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The National Assembly or Aiwān-e-Zairīñ of Pākistān ( ur, , , literally "Pakistan lower house") is the lower legislative house of the
bicameral Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature divided into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a si ...
Majlis-e-Shura, which also comprises the
Senate of Pakistan Senate of Pakistan or Aiwān-e-Bālā Pākistān ( ur, , , literally "Pakistan upper house") is the upper legislative chamber of the bicameral legislature of Pakistan, and together with the National Assembly makes up the Parliament. First conven ...
(
upper house#REDIRECT Upper house#REDIRECT Upper house {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
). The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in
Islamabad Islamabad (; ur, , translit=Islāmābād) is the capital city of Pakistan, and is federally administered as part of the Islamabad Capital Territory. Islamabad is the ninth largest city in Pakistan, while the larger Islamabad–Rawalpindi metro ...

Islamabad
. The National Assembly is a democratically elected body consisting of a total of 336 members, before 25th amendment they used to be 342 who are referred to as Members of the National Assembly (MNAs), of which 272 are directly elected members and 70 reserved seats for women and religious minorities. A political party must secure 137 seats to obtain and preserve a majority. Members are elected through the
first-past-the-post In a first-past-the-post (FPTP or FPP; sometimes formally called single-member plurality voting or SMP) electoral system, voters cast their vote for a candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins (irrespective ...
system under
universal adult suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote to all adult citizens, regardless of wealth, income, gender, social status, race, ethnicity, political stance, or ...
, representing electoral districts known as National Assembly constituencies. According to the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principl ...
, the 70 seats reserved for women and religious minorities are allocated to the political parties according to their proportional representation. Each National Assembly is formed for a five-year term, commencing from the date of the first sitting, after which it is automatically dissolved. Currently the National Assembly can not be dissolved by the
President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan (Urdu: , ''Sadr e Mumlikat Islāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān''), is the ceremonial head of state of Pakistan and the Commander-in-Chief of Pakistan Armed Forces.
; it is dissolved by the
Prime Minister of Pakistan The prime minister of Pakistan ( ur, , lit=Grand vizier, ) is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "Chief Executive of the Islamic Republic". The Prime Minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees econo ...
. Election for 13th National Assembly was held on 18 February 2008. New session of National Assembly was started from March 2008. On 17 March 2013, 13th National Assembly was dissolved on completion of its five-year term under Article 52 of the constitution.
2013 Pakistani general election General elections were held in Pakistan on Saturday 11 May 2013 to elect the members of the National Assembly and the four provincial assemblies. Prior to the elections, the ruling Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) formed an alliance with the Pakist ...
(for the 14th National Assembly) was held on 11 May 2013. Members of 14th National Assembly took oath on 1 June 2013. The 14th National Assembly dissolved on 31 May 2018 upon completing its 5 year term under Article 52 of the constitution. The 15th National Assembly of Pakistan took their oath on 13 August 2018.


History

The first session of the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was held on 10 August 1947 at Sindh Assembly Building, in
Karachi Karachi ( ur, ; Sindhi: ڪراچي; ALA-LC: , ) is the largest city in Pakistan and the twelfth largest city in the world. It is the capital of the Pakistani province of Sindh. Ranked as a beta-global city, the city is Pakistan's premier indust ...
. On 11 August 1947, Quaid-i-Azam
Muhammad Ali Jinnah Muhammad Ali Jinnah (; born Mahomedali Jinnahbhai; 25 December 1876 – 11 September 1948) was a barrister, politician and the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah served as the leader of the All-India Muslim League from 1913 until the ince ...

Muhammad Ali Jinnah
was elected unanimously as the President of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan and the National Flag was formally approved by the Assembly. * On 12 August 1947, a resolution was approved regarding officially addressing Mr. Muhammad Ali Jinnah as "Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah". On the same day, a special committee called the "Committee on Fundamental Rights of Citizens and Minorities of Pakistan" was appointed to look into and advise the Assembly on matters relating to fundamental rights of the citizens, particularly the minorities, with the aim to legislate on these issues appropriately. * On 14 August 1947, Lord Mountbatten, Governor General of India, addressed the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. The transfer of power took place on 15 August. The Quaid gave a reply to the address in the House, on which the principles of the State of Pakistan were laid. * On 15 August 1947, Quaid-i-Azam was sworn in as the first Governor General of Pakistan. Mian Sir Abdur Rashid, Chief Justice of Pakistan, administered oath of office from him. The Quaid remained in this position until his death on 11 September 1948.


Powers

The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principl ...
, which was passed unanimously by the National Assembly in April 1973, provides a federal parliamentary system of government, with the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
as the ceremonial head of the state and an elected Prime Minister as the head of the government. Under Article 50 of the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principl ...
the federal legislature is the bicameral Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament), which comprises the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
and the two Houses, the National Assembly and the
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper hou ...
. The National Assembly, Pakistan's sovereign legislative body, makes laws for the federation under powers spelled out in the federal legislative List and also for subjects in the concurrent List, as given in the fourth schedule of the Constitution. Through debates, adjournment motions, question hour, and standing committees, the National Assembly keeps a check on the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
. It ensures that the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
functions within the parameters set out in the Constitution, and does not violate the people's fundamental rights. The Parliament scrutinizes public spending and exercises control of expenditure incurred by the
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
through the work of the relevant standing committees. The Public Accounts Committee has a special role to review the report of the auditor general. The
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper hou ...
, the upper house of the Parliament, has equal representation from the federating units balancing the
provincial Provincial may refer to: Government & Administration * Provincial capitals, an administrative sub-national capital of a country * Provincial city (disambiguation) * Provincial minister (disambiguation) * Provincial Secretary, a position in Canadi ...
inequality in the National Assembly, where the number of members is based on population of the provinces. The Senate's role is to promote national cohesion and harmony, and work as a stabilizing factor of the federation. The Senate has 104 members who serve six-year terms which are alternated so that half the senators are up for re-election by the electoral college every three years. The National Assembly consists of 342 members. The Constitution does not empower the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
to dissolve the National Assembly. The
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper hou ...
is not subject to dissolution. Only the Parliament can amend the
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed. When these principl ...
, by two-thirds majority vote separately in each House.


Members of National Assembly


Qualifications

The
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan. Drafted by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with additional assistance from the country's opposition partie ...
lists a number of requirements for members of the National Assembly in Article 62. The constitution also details a number of disqualifications in Article 63, which include
mental instability A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent, relapsing and remitting, or occ ...
,
insolvencyInsolvency is the state of being unable to pay the debts, by a person or company (debtor), at maturity; those in a state of insolvency are said to be ''insolvent''. There are two forms: cash-flow insolvency and balance-sheet insolvency. Cash-flow in ...
,
criminal conviction In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime. The opposite of a conviction is an acquittal (that is, "not guilty"). In Scotland and in the Netherlands, there can also be a verdi ...
and accepting
dual-citizenship Multiple/dual citizenship (or multiple/dual nationality) is a legal status in which a person is concurrently regarded as a national or citizen of more than one country under the laws of those countries. Conceptually, citizenship is focused on the ...
or relinquishing Pakistani nationality, among others. Furthermore, an individual is disqualified if he or she is found to have opposed Pakistan's ideology or worked against the integrity of the country, after its establishment in 1947.


National Assembly Composition

The National Assembly has 342 members, including 60 seats reserved for women and 10 for minorities, as per Article 51. The seats in the National Assembly are allocated to each
province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman ''provincia'', which was the major territorial and administrative unit of the Roman Empire's territorial possessions outside ...
and the
federal capitalA federal capital is a political entity, often a municipality or capital city, that serves as the seat of the federal government. A federal capital is typically a city that physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of its respective gover ...
on the basis of
population In biology, a population is a number of all the organisms of the same group or species who live in a particular geographical area and are capable of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible bet ...
, as officially published in the preceding census. The present allocation of seats is as under:


Tenure

The National Assembly is elected for a five-year term on the basis of adult franchise and
one person, one vote One man, one vote (or one person, one vote) expresses the principle that individuals should have equal representation in voting. This slogan is used by advocates of political equality to refer to such electoral reforms as universal suffrage, proport ...
. The tenure of a Member of the National Assembly is for the duration of the House, or sooner, in case the Member dies or resigns. The tenure of the National Assembly also comes to an end if dissolved on the advice of the Prime Minister or by the President in his discretion under the Constitution. Under the 1973 Constitution, a member of Parliament may not hold the office of the Prime Minister more than twice. In the 1990s,
Benazir Bhutto Benazir Bhutto ( sd, بينظير ڀُٽو; ; ; 21 June 1953 – 27 December 2007) was a Pakistani politician who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990 and again from 1993 to 1996. She was the first woman to head a democratic go ...

Benazir Bhutto
and Nawaz Shareef proposed a bill to amend the 1973 constitution to allow a Member to serve a third term as Prime Minister.


Speaker and Deputy Speaker

According to The Constitution * (1) After a general election, the National Assembly shall, at its first meeting and to the exclusion of any other business, elect from amongst its members a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker and, so often as the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the Assembly shall elect another member as Speaker or, as the case may be, Deputy Speaker. * (2) Before entering upon office, a member elected as Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall make before the National Assembly oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule. * (3) When the office of Speaker is vacant, or the Speaker is absent or is unable to perform his functions due to any cause, the Deputy Speaker shall act as Speaker, and if, at that time, the Deputy Speaker is also absent or is unable to act as Speaker due to any cause, such member as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly shall preside at the meeting of the Assembly. * (4) The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker shall not preside at a meeting of the Assembly when a resolution for his removal from office is being considered. * (5) The Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) *President (education), a leader of a college or university *President (government title) President may also refer to: Automobiles * Nissan President, a 1966–2010 Japanese full- ...
, resign his office. * (6) The Deputy Speaker may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Speaker, resign his office. * (7) The office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall become vacant if: # (a) he resigns his office; # (b) he ceases to be a member of the Assembly; # (c) he is removed from office by a resolution of the Assembly, of which not less than seven days' notice has been given and which is passed by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the Assembly. * (8) When the National Assembly is dissolved the Speaker shall continue in his office till the person elected to fill the office by the next Assembly enters upon his office. The
Speaker of the House 250px, Marshal's chair in the Sejm, lower chamber of the Polish Parliament The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England. Usage The speak ...
is the presiding officer of the National Assembly. The speaker is assisted by the
Deputy Speaker 250px, Marshal's chair in the Sejm, lower chamber of the Polish Parliament The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England. Usage The speak ...
. Both officers are elected from within the ranks of the National Assembly and, by current convention, are usually members of the majority party. The election of the two officers is the first matter an incoming National Assembly deals with, as mandated by the constitution. Apart from presiding over National Assembly debates, the Speaker may also assume the duties of
Acting President An acting president is a person who temporarily fills the role of a country's president when the incumbent president is unavailable (such as by illness or a vacation) or when the post is vacant (such as for death, injury, resignation, dismissal). ...
, if the position is vacant (in case the President as well as Chairman Senate are not available). The current
Speaker Speaker may refer to: Roles * Speaker (politics), the presiding officer in a legislative assembly * Public speaker, one who gives a speech or lecture * A person producing speech, sometimes also called a speaker-hearer Electronics * Loudspeaker, a ...
and
Deputy Speaker 250px, Marshal's chair in the Sejm, lower chamber of the Polish Parliament The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England. Usage The speak ...
are
Asad Qaiser Asad Qaiser ( ur, ; born 15 November 1969) is a Pakistani politician who is the current Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan, in office since August 2018. He has been a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, since August 2018. Prev ...

Asad Qaiser
( PTI) and
Qasim Suri Qasim Khan Suri ( ur, ) is a Pakistani politician who is the current and 19th Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan since August 2018. Early life and education He was born in January 1969 in Quetta, to a Pashtun family from the Sur ...
( PTI), respectively.


Sessions

The National Assembly is divided into sessions. It had to meet for 130 days before the First Amendment passed on 8 May 1974 in the constitution of 1973. According to this amendment, the maximum duration between successive sessions was reduced to 90 days from 130 days, and there must be at least three sessions in a year. A session of the National Assembly is summoned by the President under Article 54(1) of the Constitution. In the summoning order the President gives the date, time and place (which is usually the Parliament House), for the National Assembly to meet. The date and time for the summoning of the National Assembly is immediately announced over radio and television. Generally, a copy of the summon is also sent to the Members at their home addresses. The National Assembly can also be summoned by the Speaker of National Assembly on a request made by at one-fourth of the total membership of the National Assembly. If the National Assembly is so requisitioned, it must be summoned within 14 days.


Procedure


Constitutional role

Article 50 of the Constitution provides that the Parliament shall consist of president and the two houses known as the National Assembly and the Senate. The National Assembly has an edge over the Senate by legislating exclusively on money matters. With exception to money bills, however, both the houses work together to carryout the basic work of the Parliament, i.e. law making.


Legislative procedures

The bill relating to the Federal Legislative List can be originated in either house. If the House passed a bill through majority vote, it shall be transmitted to the other house. If the other house passes it without amendment, it shall be presented to the President for assent. If the bill, transmitted to the other house, is not passed within ninety days or rejected, it shall be considered in a joint sitting to be summoned by the President on the request of the house in which the bill was originated. If the bill is passed in the joint sitting, with or without amendments, by the votes of majority of the members of the two houses, it shall be presented to the President for assent. If the bill is presented to the President for assent, he shall assent to the bill in not later than ten days. If it is not a money bill, the President may return it to the Majlis-e-Shoora with a message requesting that the bill be reconsidered and that an amendment specified in the message be considered. The Majlis-e-Shoora shall reconsider the bill in a joint sitting. If the bill is passed again, with or without amendment, by vote of the majority of the members present and voting, it shall be presented to the President and the President shall give his assent within ten days; failing which such assent shall be deemed to have been given. Under the Constitution, the Parliament may also legislate for two or more provinces by consent and request made by those provinces. If the federal government proclaims a state of emergency in any province, the power to legislate about that province is vested in the Parliament. But the bills passed by the Parliament during the state of emergency, shall cease to be in force after the expiration of six months from the date that the emergency is lifted. Nevertheless, the steps already taken under these acts shall remain valid.


Leaders


Leader of the House

The Leader of the House is the highest ranking representative of the majority party in National Assembly, usually the
Prime Minister#REDIRECT Prime minister#REDIRECT Prime minister {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
.


Leader of the Opposition

The Leader of the Opposition is the highest ranking representative of the main
opposition party 220px, ''Stand in Opposition'' (imprints in front of Old City Hall, Boston) In politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed, primarily ideologically, to the government (or, in American ...
.


Committees

While recognizing the Committee System, the committees have been empowered to go into all matters of the ministry. A matter can be remitted to a standing committee by the Speaker or the Assembly suo moto and without moving any motion. The committees have also been empowered to invite or summon before it any member or any other person having a special interest in relation to any matter under its consideration and may hear expert evidence and hold public hearing.


Composition and elections

The composition of the National Assembly is specified in Article 51 of the Constitution of Pakistan. There are a total of 342 seats in the National Assembly. Of these, 272 are filled by direct elections. In addition, the Pakistani Constitution reserves 10 seats for religious minorities and 60 seats for women, to be filled by proportional representation among parties with more than 5% of the vote. As of 2006, there are 72 women members in the Assembly. Members of the National Assembly are elected by the people in competitive multi-party elections, to be held at most five years apart on universal adult franchise. To be a member of electoral college, according to Article 62 of the Constitution, candidates must be citizens of Pakistan and not less than 25 years of age.


2018 election


Results of the Pakistani general election, 2018


Dissolution

National Assembly can be dissolved at the initiative of the Prime Minister. If dissolved, new elections are conducted for the Assembly. Article 58 of the
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan. Drafted by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with additional assistance from the country's opposition partie ...
deals with the dissolution of the Assembly: 58. Dissolution of the National Assembly: : (1) The President shall dissolve the National Assembly if so advised by the Prime Minister; and the National Assembly shall, unless sooner dissolved, stand dissolved at the expiration of forty-eight hours after the Prime Minister has so advised. Explanation: Reference in this Article to "Prime Minister" shall not be construed to include reference to a Prime Minister against whom a notice of a resolution for a note of no-confidence has been given in the National Assembly but has not been voted upon or against whom such a resolution has been passed or who is continuing in office after his resignation or after the dissolution of the National Assembly. : (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in clause (2) or Article 48, the President may dissolve the National Assembly in his discretion where, a vote of no-confidence having been passed against the Prime Minister, no other member of the National Assembly commands the confidence of the majority of the members of the National Assembly in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, as ascertained in a session of the National Assembly summoned for the purpose.


See also

*
Politics of Pakistan The politics of Pakistan () takes place within the framework established by the constitution. The country is a federal parliamentary republic in which provincial governments enjoy a high degree of autonomy and residuary powers. Executive power ...
*
Constitution of Pakistan The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu: ), also known as the 1973 Constitution, is the supreme law of Pakistan. Drafted by the government of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, with additional assistance from the country's opposition partie ...
* List of Pakistan National Assembly Seats *
List of constituencies of Pakistan The following is a list of Constituencies of Pakistan for elected seats in National Assembly (Urdu: ایوان زیریں پاکستان) also known as lower house (National Assembly). And Provincial Assemblies of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Balochista ...
*
Member of the Provincial AssemblyA Member of the Provincial Assembly ( sd, صوبائي اسيمبليءَ جو رڪن), or MPA, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to the legislature or legislative assembly of a subnational jurisdiction. In Pakistan, t ...
*
List of provincial governments of Pakistan The four provincial governments of Pakistan administer the four provinces of Pakistan. There are also two territories and two disputed regions which have similar governments but with some differences. The head of each province is a non-executive G ...


Notes


External links


Official Website of the National Assembly of Pakistan

Constitution of Pakistan
{{DEFAULTSORT:National Assembly Of Pakistan
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.2 million, and has the wor ...
Parliament of Pakistan