BirthMuhammad ibn Ismaʿil al-Bukhari al-Juʿfi was born after the Jumu'ah on Friday, 21 July 810 (13 Shawwal 194 AH) in the city of in Transoxiana (in present-day ). His father, Ismail ibn Ibrahim, a scholar of hadith, was a student and associate of . Some Iraqi scholars related hadith narrations from him.
LineageImam Bukhari's great-grandfather, al-Mughirah, settled in Bukhara after accepting Islam at the hands of Bukhara's governor, Yaman al-Juʿfi. As was the custom, he became a '' mawla'' of Yaman, and his family continued to carry the '' nisbah'' of "al-Juʿfi". Al-Mughirah's father, Bardizbah, is the earliest known ancestor of Bukhari according to most scholars and historians. Bardizbah was a Zoroastrianism, Zoroastrian Magi, and died as such. As-Subki is the only scholar to name Bardizbah's father, who he says was named Bazzabah ( fa, ). Little is known of either Bardizbah or Bazzabah, except that they were Persian and followed the religion of their people. Historians have also not come across any information on Bukhari's grandfather, Ibrahim ibn al-Mughirah.
Hadith studies and travelsThe historian al-Dhahabi described his early academic life: At the age of sixteen, he, together with his brother and widowed mother, made the Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca. From there he made a series of travels in order to increase his knowledge of hadith. He went through all the important centres of Islamic learning of his time, talked to scholars and exchanged information on hadith. It is said that he heard from over 1,000 men, and learned over 600,000 traditions. After sixteen years absence, he returned to Bukhara, and there he drew up his ''al-Jami' as-Sahih'', a collection of 7,275 tested traditions, arranged in chapters so as to afford a basis for a complete system of Fiqh, jurisprudence without the use of speculative law. His book is highly regarded among Sunni Muslims, and considered the most authentic collection of hadith, even ahead of the Muwatta Imam Malik and Sahih Muslim of Bukhari's student Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Most Sunni scholars consider it second only to the Quran in terms of authenticity. He also composed other books, including ''al-Adab al-Mufrad'', which is a collection of hadiths on ethics and manners, as well as two books containing biographies of hadith narrators (see Hadith studies#The sanad and the matn, isnad).
Last yearsIn the year 864/250, he settled in Nishapur. It was in Nishapur that he met Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. He would be considered his student, and eventually collector and organiser of hadith collection ''Sahih Muslim'' which is considered second only to that of al-Bukhari. Political problems led him to move to Khartank, a village near Samarkand where he died in the year 870/256.
MausoleumToday his tomb lies within the Imam al-Bukhari Complex, in Hartang Village, 25 kilometers from Samarkand. It was restored in 1998 after centuries of neglect and dilapidation. The mausoleum complex consists of Imam al-Bukhari's tomb, a mosque, a madrassah, library, and a small collection of Qurans. The modern ground level mausoleum tombstone of Imam Bukhari is only a cenotaph, the actual grave lies within a small burial crypt below the modern structure.
WritingsBelow is a summary of the discussion of Bukhari's available works in ''Fihrist Muṣannafāt al-Bukhāri'' by Umm 'Abdullāh bint Maḥrūs, Muḥammad ibn Ḥamza and Maḥmūd ibn Muḥammad.
Works describing narrators of hadithBukhari wrote three works discussing narrators of hadith with respect to their ability in conveying their material: the "brief compendium of hadith narrators," "the medium compendium" and the "large compendium" * ''The Great History, Al-Tarikh al-Kabīr (Eng: The great history) known as'' ''al-Tarīkh al-Ṣaghīr'', and ''al-Tarīkh al-Awsaţ''). The large compendium is published and well-identified. The medium compendium was thought to be the brief collection and was published as such. The brief compendium has yet to be found. Another work, ''al-Kunā'', is on patronymics: identifying people who are commonly known as "Father of so-and-so". Then there is a brief work on weak narrators: al-Ḍu'afā al-Ṣaghīr.
Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukharī & extant hadithTwo of Bukhari's works on hadith survive: *''Sahih al-Bukhari, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukharī''full title, ''al-Jāmi’ al-Musnad al-Sahīh al-Mukhtaṣar min umūr Rasûl Allāh wa sunnanihi wa ayyāmihi'' "Collection of Selected True Reports of the Prophet, his Practices and Times"); al-Bukharī's famous ''magnum opus''. [Note: these ''al-Musnad'' are reports with chains of narration that go back to the Prophet.] *'' Al-Adab al-Mufrad''; hadith on respect and propriety.
Theological ViewsBukhari was a follower of early Sunni theologian (Kalam, mutakallim) Ibn Kullab in creed,Wahab, Muhammad Rashidi, and Syed Hadzrullathfi Syed Omar. "Peringkat Pemikiran Imam al-Ash’ari Dalam Akidah." International Journal of Islamic Thought 3 (2013): 58-70. "Disebabkan itu, al- Bukhari dalam kebanyakan perkara berkaitan dengan persoalan akidah dikatakan akan mengambil pendapat Ibn Kullab dan al-Karabisi(al-'Asqalani 2001: 1/293)" preaching that one's recitation of the Qur'an is created, whilst the Qur'an itself is uncreated.Azmi, Ahmad Sanusi. "Ahl al-Hadith Methodologies on Qur'anic Discourses in the Ninth Century: A Comparative Analysis of Ibn Hanbal and al-Bukhari." Online Journal of Research in Islamic Studies 4.1 (2017): 17-26.Melchert, Christopher. "The Piety of the Hadith folk." International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.3 (2002): 425-439. "Hadith folk in Baghdad warned those of Nishapur against the famous traditionist Bukhari, whom they then drove from the city for suggesting one's pronunciation of the Qur'an was created" Reacting to such teaching, the hadith scholars of Baghdad warned the people of Nishapur against him, had him imprisoned and then drove him out of the city. Other followers of Ibn Kullab, such as Harith al-Muhasibi, were also criticised and made to relocate. Away from discussions relating to God's speech, Bukhari also repudiated rejection of Qadar (the divine decree) in his Sahih by quoting a verse of the Quran implying that God had already determined all human acts with a precise determining. According to Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Ibn Hajar, Bukhari signified that if someone was to accept autonomy in creating his acts, he would be assumed to be playing God's role and so would subsequently be declared a polytheist. In another chapter, Bukhari refutes the creeds of the Kharijites, and according to Badr al-Din al-Ayni, al-Ayni, the heading of that chapter was designed not only to refute the Kharijites but also any who held similar beliefs.
Interpretation of God's attributesIn , in the book entitled "Tafsir al-Qur'an wa 'ibaratih" [i.e., Exegesis of the Qur'an and its expressions], surat al-Qasas, verse 88: "kullu shay'in halikun illa Wajhah" [the literal meaning of which is "everything will perish except His Face"], he said the term [illa Wajhah] means: "except His Sovereignty/Dominance". And there is [in this same chapter] other than that in terms of ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation), like the term 'dahk' ( ar, ضحك, lit=laughter) which is narrated in a hadith, [which is interpreted by] His Mercy.
School of thoughtMany are of the opinion that Bukhari was a Ijtihad, mujtahid with his own Maddhab, school of jurisprudence.Mughal, Justice R. Dr, and Munir Ahmad. "Imam Bukhari (رحمۃ اللہ علیہ) Was a Mujtahid Mutlaq." Available at SSRN 2049357 (2012). Bukhari has however been claimed as a follower of the Hanbali Madhhab, school, although members of the Shafi'i and Ẓāhirī schools levy this claim as well. JRD Mughal and Munir Ahmad assert that historically most jurists considered him to be a muhaddith and not a jurist, and that as a muhaddith they thought that he followed the Shafi'i school. However, both go on to evidence the opinion that he was an Ijtihad#Classical era, absolute scholar of independent reasoning (Mujatahid Mutlaq). Scott Lucas argues that Bukhari's legal positions were similar to those of the Ẓāhirīs and Hanbalis of his time, suggesting Bukhari rejected qiyas and other forms of ra'y completely. He makes comparisons between Bukhari's positions and those of Ibn Hazm.
Early Islamic scholars
Sources* Bukhari, Imam (194-256H) اللإمام البُخاري; An educational Encyclopedia of Islam; Syed Iqbal Zaheer * Abdul Qadir Muhammad Jalal et al., "Elevating Imam Al Bukhari: Affirming the Status of Imam Al Bukhari and His Sahih by Dispelling the Misconceptions Surrounding them", Lagos 2021
Studies* Ghassan Abdul-Jabbar, ''Bukhari'', London, 2007 * Muḥammad ʿIṣām ʿArār al-Ḥasanī, ''Itḥāf al-qāriʾ bi-maʿrifat juhūd wa-aʿmāl al-ʿulamā''ʾ ʿalā Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, Damascus 1407/1987 * Jonathan Brown, ''The canonization of al-Bukhārī and Muslim'', Leiden 2007 * Eerik Dickinson, ''The development of early Sunnite ḥadīth criticism'', Leiden 2001 * Mohammad Fadel, "Ibn Ḥajar’s Hady al-sārī," ''JNES'' 54 (1995), 161–97 * Johann W. Fück, "Beiträge zur Überlieferungsgeschichte von Bukhārī’s Traditionssammlung," ''ZDMG'' 92 (n.s. 17, 1938), 60–87 * Ignaz Goldziher, ''Muslim studies'', ed. S. M. Stern, trans. C. R. Barber and S. M. Stern (Chicago 1968–71), 2:216–29 * Nizār b. ʿAbd al-Karīm b. Sulṭān al-Ḥamadānī, ''al-Imām al-Bukhārī'', Mecca 1412/1992 * al-Ḥusaynī ʿAbd al-Majīd Hāshim, ''al-Imām al-Bukhārī'', Cairo n.d. * Abū Bakr al-Kāfī, ''Manhaj al-Imām al-Bukhārī'', Beirut 1421/2000 * Najm ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Khalaf, ''Istidrākāt ʿalā Taʾrīkh al-turāth al-ʿArabī li-Fuʾād Sizkīn fī ʿilm al-ḥadīth'' (Beirut 1421/2000), 135–264 * Scott C. Lucas, "The legal principles of Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī and their relationship to classical Salafi Islam," ''ILS'' 13 (2006), 289–324 * Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and early hadith criticism," ''JAOS'' 121 (2001), 7–19 * Christopher Melchert, "Bukhārī and his Ṣaḥīḥ," ''Le Muséon'' 123 (2010), 425–54 * Alphonse Mingana, ''An important manuscript of the traditions of Bukhārī'', Cambridge 1936 * Rosemarie Quiring-Zoche, "How al-Bukhārī’s Ṣaḥīḥ was edited in the Middle Ages. ʿAlī al-Yūnīnī and his rumūz," ''BEO'' 50 (1998), 191–222 * Fuat Sezgin, ''Buhârî’nin kaynakları'', Istanbul 1956 * Umm ʿAbdallāh bt. Maḥrūs al-ʿAsalī et al., ''Fihris Muṣannafāt al-Imām Abī ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī…fīmā ʿadā al-Ṣaḥīḥ'', Riyadh 1408/1987–8