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The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the
United States federal government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories and ...
's official
list A ''list'' is any enumeration of a set of items. List or lists may also refer to: People * List (surname) Organizations * List College, an undergraduate division of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America * SC Germania List, German rugby un ...
of
district A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government. Across the world, areas known as "districts" vary greatly in size, spanning regions or counties, several municipalities, subdivisions of muni ...
s, sites, buildings, structures and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred in preserving the property. The passage of the
National Historic Preservation Act The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA; Public Law 89-665; 54 U.S.C. 300101 ''et seq.'') is legislation intended to preserve historic and archaeological sites in the United States of America. The act created the National Register of Historic ...
(NHPA) in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one and a half million properties on the National Register, 95,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history, the National Register has been administered by the
National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the federal government of the United States that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. The United Sta ...
(NPS), an agency within the
United States Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the U.S. government. It is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs rel ...
. Its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the
National Trust for Historic Preservation The National Trust for Historic Preservation is a privately funded, nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C., that works in the field of historic preservation in the United States. The member-supported organization was founded in 1949 by ...
, as well as to coordinate, identify and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places. The application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States (such as the American Embassy in Tangiers) are also listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts and multiple property submissions (MPS). The Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, site, structure, building or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties. Some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include
National Historic Landmark A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Only some 2,500 (~3%) of over 90,000 places listed o ...
s (NHL), National Historic Sites (NHS),
National Historical Park National Historic Site (NHS) is a designation for an officially recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separa ...
s,
National Military Park National Military Park, National Battlefield, National Battlefield Park, and National Battlefield Site are four designations for 25 battle sites preserved by the United States federal government because of their national importance. The designatio ...
s,
National Memorial National memorial is a designation in the United States for an officially recognized area that memorializes a historic person or event. the National Park Service (NPS), an agency of the Department of the Interior, owns and administers thirty-one ...
s and some National Monuments. (Federal properties can be proclaimed National Monuments under the
Antiquities Act The Antiquities Act of 1906, (, , ), is an act that was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt on June 8, 1906. This law gives the President of the United States the authority to, by presidential proclamat ...
because of either their historical or natural significance. They are managed by multiple agencies. Only monuments that are historic in character and managed by the National Park Service are listed administratively in the National Register.)


History

On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding
State Historic Preservation Office The State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) is a state governmental function created by the United States federal government in 1966 under Section 101 of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA). The purposes of a SHPO include surveying an ...
s (SHPO).National Historic Preservation Act of 1966
Public Law 102–575, ''National Register of Historic Places'', Official site. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the
National Historic Landmarks A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Only some 2,500 (~3%) of over 90,000 places listed o ...
designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system.Mackintosh, Barry.
The Historic Sites Survey and National Historic Landmarks Program: A History
, (
PDF Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format developed by Adobe in 1993 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.A ...
), ''National Historic Landmarks Program'', Official site. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
Approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy.Ferguson, T. J.
Native Americans and the Practice of Archaeology
(
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City, United States. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now encompasses books and other primary sources as well as current i ...
), ''Annual Review of Anthropology'', Vol. 25. (1996), pp. 63–79. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
The 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), an independent federal agency, is charged with the mission to promote the preservation of the nation's diverse historic resources. The ACHP advises the President and Congress on national histo ...
(ACHP), to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U.S. Department of the Interior, with director George B. Hartzog Jr., established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation (OAHP).Scarpino, Philip V.
Planning for Preservation: A Look at the Federal-State Historic Preservation Program, 1966–1986 (in The Intergovernmental Politics of Preservation)
(
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City, United States. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now encompasses books and other primary sources as well as current i ...
), ''The Public Historian'', Vol. 14, No. 2. (Spring, 1992), pp. 49–66. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register.Bearss, Edwin C.
The National Park Service and Its History Program: 1864–1986: An Overview (in The National Park Service and Historic Preservation)
(
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City, United States. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now encompasses books and other primary sources as well as current i ...
), ''The Public Historian'', Vol. 9, No. 2, The National Park Service and Historic Preservation. (Spring, 1987), pp. 10–18. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
The division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the
Historic American Buildings Survey Heritage Documentation Programs (HDP) is a division of the U.S. National Park Service (NPS) responsible for administering the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS), Historic American Engineering Record (HAER), and Historic American Landscapes ...
, as well as the new National Register and
Historic Preservation Fund The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA) envisioned a funding source to provide states with matching funds to implement the Act. The Act was to be implemented through partnerships with states, Indian Tribes, Native Hawaiians, local gov ...
. The first official
Keeper of the Register The Keeper of the Register (more formally known as the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places) is a National Park Service (NPS) official, responsible for deciding on the eligibility of historic properties for inclusion on the U.S. Nation ...
was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small, understaffed and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching
grants-in-aid A grant-in-aid is money coming from a central government for a specific project. Such funding is usually used when the government and the legislature decide that the recipient should be publicly funded but operate with reasonable independence fr ...
to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but later for commercial structures as well. A few years later in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates". Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the
Heritage Conservation and Recreation ServiceThe Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (HCRS) was an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which subsumed its functions from the National Park Service and Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. It was created under the Carter a ...
(HCRS) of the
United States Department of the Interior The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is a federal executive department of the U.S. government. It is responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs rel ...
.Hertfelder, Eric.
The National Park Service and Historic Preservation: Historic Preservation beyond Smokey the Bear (in Commentary: How Well Is the National Park Service Doing?)
(
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City, United States. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now encompasses books and other primary sources as well as current i ...
), ''The Public Historian'', Vol. 9, No. 2, The National Park Service and Historic Preservation. (Spring, 1987), pp. 135–142. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate. He was described as a skilled administrator, who was sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, academia and local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs eventually became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register. The 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register. Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups. The National Register of Historic Places has grown considerably from its legislative origins in 1966. In 1986, citizens and groups nominated 3,623 separate properties, sites and districts for inclusion on the National Register, a total of 75,000 separate properties. Of the more than one and a half million properties on the National Register, 95,000 are listed individually. Others are listed as contributing members within historic districts.


Nomination process

Any individual can prepare a National Register nomination, although historians and
historic preservation#REDIRECT Historic preservation#REDIRECT Historic preservation {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
consultants often are employed for this work. The nomination consists of a standard registration form (NPS 10-900) and contains basic information about a property's physical appearance and the type of significance embodied in the building, structure, object, site, or district. The State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) receives National Register nominations and provides feedback to the nominating individual or group. After preliminary review, the SHPO sends each nomination to the state's historic review commission, which then recommends whether the State Historic Preservation Officer should send the nomination to the Keeper of the National Register. For any non-Federally owned property, only the State Historic Preservation Officer may officially nominate a property for inclusion in the National Register. After the nomination is recommended for listing in the National Register by the SHPO, the nomination is sent to the National Park Service, which approves or denies the nomination. If approved, the property is entered officially by the Keeper of the National Register into the National Register of Historic Places. Property owners are notified of the nomination during the review by the SHPO and state's historic review commission. If an owner objects to a nomination of private property, or in the case of a historic district, a majority of owners, then the property cannot be listed in the National Register of Historic Places.


Criteria

For a property to be eligible for the National Register, it must meet at least one of the four National Register main criteria.How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation
" (
PDF Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format developed by Adobe in 1993 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.A ...
), National Register Bulletins, ''National Park Service''. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
Information about
architectural style An architectural style is a set of characteristics and features that make a building or other structure notable or historically identifiable. It is a sub-class of style in the visual arts generally, and most styles in architecture relate closely t ...
s, association with various aspects of
social history Social history, often called the new social history, is a field of history that looks at the lived experience of the past. In its "golden age" it was a major growth field in the 1960s and 1970s among scholars, and still is well represented in histor ...
and commerce and ownership are all integral parts of the nomination. Each nomination contains a narrative section that provides a detailed physical description of the property and justifies why it is significant historically with regard either to local, state, or national history. The four National Register of Historic Places criteria are the following. * Criterion A, "Event", the property must make a contribution to the major pattern of
American history The history of the United States started with the arrival of Native Americans in North America around 15,000 BC. Numerous indigenous cultures formed, and many disappeared in the 1500s. The arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 started the Euro ...
. * Criterion B, "Person", is associated with significant people of the American past. * Criterion C, "Design/Construction", concerns the distinctive characteristics of the building by its architecture and construction, including having great artistic value or being the work of a master. * Criterion D, "Information potential", is satisfied if the property has yielded or may be likely to yield information important to prehistory or history.Criteria Bulletin
" ''National Register of Historic Places'', Official site. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
The criteria are applied differently for different types of properties; for instance, maritime properties have application guidelines different from those of buildings.


Exclusions

There are specific instances where properties usually do not merit listing in the National Register. As a general rule, cemeteries, birthplaces, graves of historical figures, properties owned by religious institutions or used for religious purposes, moved structures, reconstructed historic buildings, commemorative properties and properties that have achieved significance during the last fifty years are not qualified for listing on the Register. There are, however, exceptions to all the preceding; mitigating circumstances allow properties classified in one of those groups to be included.


Properties listed

A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, site, building, or property. However, the Register is mostly "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places automatically includes all
National Historic Landmarks A National Historic Landmark (NHL) is a building, district, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Only some 2,500 (~3%) of over 90,000 places listed o ...
as well as all historic areas administered by the National Park Service. Landmarks such as these include National Historic Sites (NHS),
National Historical Park National Historic Site (NHS) is a designation for an officially recognized area of national historic significance in the United States. An NHS usually contains a single historical feature directly associated with its subject. A related but separa ...
s,
National Military Park National Military Park, National Battlefield, National Battlefield Park, and National Battlefield Site are four designations for 25 battle sites preserved by the United States federal government because of their national importance. The designatio ...
s/Battlefields,
National Memorial National memorial is a designation in the United States for an officially recognized area that memorializes a historic person or event. the National Park Service (NPS), an agency of the Department of the Interior, owns and administers thirty-one ...
s and some
National Monument Altare della Patria, Rome ">Rome.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Altare della Patria, Rome">Altare della Patria, Rome A national monument is a monument constructed in order to commemorate something of import ...
s. Occasionally, historic sites outside the country's borders, but associated with the United States, such as the American Legation in Tangiers, also are listed.American Legation
NHL Database, ''National Historic Landmarks Program''. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
Listing in the National Register does not restrict private property owners from the use of their property. Some states and municipalities, however, may have laws that become effective when a property is listed in the National Register. If federal money or a federal permitting process is involved, Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 is invoked. Section 106 requires the federal agency involved to assess the effect of its actions on historic resources. Statutorily, the
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), an independent federal agency, is charged with the mission to promote the preservation of the nation's diverse historic resources. The ACHP advises the President and Congress on national histo ...
(ACHP) has the most significant role by Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. The section requires that the director of any federal agency with direct or indirect jurisdiction of a project that may affect a property listed or determined eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places must first report to the Advisory Council. The director of said agency is required to "take into account the effect of the undertaking" on the National Register property, as well as to afford the ACHP a reasonable opportunity to comment.Gray, Oscar S.
The Response of Federal Legislation to Historic Preservation
(
JSTOR JSTOR (; short for ''Journal Storage'') is a digital library founded in 1995 in New York City, United States. Originally containing digitized back issues of academic journals, it now encompasses books and other primary sources as well as current i ...
), ''Law and Contemporary Problems'', Vol. 36, No. 3, Historic Preservation. (Summer, 1971), pp. 314–328. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
While Section 106 does not mandate explicitly that any federal agency director accept the advice of the ACHP, their advice has practical influence, especially given the statutory obligations of the NHPA that require federal agencies to "take into account the effect of the undertaking." In cases where the ACHP determines federal action will have an "adverse effect" on historic properties, mitigation is sought. Typically, a
Memorandum of Agreement A memorandum of understanding (MoU) is a type of agreement between two (bilateral) or more (multilateral) parties. It expresses a convergence of will between the parties, indicating an intended common line of action. It is often used either in ca ...
(MOA) is created by which the involved parties agree to a particular plan. Many states have laws similar to Section 106.Section 106 Summary
", ''Advisory Council on Historic Preservation'', Official site, April 26, 2002.
In contrast to conditions relating to a federally designated historic district, municipal ordinances governing local historic districts often restrict certain kinds of changes to properties. Thus, they may protect the property more than a National Register listing does.
National Park Service The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the federal government of the United States that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. The United Sta ...
. Retrieved March 21, 2007.
The Department of Transportation Act, passed on October 15, 1966, the same day as the National Historic Preservation Act, included provisions that addressed historic preservation. The DOT Act is much more general than Section 106 NHPA in that it refers to properties other than those listed in the Register. The more general language has allowed more properties and parklands to enjoy status as
protected area Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabl ...
s by this legislation, a policy developed early in its history. The
United States Supreme Court The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America. It has ultimate (and largely discretionary) appellate jurisdiction over all federal and state court cases that invo ...
ruled in the 1971 case '' Citizens to Preserve Overton Park v. Volpe'' that parklands could have the same protected status as "historic sites." File:Hagley Unrestored Mill 01.jpg,
Eleutherian Mills From 1802 to 1921, Eleutherian Mills was a gunpowder mill site used for the manufacture of explosives by the Du Pont family business, which was founded by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. The name also refers to the house on the hill above the mills, w ...
(1803) in
Wilmington, Delaware Wilmington (Lenape: ''Paxahakink /'' ''Pakehakink)'' is the largest and most populous city in the U.S. state of Delaware. The city was built on the site of Fort Christina, the first Swedish settlement in North America. It lies at the confluence of ...
, added in 1966.Richard Greenwood (1979) , National Park Service and File:LorenAndrus1996.jpg,
Loren Andrus Octagon House The Loren Andrus Octagon House, also known as the Washington Octagon House, is a historic octagon house located at 57500 Van Dyke Avenue just north of 26 Mile Road in Washington Township, Macomb County, Michigan. On September 3, 1971, it was added ...
(1860) in
Washington, Michigan Washington Charter Township, located within Metro Detroit, is a charter township of Macomb County in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 25,139 at the 2010 census. Washington Township is bordered by the village of Romeo as well as Ray To ...
, added in 1971. File:Hamilton Hall (Salem).jpg, Hamilton Hall (1805 by
Samuel McIntire''Samuel McIntire'', c. 1786, pastel portrait attributed to Benjamin Blyth Samuel McIntire (January 16, 1757 – February 6, 1811) was an American architect and craftsman, best known for his work in the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of ...

Samuel McIntire
) in
Salem, Massachusetts Salem () is a historic coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts located in the North Shore region. Continuous settlement by Europeans began in 1626 and Salem would become one of the most significant seaports in early American history. Salem is ...
, added in 1972. File:Chichester Meeting 2.jpg, Chichester Friends Meetinghouse (1688 and 1769) near
Boothwyn Boothwyn is a census-designated place (CDP) in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 4,933 at the 2010 census, down from 5,206 at the 2000 census. The census estimation for population circa 2019 is 6,115. History The Chi ...
, in Upper Chichester Township,
Delaware County, Pennsylvania Delaware County, colloquially referred to as Delco, is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania that borders Philadelphia. With a population of 566,747, it is the fifth most populous county in Pennsylvania, and the third smallest in ar ...
, added in 1973. File:Lexington Historical Museum.jpg, Lexington Historical Museum (1846) in
Lexington, Missouri Lexington is a city in Lafayette County, Missouri. The population was 4,726 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Lafayette County. Located in western Missouri, Lexington lies approximately east of Kansas City and is part of the Greater Kan ...
, added in 1978. File:Mohonk Mountain House 2011 View of Mohonk Guest Rooms from One Hiking Trail FRD 3205.jpg,
Lake Mohonk Mountain House Lake Mohonk The Mohonk Mountain House, also known as Lake Mohonk Mountain House, is an American resort hotel located on the Shawangunk Ridge in Ulster County, New York. Its location in the town of New Paltz, New York, is just beyond the southern b ...
(1869–1910) on the Shawangunk Ridge in Ulster County, New York, added in 1973. File:Holy Resurrection Orthodox Church Berlin 5.JPG, Holy Resurrection Orthodox Church (Berlin, New Hampshire), Holy Resurrection Orthodox Church (1915) in Berlin, New Hampshire, added in 1979. File:16th Street Baptist Church.JPG, 16th Street Baptist Church (1911) in Birmingham, Alabama, added in 1980, received in 2006 a Save America's Treasures Grant.2006 Federal Save America's Treasures Grants
, (
PDF Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format developed by Adobe in 1993 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.A ...
), National Park Service, United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
File:Fargo Theatre - Fargo.jpg, Fargo Theatre (1926) in Fargo, North Dakota, added in 1982. File:Stephen Phillips House.jpg, Stephen Phillips House (1800 by
Samuel McIntire''Samuel McIntire'', c. 1786, pastel portrait attributed to Benjamin Blyth Samuel McIntire (January 16, 1757 – February 6, 1811) was an American architect and craftsman, best known for his work in the Chestnut Street District, a classic example of ...

Samuel McIntire
) in
Salem, Massachusetts Salem () is a historic coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts located in the North Shore region. Continuous settlement by Europeans began in 1626 and Salem would become one of the most significant seaports in early American history. Salem is ...
, added in 1983. File:Green Valley Log Cabin.JPG, Log Cabin (c. 1795) within Green Valley Historic District, in parts of East Marlborough Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, East Marlborough Township and Newlin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, Newlin Township, Pennsylvania, added in 1985. File:Dodona Manor.JPG, George C. Marshall's Dodona Manor, Dodona Manor (1807-1827) in Leesburg, Virginia, added in 1996.


Multiple property submission

A multiple property submission (MPS) is a thematic group listing of the National Register of Historic Places that consists of related properties that share a common theme and can be submitted as a group. Multiple property submissions must satisfy certain basic criteria for the group of properties to be included in the National Register. The process begins with the multiple property documentation form which acts as a cover document rather than the nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The purpose of the documentation form is to establish the basis of eligibility for related properties. The information of the multiple property documentation form can be used to nominate and register related historic properties simultaneously, or to establish criteria for properties that may be nominated in the future. Thus, additions to an MPS can occur over time. The nomination of individual properties in an MPS is accomplished in the same manner as other nominations. The name of the "thematic group" denotes the historical theme of the properties. It is considered the "multiple property listing." Once an individual property or a group of properties is nominated and listed in the National Register, the multiple property documentation form, combined with the individual National Register of Historic Places nomination forms, constitute a multiple property submission.Lee, Antoinette J. and McClelland Linda F.
How to Complete the National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form
(
PDF Portable Document Format (PDF), standardized as ISO 32000, is a file format developed by Adobe in 1993 to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.A ...
), National Register Bulletin, ''National Park Service''. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
Examples of MPS include the List of Registered Historic Buildings in Lee County, Florida, Lee County Multiple Property Submission, the Warehouses in Omaha Multiple Properties Submission, Warehouses in Omaha, the Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia and the Illinois Carnegie Libraries Multiple Property Submission, Illinois Carnegie Libraries. Before the term "Multiple Property Submission" was introduced in 1984, such listings were known as "Thematic Resources", such as the Operating Passenger Railroad Stations Thematic Resource (New Jersey), Operating Passenger Railroad Stations Thematic Resource, or "Multiple Resource Areas".


Types of properties

Listed properties are generally in one of five broad categories, although there are special considerations for other types of properties that in any one, or into more specialized subcategories. The five general categories for National Register properties are: building, structure, site, district and object. In addition, historic districts consist of contributing and non-contributing properties. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are distinguished in the traditional sense. Examples include a house, barn, hotel, church, or similar construction. They are created primarily to shelter human activity. The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to historically and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail or a barn and a house. Structures differ from buildings in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include an aircraft, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge. Objects are usually artistic in nature, or small in scale compared to structures and buildings. Although objects may be movable, they are generally associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments, sculptures and fountains. Sites are the locations of significant events, which can be prehistoric or historic in nature and represent activities or buildings (standing, ruined, or vanished). When sites are listed, it is the locations themselves that are of historical interest. They possess cultural or archaeological value regardless of the value of any structures that currently exist at the locations. Examples of types of sites include shipwrecks, battlefields, campsites, natural features and rock shelters. Historic districts possess a concentration, association, or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures, buildings and sites in a historic district are united historically or aesthetically, either by choice or by the nature of their development. There are several other different types of historic preservation associated with the properties of the National Register of Historic Places that cannot be classified as either simple buildings and historic districts. Through the National Park Service, the National Register of Historic Places publishes a series of bulletins designed to aid in evaluating and applying the criteria for evaluation of different types of properties. Although the criteria are always the same, the manner they are applied may differ slightly, depending upon the type of property involved. The National Register bulletins describe the application of the criteria for aids to navigation, historic battlefields, archaeological sites, aviation properties, cemeteries and burial places, Property type (National Register of Historic Places)#Cultural landscapes, historic designed landscapes, mining sites, post offices, properties associated with significant persons, properties achieving significance within the last fifty years, rural historic landscapes, Property type (National Register of Historic Places)#Traditional cultural properties, traditional cultural properties and vessels and shipwrecks.


Property owner incentives

Properties are not protected in any strict sense by the Federal listing. States and local zoning bodies may or may not choose to protect listed historic places. Indirect protection is possible, by state and local regulations on the development of National Register properties and by tax incentives. Until 1976, federal tax incentives were virtually non-existent for buildings on the National Register. Before 1976 the federal tax code favored new construction rather than the reuse of existing, sometimes historical, structures. In 1976, the tax code was altered to provide tax incentives that promote the preservation of income-producing historic properties. The National Park Service was given the responsibility to ensure that only rehabilitations that preserved the historic character of a building would qualify for federal tax incentives. A qualifying rehabilitation is one that the NPS deems consistent with the Secretary of the Interior's Standards for Rehabilitation. Properties and sites listed in the Register, as well as those located in and contributing to the period of significance of National Register Historic Districts, became eligible for the federal tax benefits. Owners of income-producing properties listed individually in the National Register of Historic Places or of properties that are contributing resources within a National Register Historic District may be eligible for a 20% investment tax credit for the rehabilitation of the historic structure. The rehabilitation may be of a commercial, industrial, or residential property, for rentals. The tax incentives program is operated by the Federal Historic Preservation Tax Incentives program, which is managed jointly by the National Park Service, individual State Historic Preservation Offices and the Internal Revenue Service.Historic Preservation Tax Incentives
, Technical Preservation Services, ''National Park Service'', Official site. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
Aside from the 20% tax credit, the tax incentive program offers a 10% tax credit for rehabilitation to owners of non-historic, non-residential buildings constructed before 1936.About the Historic Preservation Tax Incentives
Federal Historic Preservation Tax Incentives, Technical Preservation Services, ''National Park Service'', Official site. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
Some property owners may also qualify for grants, like the now-defunct Save America's Treasures grants, which apply specifically to properties entered in the Register with national significance or designated as National Historic Landmarks.Save America's Treasurers: FAQ
National Park Service. Retrieved March 23, 2007.
The NHPA did not distinguish between properties listed in the National Register of Historic Places and those designated as National Historic Landmarks concerning qualification for tax incentives or grants. This was deliberate, as the authors of the act had learned from experience that distinguishing between categories of significance for such incentives caused the lowest category to become expendable. Essentially, this made the Landmarks a kind of "honor roll" of the most significant properties of the National Register of Historic Places.


Recent past

In American
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, the 50-year rule is the generally held belief that a property must be at least 50 years old to be listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Actually, there is no hard rule. As stated by John H. Sprinkle, Jr., Deputy Director of the Federal Preservation Institute, "this 'rule' is only an exception to the criteria that shape listings within the National Register of Historic Places. Of the eight 'exceptions' [or criteria considerations], Consideration G, for properties that have achieved significance within the past fifty years, is probably the best-known, yet also misunderstood preservation principle in America." Each year, a new group of resources crosses the 50-year threshold. The preservation of these "underage" resources has gained attention in recent years.


Limitations

As of 1999, there have been 982 properties removed from the Register, most often due to being destroyed. Among the properties that were demolished or otherwise destroyed after their listing are the Jobbers Canyon Historic District in Omaha, Nebraska (listed in 1979, demolished in 1989), Pan-Pacific Auditorium in Los Angeles, California (listed in 1978, destroyed in a fire in 1989), Palace Amusements in Asbury Park, New Jersey (listed in 2000, demolished in 2004), The Balinese Room in Galveston, Texas (listed in 1997, destroyed by Hurricane Ike in 2008),, seven of the nine buildings included in the University of Connecticut Historic District in Storrs, Connecticut (listed in 1989, demolished in 2017), and the Terrell Jacobs Circus Winter Quarters in Peru, Indiana (listed in 2012, set to be demolished in 2021).


See also

* Listed building, the UK equivalent * National Heritage Area * Register of Culturally Significant Property * United States National Register of Historic Places listings * List of National Historic Landmarks by state * List of National Memorials of the United States * List of threatened historic sites in the United States * List of African-American historic places * University and college buildings listed on the National Register of Historic Places, List of university and college buildings on the National Register of Historic Places * List of jails and prisons on the National Register of Historic Places * List of heritage registers, List of heritage registers worldwide


References


Further reading

* * * * * *


External links

* —National Register of Historic Places * —Advisory Council on Historic Preservation {{Authority control National Register of Historic Places 1966 establishments in the United States Historic preservation Heritage registers in the United States Historic sites in the United States National Historic Landmarks of the United States National Park Service