Nationality versus ethnicity

Nationality is sometimes used simply as an alternative word for ethnic group, ethnicity or national origin, just as some people assume that citizenship and nationality are identical. In some countries, the cognate word for ''nationality'' in local language may be understood as a synonym of ethnicity or as an identifier of cultural and family-based self-determination, rather than on relations with a state or current government. For example, some
Kurds Kurds ( ku, کورد ,Kurd, italic=yes, rtl=yes) or Kurdish people are an Iranic ethnic group native to a mountainous region of Western Asia known as Kurdistan, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria ...
say that they have Kurdish nationality, even though there is no Kurdish
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government ...
at this time in history. In the context of former Soviet Union and former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, "nationality" is often used as translation of the Russian language, Russian ''nacional'nost' '' and Serbo-Croatian ''narodnost'', which were the terms used in those countries for
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups such as a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, ...
s and local affiliations within the member states of the federation. In the Soviet Union, more than 100 such groups were formally recognized. Membership in these groups was identified on Soviet internal passports, and recorded in censuses in both the USSR and Yugoslavia. In the early years of the Soviet Union's existence, ethnicity was usually determined by the person's native language, and sometimes through religion or cultural factors, such as clothing.Slezkine, Yuri (Summer 1994) "The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism" ''Slavic Review'' Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 414-452 Children born after the revolution were categorized according to their parents' recorded ethnicities. Many of these ethnic groups are still recognized by modern Russia and other countries. Similarly, the term ''List of ethnic groups in China, nationalities of China'' refers to ethnic and cultural groups in China. Spain is one nation, made up of Nationalities and regions of Spain, nationalities, which are not politically recognized as nations (state), but can be considered smaller nations within the Spanish nation. Spanish law recognizes the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Aragon, Balearic Islands, Canary Islands, Catalonia, Valencian Community, Valencia, Galicia (Spain), Galicia and the Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country as "Nationalities and regions of Spain, nationalities" (''nacionalidades''). In 2013, the Supreme Court of Israel unanimously affirmed the position that "citizenship" (e.g. Israeli) is separate from ''le'om'' (; "nationality" or "ethnic affiliation"; e.g. Jews, Jewish, Arab, Druze, Circassians, Circassian), and that the existence of a unique "Israeli" ''le'om'' has not been proven. Israel recognizes more than 130 ''le'umim'' in total.


Nationality versus national identity

National identity is person's subjective sense of belonging to one state or to one nation. A person may be a national of a state, in the sense of being its citizen, without subjectively or emotionally feeling a part of that state, for example, many migrants in Europe often identify with their ancestral and/or religious background rather than with the state of which they are citizens. Conversely, a person may feel that he belongs to one state without having any legal relationship to it. For example, children who were brought to the U.S. illegally when quite young and grew up there while having little contact with their native country and their culture often have a national identity of feeling American, despite legally being nationals of a different country.


Dual nationality

Multiple citizenship, Dual nationality is when a single person has a formal relationship with two separate, sovereign states.Turner, Bryan S; Isin, Engin F.
Handbook of Citizenship Studies
'. SAGEs; 2003-01-29. . p. 278–279.
This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country claims all offspring of the mother's as their own nationals, but the father's country claims all offspring of the father's. Nationality, with its historical origins in allegiance to a sovereign monarch, was seen originally as a permanent, inherent, unchangeable condition, and later, when a change of allegiance was permitted, as a strictly exclusive relationship, so that becoming a national of one state required rejecting the previous state. Dual nationality was considered a problem that caused a conflict between states and sometimes imposed mutually exclusive requirements on affected people, such as simultaneously serving in two countries' military forces. Through the middle of the 20th century, many international agreements were focused on reducing the possibility of dual nationality. Since then, many accords recognizing and regulating dual nationality have been formed.


Statelessness

Statelessness is the condition in which an individual has no formal or protective relationship with any state. There are various reasons why a person can become stateless. This might occur, for example, if a person's parents are nationals of separate countries, and the mother's country rejects all offspring of mothers married to foreign fathers, but the father's country rejects all offspring born to foreign mothers. Although this person may have an emotional national identity, he or she may not legally be the national of any state. Another stateless situation arises when a person holds a travel document (passport) which recognizes the bearer as having the nationality of a "state" which is not internationally recognized, has no entry into the International Organization for Standardization's country list, is not a member of the United Nations, etc. In the current era, persons native to Taiwan who hold passports of Republic of China are one example. Some countries ( like the Kuwait, UAE, and Saudi Arabia) can also remove your citizenship; the reasons for removal can be fraud and/or security issues. There are also people who are abandoned at birth and the parents' whereabouts are not known.


De jure vs de facto statelessness

Nationality law defines citizenship and statelessness. Citizenship is awarded based on two well-known principles: jus sanguinis and jus soli. Jus sanguinis translated from Latin means "right of blood." According to this principle, citizenship is awarded if the parent(s) of the person are citizens of that country. Jus soli is referred to as "birthright citizenship." It means, anyone born in the territory of the country is awarded citizenship of that country. Statelessness person is defined by 1954 Statelessness Convention as "a person who is not considered a national by any State under operation of its law.” A person can become stateless because of administrative reasons. For example, "A person may be at risk of statelessness if she is born in a State that applies jus sanguinis while her parents were born in a State that applies jus soli, leaving the person ineligible for citizenship in both States due to conflicting laws." Moreover, there are countries in which if a person doesn't reside for a specified period of time, they can automatically lose their nationality. To protect those individuals from being deemed "stateless," 1961 Statelessness Convention places limitations on nationality laws. See 1961 Statelessness Convention, arts. 6-8.


Conferment of nationality

The following list includes states in which parents are able to confer nationality on their children or spouses.


Africa


Americas


North America


Caribbean


Central America


South America


Asia


Europe


Oceania


See also

* Blood quantum laws * Demonym * Imagined communities * Intersectionality * ''jus sanguinis'' * ''jus soli'' * List of adjectival and demonymic forms for countries and nations * Nottebohm case, Nottebohm (Liechtenstein v. Guatemala), a 1955 case that is cited for its definitions of nationality * Second-class citizen * People * Volk


Notes


References


Further reading

* White, Philip L. (2006)
What is a nationality?
based on "Globalization and the Mythology of the Nation State," in A.G.Hopkins, ed. ''Global History: Interactions Between the Universal and the Local'' Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 257–284 * Grossman, Andrew
''Gender and National Inclusion''


(1862) {{Authority control Nationality, Nationality law, Conflict of laws Human migration People by legal status Nationalism Rights