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Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering , making it the world's second-largest country by total ...

Canada
and most populous city in the
Canadian province The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution. In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Br ...
of
Quebec ) , image_map = Quebec in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = French , capital = Quebec City , CapCoord = , largest_city ...
. Founded in 1642 as '' Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after
Mount Royal Mount Royal (french: link=no, Mont Royal, ) is a large intrusive rock hill or small mountain in the city of Montreal, immediately west of Downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The City of Montreal takes its name from Mount Royal. The hill is part o ...
, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the
Island of Montreal upright=1.15, Ireland (left) and Great Britain (right), are large islands of north-west Europe image:Small Island in Lower Saranac Lake.jpg, A small island in Lower Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks, New York state, U.S. Bangchuidao Isla ...
, which got its name from the same origin as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is
Île Bizard Île Bizard is an island near the Island of Montreal in the Hochelaga Archipelago region. History Historically named Île Bonaventure, by 1723 it had come to be named Île Bizard, after Jacques Bizard, to whom it was conceded as a fief in 1678, ...
. The city is situated east of the national capital
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian ) is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan a ...

Ottawa
, and south-west of the provincial capital,
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,247 in the
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or ...
, including all of the other
municipalities A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. The term ''municipality'' may also mean the ...
on the Island of Montreal. The broader
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area usually comp ...
had a population of 4,098,247.
French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France ** French language, a French language which originated in France, and its various dialects ** French people, a nation and ethnic group identified with Fr ...
is the city's official language and in 2016 was the main home language of 49.8% of the population, while
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national identity, an identity and ...
was spoken by 22.8% at home, and 18.3% spoke other languages (multi-language responses were excluded from these figures). In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population spoke French at home, compared to 15.3% who spoke English. Montreal is one of the most
bilingual in Seattle labeled in four languages: English, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Spanish (Tagalog also uses the Spanish word). Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is belie ...
cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest primarily French-speaking city in the developed world, after
Paris Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, co ...
. Historically the commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by
Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor of the Golden ...
in the 1970s. It remains an important centre of commerce, aerospace, transport, finance, pharmaceuticals, technology, design, education, art, culture, tourism, food, fashion, video game development, film, and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the
International Civil Aviation Organization The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations. It changes the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport ...
, and was named a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace an ...

UNESCO
City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th-most liveable city in the world by the
Economist Intelligence Unit The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is the research and analysis division of Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, count ...
in its annual
Global Liveability Ranking The Global Liveability Ranking is an annual assessment published by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), ranking 140 global cities for their urban quality of life based on assessments of stability, healthcare, culture and environment, education ...
, and the best city in the world to be a university student in the
QS World University Rankings ''QS World University Rankings'' is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS). Previously known as ''Times Higher Education–QS World University Rankings'', the publisher had collaborated with ''Times Higher Educat ...
. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the
1967 International and Universal Exposition The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was commonly known, was a general exhibition, Category One World's Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from April 27 to October 29, 1967. It is considered to be the most success ...

1967 International and Universal Exposition
and the
1976 Summer Olympics The 1976 Summer Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques d'été de 1976), officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad (French: ''Jeux de la XXIe Olympiade'') and commonly known as Montréal 1976, were an international multi-sport event held from ...
. It is the only Canadian city to have held the quadrennial Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city. the city hosts the
Canadian Grand Prix The Canadian Grand Prix (french: Grand Prix du Canada) is an annual auto race held in Canada since 1961. It has been part of the Formula One World Championship since 1967. It was first staged at Mosport Park in Bowmanville, Ontario, as a sports ...
of
Formula One Formula One (also known as Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of international auto racing for single-seater formula racing cars sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The World Drivers' Championship, which be ...

Formula One
, the
Montreal International Jazz Festival The Festival International de Jazz de Montréal ( en, Montreal International Jazz Festival) is an annual jazz festival held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The Montreal Jazz Fest holds the 2004 Guinness World Record as the world's largest jazz festiv ...
and the
Just for Laughs Just for Laughs (french: Juste pour rire, and stylized as ''J''ust for laughs) is a comedy festival held each July in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1983, it is the largest international comedy festival in the world. History Place des ...
festival. It is also home to
ice hockey#REDIRECT Ice hockey#REDIRECT Ice hockey {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
team
Montreal Canadiens The Montreal CanadiensEven in English, the French spelling is always used instead of ''Canadians''. The French spelling of ''Montréal'' is also sometimes used in the English media. (french: link=no, Les Canadiens de Montréal) (officially ' an ...

Montreal Canadiens
, the franchise with the most
Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (french: La Coupe Stanley) is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL) playoff winner. It is the oldest existing trophy to be awarded to a professional sports franchise in North America, and ...
wins.


Etymology

In the
Mohawk language Mohawk (; ''Kanienʼkéha'', "anguageof the Flint Place") is an Iroquoian language currently spoken by around 3,500 people of the Mohawk nation, located primarily in Canada (southern Ontario and Quebec), the Haudenosaunee Confederacy and to a le ...
, the island is called . This name refers to the
Lachine Rapids The Lachine Rapids are a series of rapids on the Saint Lawrence River, between the Island of Montreal and the south shore. They are located near the former city of Lachine. The Lachine Rapids contain large standing waves because the water volume an ...
to the island's southwest or . It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the
Ojibwe language Ojibwe , also known as Ojibwa , Ojibway or Otchipwe,R. R. Bishop Baraga, 1878''A Theoretical and Practical Grammar of the Otchipwe Language''/ref> is an indigenous language of North America of the Algonquian language family.Goddard, Ives, 1979.Bl ...
, the land is called which served as "the first stopping place" in Ojibwe migration story as related in the
seven fires prophecySeven fires prophecy is an Anishinaabe prophecy that marks phases, or epochs, in the life of the people on Turtle Island, a Native American name for the North American continent. The seven fires of the prophecy represent key spiritual teachings for N ...
. European settlers from
La Flèche La Flèche () is a town and commune in the French department of Sarthe, in the Pays de la Loire region in the Loire Valley. It is the sub-prefecture of the South-Sarthe, the chief district and the chief city of a canton, and the second most populo ...
in the Loire valley first named their new town, founded in 1642, ("City of Mary"), named for the
Virgin Mary Mary; arc, ܡܪܝܡ, translit=Mariam; la, Maria; he, מִרְיָם, translit=Miriam; cop, Ⲙⲁⲣⲓⲁ, translit=Maria; ar, مريم, translit=Maryam; also known by various titles, styles and honorifics was a 1st century Galilean Jewish wom ...
. Its current name comes from Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from , ( in modern French, although in 16th-century French the forms and were used interchangeably); Cartier's 1535 diary entry, naming the mountain, refers to . One of Cartier's officers was Claude de Pontbriand, lord of the
Château de Montréal The Château de Montréal is a château in the Dordogne department located near the commune of Issac, in southwestern France. It overlooks the valley of the Crempse River. It was built as a castle in the 12th century and rebuilt in the 16th centur ...
, in the
Occitan Occitan (; oc, occitan, link=no , ), also known as ''lenga d'òc'' (; french: langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language (or branch of numerous of these) spoken in Southern France, Monaco, Italy's Occitan Valleys, as well as Spai ...
-speaking part of France. The toponym ''
Montréal Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
'' and its reversed form '' Réalmont'', the direct Occitan translation of French (or ), are common in southern France. One possibility, noted by the
government of Canada The Government of Canada (french: gouvernement du Canada) is the body responsible for the federal administration of Canada. A constitutional monarchy, the Crown is the corporation sole, assuming distinct roles: the executive, as the ''Crown-in-Co ...
on its website concerning Canadian place names, speculates that the name as it is currently written originated when an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, ; the
Commission de toponymie du QuébecThe Commission de toponymie du Québec (English: ''Toponymy Commission of Québec'') is the Government of Québec's public body responsible for cataloging, preserving, making official and publicize Québec's place names and their origins according to ...
has dismissed this idea as a misconception.


History


Pre-European contact

Archaeological Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...

Archaeological
evidence in the region indicate that
First Nations The First Nations (french: Premières Nations ) are the largest group of Canadian indigenous peoples, distinct from the Inuit and Métis. Traditionally the First Nations lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There ...
native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate
maize Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leaf ...
. Within a few hundred years, they had built
fortified A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and is also used to establish rule in a region during peacetime. The term is derived from Latin ''fortis'' ("strong") and ''facere'' ( ...
villages. The Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the
Iroquois The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous confederacy in northeast North America. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, later as the Iroquois Confederacy and t ...
nations of the ''
Haudenosaunee The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an indigenous confederacy in northeast North America. They were known during the colonial years to the French as the Iroquois League, later as the Iroquois Confederacy and t ...
'' (then based in present-day New York), established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century. The French explorer Jacques Cartier visited ''Hochelaga'' on October 2, 1535, and estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have effectively been removed.


Early European settlement (1600–1760)

In 1603, French explorer
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain () (c. 13 August 1567Fichier OrigineFor a detailed analysis of his baptismal record, see RitchThe baptism act does not contain information about the age of Samuel, neither his birth date or his place of birth. – 25 December 1 ...
reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley. This is believed to be due to outmigration, epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611, Champlain established a
fur Fur is a thick growth of hair that covers the skin of many different animals. It is a defining characteristic of mammals. It consists of a combination of oily guard hair on top and thick underfur beneath. The guard hair keeps moisture from reach ...
trading post A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically the location of the trading post would allow people from one geographic area to tra ...
on the Island of Montreal on a site initially named ''La Place Royale''. At the confluence of ''Petite Riviere'' and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary who was seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639, Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to
evangelize The Four Evangelists In Christianity, evangelism (or witnessing) is the act of preaching the gospel with the intention of sharing the message and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christians who specialize in evangelism are often known as evangelists, w ...
natives. Dauversiere hired
Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve Place_d'Armes.html"_style="text-decoration:_none;"class="mw-redirect"_title="Maisonneuve_Monument_at_Place_d'Armes">Maisonneuve_Monument_at_Place_d'Armes_ Paul_de_Chomedey,_sieur_de_Maisonneuve_(15_February_1612_9_September_1676)_was_a_King ...
, then age 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury. The colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec and arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal island, with Maisonneuve as its first governor. The settlement included a chapel and a hospital, under the command of
Jeanne Mance Jeanne Mance (November 12, 1606 – June 18, 1673) was a French nurse and settler of New France. She arrived in New France two years after the Ursuline nuns came to Quebec. Among the founders of Montreal in 1642, she established its first hospital, ...

Jeanne Mance
. By 1643, Ville-Marie had already been attacked by Iroquois raids. In the spring of 1651, the Iroquois attacks became so frequent and so violent that Ville-Marie thought its end had come. Maisonneuve made all the settlers take refuge in the fort. By 1652, the colony at Montreal had been so reduced that he was forced to return to France to raise 100 volunteers to go with him to the colony the following year. If the effort had failed, Montreal was to be abandoned and the survivors re-located downriver to
Quebec City Quebec City ( or ; french: Ville de Québec, officially Québec ()) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. As of July 2016 the city had a population of 531,902, and the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296. It is the e ...
. Before these 100 arrived in the fall of 1653, the population of Montreal was barely 50 people. By 1685, Ville-Marie was home to some 600 colonists, most of them living in modest wooden houses. Ville-Marie became a centre for the
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most val ...
and a base for further
exploration Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources. Exploration occurs in all non-sessile animal species, including humans. In human history, its most dramatic rise was during the Age of Discovery when ...
. In 1689, the English-allied Iroquois attacked Lachine on the Island of Montreal, committing the worst massacre in the history of New France. By the early 18th century, the
Sulpician Order The Society of Priests of Saint-Sulpice ("Society of Saint-Sulpice"; french: Compagnie des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice; la, Societas Presbyterorum a Santo Sulpitio) is a society of apostolic life of Pontifical Right (for Men) named after the Church ...
was established there. To encourage French settlement, it wanted the Mohawk to move away from the fur trading post at Ville-Marie. It had a mission village, known as Kahnewake, south of the St Lawrence River. The fathers persuaded some Mohawk to make a new settlement at their former hunting grounds north of the Ottawa River. This became
Kanesatake Kanehsatà:ke is a Mohawk (or Kanien'kéha:ka) settlement on the shore of the Lake of Two Mountains in southwestern Quebec, Canada, at the confluence of the Ottawa and Saint Lawrence rivers and about west of Montreal. People who reside in Kanehsa ...
. In 1745, several Mohawk families moved upriver to create another settlement, known as
Akwesasne The Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne ( ; french: Nation Mohawk à Akwesasne) (alternate spelling Ahkwesáhsne) is a Mohawk Nation (''Kanienʼkehá꞉ka'') territory that straddles the intersection of international (United States and Canada) borders and ...
. All three are now Mohawk reserves in Canada. The Canadian territory was ruled as a French colony until 1760, when Montreal fell to a British offensive during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major impact on the Spanish Empire. In Europe, the conflict arose from issues left unresolved by the War of ...
. The colony then surrendered to Great Britain. Ville-Marie was the name for the settlement that appeared in all official documents until 1705, when Montreal appeared for the first time, although people referred to the "Island of Montreal" long before then.


American occupation (1775–1776)

As part of the
American Revolution The American Revolution was an ideological and political revolution which occurred in colonial North America between 1765 and 1783. The Americans in the Thirteen Colonies defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), ...
, the invasion of Quebec resulted after
Benedict Arnold Benedict Arnold (Brandt (1994), p. 414 June 1801) was an American military officer who served during the Revolutionary War. He fought with distinction for the American Continental Army, rising to the rank of major general, before defecting to t ...
captured
Fort Ticonderoga Fort Ticonderoga (), formerly Fort Carillon, is a large 18th-century star fort built by the French at a narrows near the south end of Lake Champlain, in northern New York, in the United States. It was constructed by Canadian-born French military ...
in present-day upstate New York in May 1775 as a launching point to Arnold's invasion of Quebec in September. While Arnold approached the
Plains of Abraham The Plains of Abraham (french: Plaines d'Abraham) is a historic area within The Battlefields Park in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. The land is the site of the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, which took place on 13 September 1759, but hundreds of acr ...
, Montreal fell to American forces led by
Richard Montgomery Richard Montgomery (December 2, 1738 – December 31, 1775) was an Irish soldier who first served in the British Army. He later became a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and he is most famous for l ...
on November 13, 1775, after it was abandoned by Guy Carleton. After Arnold withdrew from Quebec City to
Pointe-aux-Trembles Pointe-aux-Trembles was a municipality, founded in 1674, that was annexed by Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1982. This was the last city to be merged into Montreal until the 2002 municipal reorganization. On January 1, 2002 this neighbourhood at th ...
on November 19, Montgomery's forces left Montreal on December 1 and arrived there on December 3 to plot to attack Quebec City, with Montgomery leaving
David Wooster David Wooster ( – May 2, 1777) was an American general who served in the French and Indian War and in the American Revolutionary War. He died of wounds sustained during the Battle of Ridgefield, Connecticut. Cities, schools, and public places we ...
in charge of the city. Montgomery was killed in the failed attack and Arnold, who had taken command, sent Brigadier General
Moses Hazen Moses Hazen (June 1, 1733 – February 5, 1803) was a brigadier general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. Born in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, he saw action in the French and Indian War with Rogers' Ranger ...
to inform Wooster of the defeat. Wooster left Hazen in command on March 20, 1776, as he left to replace Arnold in leading further attacks on Quebec City. On April 19, Arnold arrived in Montreal to take over command from Hazen, who remained as his second-in-command. Hazen sent Colonel Timothy Bedel to form a garrison of 390 men 40 miles upriver in a garrison at
Les Cèdres, Quebec Les Cèdres is a municipality located north of the Saint Lawrence River in the Montérégie of Quebec, Canada, near Vaudreuil-Dorion. The population as of the Canada 2011 Census was 6,079. The name means "The Cedars" in French. There is an exten ...
, to defend Montreal against the British army. In the
Battle of the Cedars The Battle of the Cedars (french: Bataille des Cèdres) was a series of military confrontations early in the American Revolutionary War during the Continental Army's invasion of Canada that had begun in September 1775. The skirmishes, which invol ...
, Bedel's lieutenant Isaac Butterfield surrendered to George Forster. Forster advanced to
Fort Senneville Fort Senneville is one of the outlying forts of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, built by the Canadiens of New France near the Sainte-Anne rapids in 1671. The property was part of a fief ceded to Dugué de Boisbriant in 1672 by the Sulpicians. A large ston ...
on May 23. By May 24, Arnold was entrenched in Montreal's borough of Lachine. Forster initially approached Lachine, then withdrew to Quinze-Chênes. Arnold's forces then abandoned Lachine to chase Forster. The Americans burned Senneville on May 26. After Arnold crossed the
Ottawa River Ottawa River (view from the Peace Tower of Parliament Centre Block) The Ottawa River (french: Rivière des Outaouais, Algonquin: ''Kitchissippi'') is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. It is named in honour of the Algonqu ...
in pursuit of Forster, Forster's cannons repelled Arnold's forces. Forster negotiated a prisoner exchange with
Henry Sherburne Henry Sherburne (March 28, 1611 – 1680) of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, landed there June 12, 1632 from London, a pioneer who rose to considerable wealth in pre-independence colonial New Hampshire. His descendant Samuel Sherburne built the 1766 (an ...
and Isaac Butterfield, resulting in a May 27 boating of their deputy Lieutenant Park being returned to the Americans. Arnold and Forster negotiated further and more American prisoners were returned to Arnold at
Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue () is an on-island suburb located at the western tip of the Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It is the second oldest community in Montreal's West Island, having been founded as a parish in 1703. The oldest ...
, ("Fort Anne") on May 30 (delayed two days by wind). Arnold eventually withdrew his forces back to the New York fort of Ticonderoga by the summer. On June 15, Arnold's messenger approaching Sorel spotted Carleton returning with a fleet of ships and notified him. Arnold's forces abandoned Montreal (attempting to burn it down in the process) prior to the June 17 arrival of Carleton's fleet. The Americans did not return British prisoners in exchange, as previously agreed, due to accusations of abuse, with Congress repudiating the agreement at the protest of George Washington. Arnold blamed Colonel Timothy Bedel for the defeat, removing him and Lieutenant Butterfield from command and sending them to Sorel for court-martial. The retreat of the American army delayed their court martial until August 1, 1776, when they were convicted and
cashiered On January 5, 1895 Captain Alfred Dreyfus was cashiered Cashiering (or degradation ceremony), generally within military forces, is a ritual dismissal of an individual from some position of responsibility for a breach of discipline. Etymology Fro ...
at Ticonderoga. Bedel was given a new commission by Congress in October 1777 after Arnold was assigned to defend Rhode Island in July 1777.


Modern history as city (1832–present)

Montreal was incorporated as a city in 1832. The opening of the Lachine Canal permitted ships to bypass the unnavigable Lachine Rapids, while the construction of the Victoria Bridge established Montreal as a major railway hub. The leaders of Montreal's business community had started to build their homes in the
Golden Square Mile or ''Mille carré doré'' , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Neighbourhood , image_skyline = Ravenscrag.jpg , image_alt = , image_caption = ''Ravenscrag'', built for Sir Hugh Allan in 1863 , i ...
(~) from about 1850. By 1860, it was the largest municipality in
British North America British North America comprised the British Empire's colonial territories in North America from 1783 to 1907, not including the Caribbean. The Atlantic island of Bermuda (originally part of Virginia and, with the Bahamas, grouped with North Ame ...
and the undisputed economic and cultural centre of Canada. In the 19th century, maintaining Montreal's drinking water became increasingly difficult with the rapid increase in population. A majority of the drinking water was still coming from the city's harbour, which was busy and heavily trafficked, leading to the deterioration of the water within. In the mid 1840s, the City of Montreal installed a water system that would pump water from the St. Lawrence and into
cistern A cistern (Middle English ', from Latin ', from ', "box", from Greek ', "basket") is a waterproof receptacle for holding liquids, usually water. Cisterns are often built to catch and store rainwater. Cisterns are distinguished from wells by the ...

cistern
s. The cisterns would then be transported to the desired location. This was not the first water system of its type in Montreal, as there had been one in private ownership since 1801. In the middle of the 19th century, water distribution was carried out by "fontainiers". The fountainiers would open and close water valves outside of buildings, as directed, all over the city. As they lacked modern plumbing systems it was impossible to connect all buildings at once and it also acted as a conservation method. However, the population was not finished rising — it rose from 58,000 in 1852 to 267,000 by 1901. Montreal was the capital of the
Province of Canada The Province of Canada (or the United Province of Canada or the United Canadas) was a British colony in North America from 1841 to 1867. Its formation reflected recommendations made by John Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, in the Report on the Af ...
from 1844 to 1849, but lost its status when a
Tory A Tory () is a person who holds a political philosophy known as Toryism, based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved in the English culture throughout history. The To ...

Tory
mob burnt down the Parliament building to protest the passage of the
Rebellion Losses Bill The Rebellion Losses Bill (full name: ''An Act to provide for the Indemnification of Parties in Lower Canada whose Property was destroyed during the Rebellion in the years 1837 and 1838'') was a controversial law enacted by the legislature of the Pr ...
. Thereafter, the capital rotated between Quebec City and
Toronto Toronto is the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,731,571 in 2016, it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor of the Golden ...
until in 1857,
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was lo ...

Queen Victoria
herself established
Ottawa Ottawa (, ; Canadian ) is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec, and forms the core of the Ottawa–Gatineau census metropolitan a ...

Ottawa
as the capital due to strategic reasons. The reasons were twofold. First, because it was located more in the interior of the Province of Canada, it was less susceptible to attack from the United States. Second, and perhaps more importantly, because it lay on the border between French and English Canada, Ottawa was seen as a compromise between Montreal, Toronto,
Kingston Kingston may refer to: Places * List of places called Kingston, including the four most populated: ** Kingston, Jamaica ** City of Kingston, Victoria, Australia ** Kingston, Ontario, Canada ** Kingston upon Thames, England Animals * Kingston (ho ...
and Quebec City, which were all vying to become the young nation's official capital. Ottawa retained the status as capital of Canada when the Province of Canada joined with
Nova Scotia ) , image_map = Nova Scotia in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , official_lang = English (''de facto'') , RegionalLang = French , capital = Halifax , l ...
and
New Brunswick ("Hope restored") , image_map = New Brunswick in Canada 2.svg , Label_map = yes , coordinates = , capital = Fredericton , largest_city = Moncton , largest_metro = Great ...
to form the Dominion of Canada in 1867. An
internment camp Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in wartime or of terrorism suspects". Thus, while it can simply me ...
was set up at Immigration Hall in Montreal from August 1914 to November 1918. After
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War, the World War, and "the war t ...
, the
prohibition Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law; more particularly the term refers to the banning of the manufacture, storage (whether in barrels or in bottles), transportation, sale, possession, and consumption of alcoholic bev ...

prohibition
movement in the United States led to Montreal becoming a destination for Americans looking for
alcohol upright=0.8, The bond angle between a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a chain of carbon atoms (R) In chemistry, alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a saturated carbon atom. The term alcoh ...
. Unemployment remained high in the city and was exacerbated by the
Stock Market Crash of 1929 The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as the Great Crash, was a major American stock market crash that occurred in the autumn of 1929. It started in September and ended late in October, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange colla ...
and the
Great Depression The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and las ...
. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing mi ...
, Mayor
Camillien Houde Camillien Houde (13 August 1889 – 11 September 1958) was a Quebec politician, a Member of Parliament, and a four-time mayor of Montreal – one of the few Canadian politicians to have served at all three levels of government. Political caree ...
protested against conscription and urged Montrealers to disobey the federal government's registry of all men and women. The federal government, part of the
Allied forces An alliance is a relationship among people, groups, or states that have joined together for mutual benefit or to achieve some common purpose, whether or not explicit agreement has been worked out among them. Members of an alliance are called a ...
, was furious over Houde's stand and held him in a prison camp until 1944. That year, the government decided to institute conscription to expand the armed forces and fight the
Axis powers#REDIRECT Axis powers#REDIRECT Axis powers {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. (See
Conscription Crisis of 1944The Conscription Crisis of 1944 was a political and military crisis following the introduction of forced military service for men in Canada during World War II. It was similar to the Conscription Crisis of 1917, but was not as politically damaging. ...
.) Montreal was the official residence of the
Luxembourg Luxembourg ( ; lb, Lëtzebuerg ; french: link=no, Luxembourg; german: link=no, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, ; french: link=no, Grand-Duché de Luxembourg ; german: link=no, Großherzogtum Luxemburg is a landlocked count ...
royal family in exile during World War II. By 1951, Montreal's population had surpassed one million. However, Toronto's growth had begun challenging Montreal's status as the economic capital of Canada. Indeed, the volume of stocks traded at the
Toronto Stock Exchange The Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX; french: Bourse de Toronto) is a stock exchange in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. It is the 8th largest exchange in the world by market capitalization. Based in the EY Tower in Toronto's Financial District, the TSX is a ...

Toronto Stock Exchange
had already surpassed that traded at the
Montreal Stock Exchange The Montreal Exchange (MX; french: Bourse de Montréal), formerly the Montreal Stock Exchange (MSE), is a derivatives exchange, located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada that trades futures contracts and options on equities, indices, currencies, ETFs, ene ...
in the 1940s. The
Saint Lawrence Seaway The Saint Lawrence Seaway (french: la Voie Maritime du Saint-Laurent) is a system of locks, canals, and channels in Canada and the United States that permits oceangoing vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes of North Ameri ...

Saint Lawrence Seaway
opened in 1959, allowing vessels to bypass Montreal. In time, this development led to the end of the city's economic dominance as businesses moved to other areas. During the 1960s, there was continued growth as Canada's tallest skyscrapers, new expressways and the subway system known as the
Montreal Metro The Montreal Metro (french: Métro de Montréal) is a rubber-tired underground rapid transit system serving Greater Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The metro, operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM), was inaugurated on October 14, 1 ...

Montreal Metro
were finished during this time. Montreal also held the World's Fair of 1967, better known as Expo67. The 1970s ushered in a period of wide-ranging social and political changes, stemming largely from the concerns of the
French-speaking French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in No ...
majority about the conservation of their culture and language, given the traditional predominance of the
English Canadian English Canadians (french: Canadiens anglais or ), or Anglo-Canadians (french: Anglo-Canadiens), refers to either Canadians of English ethnic origin and heritage or to English-speaking or Anglophone Canadians of any ethnic origin; it is used p ...
minority in the business arena. The
October Crisis The October Crisis (French: ''Crise d'Octobre'') refers to a chain of events that started in October 1970 when members of the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) kidnapped the provincial Deputy Premier Pierre Laporte and British diplomat James ...
and the 1976 election of the
Parti Québécois The Parti Québécois (; ; PQ) is a sovereignist and social democratic provincial political party in Quebec, Canada. The PQ advocates national sovereignty for Quebec involving independence of the province of Quebec from Canada and establishing a ...
, which supported sovereign status for Quebec, resulted in the departure of many businesses and people from the city. In 1976, Montreal hosted the
Summer Olympics The Summer Olympic Games (french: Jeux olympiques d'été) also known as the Games of the Olympiad, are a major international multi-sport event normally held once every four years. The Games were first held in 1896 in Athens, Greece, and were m ...
. While the event brought the city international prestige and attention, the
Olympic Stadium ''Olympic Stadium'' is the name usually given to the main stadium of an Olympic Games. An Olympic stadium is the site of the opening and closing ceremonies. Many, though not all, of these venues actually contain the words ''Olympic Stadium'' as pa ...
built for the event resulted in massive debt for the city. During the 1980s and early 1990s, Montreal experienced a slower rate of economic growth than many other major Canadian cities. Montreal was the site of the 1989
École Polytechnique massacre The École Polytechnique massacre (french: tuerie de l'École polytechnique), also known as the Montreal massacre, was a mass shooting in Montreal at an engineering school affiliated with the Université de Montréal. Fourteen women were murde ...
, one of Canada's worst
mass shooting A mass shooting is an incident involving multiple victims of gun violence. There is no widely accepted definition of the term ''mass shooting''. The United States' FBI follows the Investigative Assistance for Violent Crimes Act of 2012 definition ...
, where 25-year-old
Marc Lépine Marc Lépine (; born Gamil Rodrigue Liass Gharbi; October 26, 1964 – December 6, 1989) was a Canadian mass murderer from Montreal, Quebec who, in 1989, murdered fourteen women, and wounded ten women and four menNote: Many sources state thirteen ...
shot and killed 14 people, all of them women, and wounding 14 other people before shooting himself at
École Polytechnique upA statue in the courtyard of the school commemorates the cadets of ''Polytechnique'' rushing to the defence of Paris in 1814. A copy was installed in West Point. École Polytechnique (; also known as the "X") is one of the most prestigious a ...
. Montreal was
merged In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities. As an aspect of strategic mana ...
with the 27 surrounding municipalities on the Island of Montreal on January 1, 2002, creating a unified city encompassing the entire island. There was substantial resistance from the suburbs to the merger, with the perception being that it was forced on the mostly English suburbs by the Parti Québécois. As expected, this move proved unpopular and several mergers were later rescinded. Several former municipalities, totalling 13% of the population of the island, voted to leave the unified city in separate
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct and universal vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal and can have nationwide or local forms. This may result in the adoption of a new ...

referendum
s in June 2004. The demerger took place on January 1, 2006, leaving 15 municipalities on the island, including Montreal. Demerged municipalities remain affiliated with the city through an agglomeration council that collects taxes from them to pay for numerous shared services. The 2002 mergers were not the first in the city's history. Montreal annexed 27 other cities, towns and villages beginning with in 1883, with the last prior to 2002 being
Pointe-aux-Trembles Pointe-aux-Trembles was a municipality, founded in 1674, that was annexed by Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1982. This was the last city to be merged into Montreal until the 2002 municipal reorganization. On January 1, 2002 this neighbourhood at th ...
in 1982. The 21st century has brought with it a revival of the city's economic and cultural landscape. The construction of new residential skyscrapers, two super-hospitals (the
Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal The Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CHUM, translated as University of Montreal Health Centre) is one of two major healthcare networks in the city of Montreal, Quebec. It is a teaching institution affiliated with the French-langua ...
and
McGill University Health Centre The McGill University Health Centre (MUHC; french: Centre universitaire de santé McGill) is one of two major healthcare networks in the city of Montreal, Quebec. It is affiliated with McGill University and is one of the largest medical institution ...
), the creation of the
Quartier des Spectacles Quartier des Spectacles is an arts and entertainment district located in the eastern section of Downtown Montreal, designed as a centre for Montreal's cultural events and festivals. The Quartier des spectacles is a member of the Global Cultural ...
, reconstruction of the
Turcot Interchange The Turcot Interchange is a three-level stack freeway interchange within the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Located southwest of downtown, the interchange links Autoroutes 15 (Décarie and Décarie South Expressways), 20 (Remembrance Highway), a ...
, reconfiguration of the Decarie and Dorval interchanges, construction of the new
Réseau électrique métropolitainThe term réseau derives from a French word meaning "network". It may mean: *a network of fine lines on a glass plate, used in photographic telescopes to make a corresponding network on photographs of the stars: see Réseau plate *a system of weathe ...
, gentrification of
Griffintown Griffintown is a historic neighbourhood of Montreal, Quebec, southwest of downtown. The area existed as a functional neighbourhood from the 1820s until the 1960s, and was mainly populated by Irish immigrants and their descendants. Mostly depopulated ...
, subway line extensions and the purchase of new subway cars, the complete revitalization and expansion of
Trudeau International Airport Trudeau is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: *Trudeau family, a notable Canadian family known in politics, business and film, including: **Charles-Émile Trudeau (1887–1935), Canadian businessman and father of Pierre Trudeau ** ...
, the completion of
Quebec Autoroute 30 Autoroute 30 (A-30), or the Autoroute de l'Acier (In English, ''Steel Freeway'') is an Autoroute in Quebec, Canada. Construction of the A-30 dates back to the early days of autoroute construction in the 1960s. Originally called Highway 3, the A-30 ...

Quebec Autoroute 30
, the reconstruction of the Champlain Bridge and the construction of a new toll bridge to Laval are helping Montreal continue to grow.


Geography

Montreal is in the southwest of the province of Quebec. The city covers most of the Island of Montreal at the confluence of the Saint Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers. The port of Montreal lies at one end of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the river gateway that stretches from the
Great Lakes upright=1.3, Location in North America The Great Lakes, also called the Great Lakes of North America or the Laurentian Great Lakes, are a series of large interconnected freshwater lakes in the upper mid-east region of North America that connec ...

Great Lakes
to the Atlantic. Montreal is defined by its location between the Saint Lawrence river to its south and the
Rivière des Prairies The Rivière des Prairies (; literally ''River of the Prairies'', sometimes called the Back River in English) is a delta channel of the Ottawa River in southwestern Quebec, Canada. The indigenous inhabitants of what's now known as the Island of Mo ...
to its north. The city is named after the most prominent geographical feature on the island, a three-head hill called Mount Royal, topped at
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist), Tavar Zawacki (born 1981), contemporary urban artist *''Above'' (magazine), an American environmental magazine 2009–2010 *''Above'' (Mad Season album), 1995 *''Above'' (Pillar album), 2000 *''Above'' (Samael a ...
. Montreal is at the centre of the
Montreal Metropolitan Community Greater Montreal is the most populous metropolitan area in Quebec and the second most populous in Canada after Greater Toronto. In 2015, Statistics Canada identified Montreal's Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) as with a population of 4,027,100. ...
, and is bordered by the city of Laval to the north;
Longueuil Longueuil () is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada. It is the seat of the Montérégie administrative region and the central city of the urban agglomeration of Longueuil. It sits on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River directly across ...
, Saint-Lambert,
Brossard Brossard (, , ) is a municipality in the Montérégie region of Quebec, Canada and is part of the Greater Montreal area. According to the 2016 census, Brossard's population was 85,721. It shares powers with the urban agglomeration of Longueuil and ...
, and other municipalities to the south; Repentigny to the east and the
West Island The West Island () is the unofficial name given to the cities, towns and boroughs at the western end of the Island of Montreal, in Quebec, Canada. It is generally considered to consist of the municipalities of Dorval, Pointe-Claire, Kirkland, ...
municipalities to the west. The
anglophone#REDIRECT English-speaking world ...

anglophone
enclaves of
Westmount Westmount is an affluent suburb on the Island of Montreal, in southwestern Quebec, Canada. It is an enclave of the city of Montreal, with a population of 20,312 as of the Canada 2016 Census. Westmount is home to schools, an arena, a pool, a publi ...
,
Montreal West Montreal West (French: Montréal-Ouest) is an affluent on-island suburb in southwestern Quebec, Canada on the Island of Montreal. Montreal West is a small, close-knit community made up primarily of single-family dwellings. The town is largely com ...
,
Hampstead Hampstead () is an area in North West London, England. Lying northwest of Charing Cross, it extends from the A5 road (Roman Watling Street) to Hampstead Heath, a large, hilly expanse of parkland. The area forms the northwest part of the London ...
,
Côte Saint-Luc Côte Saint-Luc (), also spelled Côte-Saint-Luc, is a city located on the island of Montreal in Quebec, Canada. History Incorporated in 1903, Côte Saint-Luc grew from a town to a city, in 1958. Throughout the 1920s, the town grew quickly and ...
, the Town of Mount Royal and the
francophone This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language, regardless of the legislative status within the countries where it is spoken. French-based creoles are considered separate languages for the purpose of this art ...
enclave
Montreal East Montreal ( ; officially Montréal, , Tio'tia:ke in Mohawk) is the second-most populous city in Canada and most populous city in the Canadian province of Quebec. Founded in 1642 as ''Ville-Marie'', or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal ...
are all surrounded by Montreal.


Climate

Montreal is classified as a
warm-summer humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (som ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably i ...
: Dfb) in the Montréal-Trudeau airport and a
hot-summer humid continental climate A humid continental climate is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by four distinct seasons and large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (som ...
(Köppen climate classification: Dfa) at McGill University. Summers are warm to hot and humid with a daily maximum average of in July; temperatures in excess of are common. Conversely, cold fronts can bring crisp, drier and windy weather in the early and later parts of summer. Winter brings cold, snowy, windy, and, at times, icy weather, with a daily average ranging from in January. However, some winter days rise above freezing, allowing for rain on an average of 4 days in January and February each. Usually, snow covering some or all bare ground lasts on average from the first or second week of December until the last week of March. While the air temperature does not fall below every year, the
wind chill A chart of wind chill values for given air temperatures and wind speeds Wind-chill or windchill (popularly wind chill factor) is the lowering of body temperature due to the passing-flow of lower-temperature air. Wind chill numbers are always lower ...
often makes the temperature feel this low to exposed skin. Spring and fall are pleasantly mild but prone to drastic temperature changes; spring even more so than fall. Late season heat waves as well as "
Indian summer An Indian summer is a period of unseasonably warm, dry weather that sometimes occurs in autumn in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere during September to November. In an article on the US National Weather Service's website, weather hist ...
s" are possible. Early and late season snow storms can occur in November and March, and more rarely in April. Montreal is generally snow free from late April to late October. However, snow can fall in early to mid-October as well as early to mid-May on rare occasions. The lowest temperature in Environment Canada's books was on January 15, 1957, and the highest temperature was on August 1, 1975, both at
Dorval International Airport Dorval () is an on-island suburb on the island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec, Canada. In 2016, the Canadian Census indicated that the population increased by 4.2% to 18,980. Although the city has the largest surface area in the West Island, i ...
. Before modern weather record keeping (which dates back to 1871 for McGill), a minimum temperature almost 5 degrees lower was recorded at 7 a.m. on January 10, 1859, where it registered at . Annual precipitation is around , including an average of about of snowfall, which occurs from November through March. Thunderstorms are common in the period beginning in late spring through summer to early fall; additionally, tropical storms or their remnants can cause heavy rains and gales. Montreal averages 2,050 hours of sunshine annually, with summer being the sunniest season, though slightly wetter than the others in terms of total precipitation—mostly from thunderstorms..


Architecture

For over a century and a half, Montreal was the industrial and financial centre of Canada. This legacy has left a variety of buildings including factories,
elevators An elevator (North American English) or lift (Commonwealth English) is a type of cable-assisted, roller-track assisted, or hydraulic cylinder-assisted machine that vertically transports people or freight between floors, levels, or decks of a ...
,
warehouses A warehouse is a building for storing goods. Warehouses are used by manufacturers, importers, exporters, wholesalers, transport businesses, customs, etc. They are usually large plain buildings in industrial parks on the outskirts of cities, towns ...
, mills, and
refineries A refinery is a production facility composed of a group of chemical engineering unit processes and unit operations refining certain materials or converting raw material into products of value. Types of refineries Different types of refineries are ...
, that today provide an invaluable insight into the city's history, especially in the downtown area and the Old Port area. There are 50
National Historic Sites of Canada National Historic Sites of Canada (french: Lieux historiques nationaux du Canada) are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC), as being o ...
, more than any other city. Some of the city's earliest still-standing buildings date back to the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Although most are clustered around the Old Montreal area, such as the Sulpician Seminary adjacent to Notre Dame Basilica that dates back to 1687, and Château Ramezay, which was built in 1705, examples of early colonial architecture are dotted throughout the city. Situated in Lachine, the Le Ber-Le Moyne House is the oldest complete building in the city, built between 1669 and 1671. In Point St. Charles visitors can see the Maison Saint-Gabriel, which can trace its history back to 1698. There are many historic buildings in Old Montreal in their original form: Notre Dame of Montreal Basilica,
Bonsecours Market Bonsecours Market (french: Marché Bonsecours), at 350 rue Saint-Paul in Old Montreal, is a two-story domed public market. For more than 100 years, it was the main public market in the Montreal area. It also briefly accommodated the Parliament of Un ...
, and the 19th‑century headquarters of all major Canadian banks on St. James Street (French: Rue Saint Jacques). Montreal's earliest buildings are characterized by their uniquely French influence and grey stone construction.
Saint Joseph's Oratory Saint Joseph's Oratory of Mount Royal (french: Oratoire Saint-Joseph du Mont-Royal) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica and national shrine located at 3800 Queen Mary Road on Mount Royal's Westmount Summit in Montreal, Quebec. It is a National Histo ...
, completed in 1967, Ernest Cormier's
Art Deco Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, tra ...
Université de Montréal The Université de Montréal (UdeM; ; translates to University of Montreal) is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the neighb ...

Université de Montréal
main building, the landmark
Place Ville Marie Place Ville Marie (PVM for short) is a large office and shopping complex in downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada, comprising four office buildings and an underground shopping plaza. The main building, 1 Place Ville Marie (formerly Royal Bank Tower fr ...
office tower, the controversial Olympic Stadium and surrounding structures, are but a few notable examples of the city's 20th-century architecture. Pavilions designed for the 1967 International and Universal Exposition, popularly known as Expo 67, featured a wide range of architectural designs. Though most pavilions were temporary structures, several have become landmarks, including Buckminster Fuller's
geodesic dome A geodesic dome is a hemispherical thin-shell structure (lattice-shell) based on a geodesic polyhedron. The triangular elements of the dome are structurally rigid and distribute the structural stress throughout the structure, making geodesic domes ...
U.S. Pavilion, now the
Montreal Biosphere The Biosphere (french: La Biosphère), also known as the Montreal Biosphere (french: La Biosphère de Montréal), is a museum dedicated to the environment in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is housed in the former United States pavilion constructed ...
, and
Moshe Safdie Moshe Safdie ( he, משה ספדיה; born July 14, 1938) is an architect, urban planner, educator, theorist, and author. Over a 50-year career, Safdie has explored the essential principles of socially responsible design through a comprehensive ...

Moshe Safdie
's striking Habitat 67 apartment complex. The Montreal Metro has public artwork by some of the biggest names in Quebec culture. In 2006 Montreal was named a UNESCO City of Design, only one of three design capitals of the world (the others being
Berlin Berlin (; ) is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inhabitants, as of 31 December 2019 makes it the most-populous city of the European Union, according to population within city limits. One of Ger ...
and
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires ( or ; ), officially Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata, on South America's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be trans ...

Buenos Aires
). This distinguished title recognizes Montreal's design community. Since 2005 the city has been home for the International Council of Graphic Design Associations (Icograda); the International Design Alliance (IDA). The
Underground City An underground city is a series of linked subterranean spaces that may provide a defensive refuge; a place for living, working or shopping; a transit system; mausolea; wine or storage cellars; cisterns or drainage channels; or several of these. T ...
(officially RESO) is an important tourist attraction. It is the set of interconnected shopping complexes (both above and below ground). This impressive network connects pedestrian thoroughfares to universities, as well as hotels, restaurants, bistros, subway stations and more, in and around downtown with of tunnels over of the most densely populated part of Montreal.


Neighbourhoods

The city is composed of 19 large
boroughs A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History In the Middle Ages ...
, subdivided into neighbourhoods. The boroughs are: Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace, The Plateau Mount Royal, Outremont and Ville Marie in the centre;
Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve is a borough of Montreal, Quebec, Canada located in the southeastern end of the island. History ''See Mercier and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve articles for a more detailed histories of respective areas'' Hochelaga was fou ...
,
Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie is a borough (''arrondissement'') in the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is located in the centre-east of the city. Geography The borough is bordered to the northwest by Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension, ...
and
Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension is a borough (''arrondissement'') in the city of Montreal, Quebec. It had a population of 143,853 according to the 2016 Census and a land area of . The borough of Villeray–Saint-Michel–Parc-Extension wa ...
in the east;
Anjou Anjou (, ; ; la, Andegavia) was a French province straddling the lower Loire River. Its capital was Angers and it was roughly coextensive with the diocese of Angers. Anjou was bordered by Brittany to the west, Maine to the north, Touraine to the ...
,
Montréal-Nord Montreal North (french: Montréal-Nord) is a borough (''arrondissement'') of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It consists entirely of the former city of Montréal-Nord on Island of Montreal in southwestern Quebec. It was amalgamated into th ...
,
Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles Rivière-des-Prairies–Pointe-aux-Trembles is a suburban borough (''arrondissement'') on the eastern tip of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is located at the eastern end of the Island of Montreal. Geography The borough is located at t ...
and Saint-Leonard in the northeast;
Ahuntsic-Cartierville Ahuntsic-Cartierville ( (local accent)) is a borough (''arrondissement'') of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The borough was created following the 2002 municipal reorganization of Montreal. It comprises two main neighbourhoods, Ahuntsic, a f ...
,
L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève L'Île-Bizard–Sainte-Geneviève () is a borough (''arrondissement'') of the city of Montreal. History On 24 October 1678, the government of Louis de Buade de Frontenac granted Île Bizard, then named Île Bonaventure as a seigniory to Jacques Bi ...
,
Pierrefonds-Roxboro Pierrefonds-Roxboro is a borough of the city of Montreal. It was created January 1, 2006, following the demerger of parts of the city. Geography It is composed of the former municipalities of Pierrefonds and Roxboro, spanning the northern part of ...
and Saint-Laurent in the northwest; and Lachine, LaSalle, The South West and
Verdun Verdun (, ; ; official name before 1970 ''Verdun-sur-Meuse'') is a small city in the Meuse department in Grand Est in northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest city in Meuse, although the capital o ...
in the south. Many of these boroughs were independent cities that were forced to be merged with Montreal in January 2002 following the 2002 municipal reorganization of Montreal. The borough with the most neighbourhoods is Ville Marie, which includes downtown, the historical district of Old Montreal,
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...
, the
Gay Village , Paris File:Lesbisch-schwules Stadtfest Berlin 2013 Pic 01.JPG, Gay village in Schöneberg, Berlin 's Gayborhood, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Gayborhood A gay village (also known as a gay neighborhood, gay enclave, gayvenue, gay ghetto, g ...
, the
Latin Quarter The Latin Quarter of Paris (french: Quartier latin, ) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris. It is situated on the left bank of the Seine, around the Sorbonne. Known for its student life, lively atmosphere, and bistros, t ...
, the gentrified Quartier international and Cité Multimédia as well as the Quartier des Spectacles which is under development. Other neighbourhoods of interest in the borough include the affluent Golden Square Mile neighbourhood at the foot of Mount Royal and the
Shaughnessy Village Shaughnessy Village (sometimes referred to as the Concordia Ghetto) is a neighbourhood of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, located on the western side of the Ville-Marie borough. It is bounded by Guy Street to the east, Atwater Street to the west, Sherbro ...
/ Concordia U area home to thousands of students at
Concordia University Concordia University (french: link=no, Université Concordia), commonly referred to as Concordia, is a public comprehensive research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1974 following the merger of Loyola College and Sir Ge ...
. The borough also comprises most of
Mount Royal Park Mount Royal (french: link=no, Mont Royal, ) is a large intrusive rock hill or small mountain in the city of Montreal, immediately west of Downtown Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The City of Montreal takes its name from Mount Royal. The hill is part o ...
,
Saint Helen's Island Saint Helen's Island (french: Île Sainte-Hélène) is an island in the Saint Lawrence River, in the territory of the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is situated immediately southeast of the Island of Montreal, in the extreme southwest of Que ...
, and . The
Plateau In geology and physical geography, a plateau (, , or ; ; plural plateaus or plateaux), also called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, that is raised sharply above the surrounding area on at least on ...
Mount Royal borough was a working class francophone area. The largest neighbourhood is the Plateau (not to be confused with the whole borough), which is undergoing considerable gentrification, and a 2001 study deemed it as Canada's most creative neighbourhood because artists comprise 8% of its labour force. The neighbourhood of
Mile End Mile End is a district in the East End of London, England, east-northeast of Charing Cross. Situated on the London-to-Colchester road, it was one of the earliest suburbs of the City of London. It became part of the metropolitan area in 1855, an ...
in the northwestern part of the borough has been a very multicultural area of the city, and features two of Montreal's well-known bagel establishments,
St-Viateur Bagel St-Viateur Bagel is a famous Montreal-style bagel bakery located in the neighbourhood of Mile End in the borough of Le Plateau-Mont-Royal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. History St-Viateur Bagel was established on May 21, 1957 by Myer Lewkowicz, a Hol ...

St-Viateur Bagel
and
Fairmount Bagel Fairmount Bagel is a Montreal-style bagel bakery in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in the Mile End neighbourhood of the Plateau-Mont-Royal borough. The first location opened on September 7, 1919 on Saint-Laurent Boulevard by Isadore Shlafman. The current ...
. The McGill Ghetto is in the extreme southwestern portion of the borough, its name being derived from the fact that it is home to thousands of McGill University students and faculty members. The South West borough was home to much of the city's industry during the late 19th and early-to-mid 20th century. The borough included Goose Village, Montreal, Goose Village and is home to the traditionally working-class Irish Quebecer, Irish neighbourhoods of Griffintown and Pointe-Saint-Charles, Point Saint Charles as well as the low-income neighbourhoods of Saint-Henri, Saint Henri and Little Burgundy. Other notable neighbourhoods include the multicultural areas of Notre-Dame-de-Grâce and Côte-des-Neiges in the Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grace borough, and Little Italy, Montreal, Little Italy in the borough of Rosemont–La Petite-Patrie and Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, home of the Olympic Stadium, Montreal, Olympic Stadium in the borough of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve.


Old Montreal

Old Montreal is a historic area southeast of downtown containing many attractions such as the Old Port of Montreal, Place Jacques-Cartier, Montreal City Hall, the
Bonsecours Market Bonsecours Market (french: Marché Bonsecours), at 350 rue Saint-Paul in Old Montreal, is a two-story domed public market. For more than 100 years, it was the main public market in the Montreal area. It also briefly accommodated the Parliament of Un ...
, Place d'Armes, Pointe-à-Callière Museum, the Notre-Dame de Montréal Basilica, and the Montreal Science Centre. Architecture and cobbled streets in Old Montreal have been maintained or restored. Old Montreal is accessible from the downtown core via the underground city, Montreal, underground city and is served by several Société de transport de Montréal, STM bus routes and Metro stations, ferries to the South Shore and a network of bicycle paths. The riverside area adjacent to Old Montreal is known as the Old Port. The Old Port was the site of the Port of Montreal, but its shipping operations have been moved to a larger site downstream, leaving the former location as a recreational and historical area maintained by Parks Canada. The new Port of Montreal is Canada's largest container port and the largest inland port on Earth.


Mount Royal

The mountain is the site of Mount Royal Park, one of Montreal's largest Open space reserve, greenspaces. The park, most of which is wooded, was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, who also designed New York's Central Park, and was inaugurated in 1876. The park contains two belvedere (structure), belvederes, the more prominent of which is the Kondiaronk Belvedere, a semicircular plaza with a chalet overlooking Downtown Montreal. Other features of the park are Beaver Lake, a small man-made lake, a short skiing, ski Ski slope, slope, a sculpture garden, Smith House, an interpretive centre, and a well-known monument to Sir George-Étienne Cartier. The park hosts athletic, tourist and cultural activities. The mountain is home to two major cemeteries, Notre-Dame-des-Neiges (founded in 1854) and Mount Royal (1852). Mount Royal Cemetery is a terraced cemetery on the north slope of Mount Royal in the borough of Outremont. Notre Dame des Neiges Cemetery is much larger, predominantly French-Canadian and officially Catholic. More than 900,000 people are buried there. Mount Royal Cemetery contains more than 162,000 graves and is the final resting place for a number of notable Canadians. It includes a veterans section with several soldiers who were awarded the British Empire's highest military honour, the Victoria Cross. In 1901 the Mount Royal Cemetery Company established the first crematorium in Canada. The first Mount Royal Cross, cross on the mountain was placed there in 1643 by Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve, the founder of the city, in fulfilment of a vow he made to the Mary, mother of Jesus, Virgin Mary when prayer, praying to her to stop a disastrous flood. Today, the mountain is crowned by a 31.4 m-high (103 ft) illuminated cross, installed in 1924 by the Société Saint-Jean-Baptiste, John the Baptist Society and now owned by the city. It was converted to optical fibre, fibre optic light in 1992. The new system can turn the lights red, blue, or purple, the last of which is used as a sign of mourning between the death of the Pope and the election of the next.


Demographics

According to Statistics Canada, at the 2016 Canadian census the city had 1,704,694 inhabitants. A total of 4,098,927 lived in the Montreal Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) at the same 2016 census, up from 3,934,078 at the 2011 census (within 2011 CMA boundaries), which is a population growth of 4.19% from 2011 to 2016. In 2015, the Greater Montreal population was estimated at 4,060,700. According to StatsCan, by 2030, the Greater Montreal Area is expected to number 5,275,000 with 1,722,000 being visible minorities. In the 2016 census, children under 14 years of age (691,345) constituted 16.9%, while inhabitants over 65 years of age (671,690) numbered 16.4% of the total population of the CMA. People of European ethnic groups, European ethnicities formed the largest cluster of ethnic groups. The largest reported European ethnicities in the 2006 census were French people, French 23%, Italian people, Italians 10%, Irish people, Irish 5%, English people, English 4%, Scottish people, Scottish 3%, and Spanish people, Spanish 2%. Some 26% of the population of Montreal and 16.5% that of Greater Montreal, are members of a visible minority (non-white) group, up from 5.2% in 1981. Visible minorities comprised 34.2% of the population in the Canada 2016 Census, 2016 census. The five most numerous visible minorities are Black Canadians (10.3%), Arab Canadians, mainly Lebanese Canadians (7.3%), Latin American Canadians, Latin Americans (4.1%), South Asian Canadian (3.3%), and Chinese Canadians (3.3%). Visible minorities are defined by the Canadian Employment Equity Act as "persons, other than Aboriginal peoples of Canada, Aboriginals, who are non-white in colour". In terms of mother language (first language learned), the 2006 census reported that in the Greater Montreal Area, 66.5% spoke French as a first language, followed by English at 13.2%, while 0.8% spoke both as a first language. The remaining 22.5% of Montreal-area residents are Allophone (Quebec), allophones, speaking languages including Italian language, Italian (3.5%), Arabic language, Arabic (3.1%), Spanish language, Spanish (2.6%), Creole language, Creole (1.3%), Chinese language, Chinese (1.2%), Greek language, Greek (1.2%), Portuguese language, Portuguese (0.8%), Berber language (0.8%), Romanian language, Romanian (0.7%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (0.7%), and Russian language, Russian (0.7%). In terms of additional languages spoken, a unique feature of Montreal among Canadian cities, noted by Statistics Canada, is the working knowledge of both French and English possessed by most of its residents. The Greater Montreal Area is predominantly Roman Catholic; however, weekly attendance in Quebec is among the lowest in Canada. Historically Montreal has been a centre of Catholicism in North America with its numerous seminaries and churches, including the Notre-Dame Basilica (Montreal), Notre-Dame Basilica, the Cathédrale Marie-Reine-du-Monde, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. Some 65.8% of the total population is Christian, largely Roman Catholic (52.8%), primarily because of descendants of original French settlers, and others of Italian and Irish origins. Protestants which include Anglican Church in Canada, United Church of Canada, Lutheran, owing to British and German immigration, and other denominations number 5.90%, with a further 3.7% consisting mostly of Eastern Orthodox, Orthodox Christians, fuelled by a large Greek population. There is also a number of Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox parishes. Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with 154,540 members, the second-largest concentration of Muslims in Canada at 9.6%. The Jewish community in Montreal has a population of 90,780. In cities such as Côte Saint-Luc and Hampstead, Jewish people constitute the majority, or a substantial part of the population. As recently as 1971 the Jewish community in Greater Montreal was as high as 109,480. Political and economic uncertainties led many to leave Montreal and the province of Quebec.


Economy

Montreal has the second-largest economy of Canadian cities based on GDP Toronto was 1st in Canada with GDP. and the largest in Quebec. In 2014, Metropolitan Montreal was responsible for of Quebec's GDP. The city is today an important centre of commerce, finance, industry, technology, culture, world affairs and is the headquarters of the Montreal Exchange. In recent decades, the city was widely seen as weaker than that of Toronto and other major Canadian cities, but it has recently experienced a revival. Industries include aerospace, electronics, electronic goods, pharmaceuticals, printed goods, software engineering, telecommunications, textile and apparel manufacturing, tobacco, petrochemicals, and transportation. The service sector is also strong and includes civil engineering, civil, mechanical engineering, mechanical and process engineering, finance, higher education, and research and development. In 2002, Montreal was the fourth-largest centre in North America in terms of aerospace jobs. The Port of Montreal is one of the largest inland ports in the world handling 26 million tonnes of cargo annually. As one of the most important ports in Canada, it remains a transshipment point for cereal, grain, sugar, petroleum products, machinery, and consumer goods. For this reason, Montreal is the railway hub of Canada and has always been an extremely important rail city; it is home to the headquarters of the Canadian National Railway, and was home to the headquarters of the Canadian Pacific Railway until 1995. The headquarters of the Canadian Space Agency is in Longueuil, southeast of Montreal. Montreal also hosts the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO, a United Nations body); the World Anti-Doping Agency (an International Olympic Committee, Olympic body); the Airports Council International (the association of the world's airports – ACI World); the International Air Transport Association (IATA), IATA Operational Safety Audit and the International Gay and Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (IGLCC), as well as some other international organizations in various fields. Montreal is a centre of film and television production. The headquarters of Alliance Films and five studios of the Academy Awards, Academy Award-winning documentary producer National Film Board of Canada are in the city, as well as the head offices of Telefilm Canada, the national feature-length film and television funding agency and Télévision de Radio-Canada. Given its eclectic architecture and broad availability of film services and crew members, Montreal is a popular filming location for feature-length films, and sometimes stands in for European locations. The city is also home to many recognized cultural, film and music festivals (Just For Laughs, Just For Laughs Gags,
Montreal International Jazz Festival The Festival International de Jazz de Montréal ( en, Montreal International Jazz Festival) is an annual jazz festival held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The Montreal Jazz Fest holds the 2004 Guinness World Record as the world's largest jazz festiv ...
, and others), which contribute significantly to its economy. It is also home to one of the world's largest cultural enterprises, the Cirque du Soleil. Montreal is also a global hub for artificial intelligence research with many companies involved in this sector, such as Facebook AI Research (FAIR), Microsoft Research, Google Brain, DeepMind, Samsung Research and Thales Group (cortAIx). The city is also home to Mila (research institute), an artificial intelligence research institute with over 500 researchers specializing in the field of deep learning, the largest of its kind in the world. The video game industry has been booming in Montreal since 1997, coinciding with the opening of Ubisoft Montreal. Recently, the city has attracted world leading game developers and publishers studios such as EA Montreal, EA, Eidos Interactive, BioWare, Artificial Mind and Movement, Strategy First, THQ, Gameloft mainly because of the quality of local specialized labor, and tax credits offered to the corporations. Recently, Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, a division of Warner Bros., announced that it would open a video game studio. Relatively new to the video game industry, it will be Warner Bros. first studio opened, not purchased, and will develop games for such Warner Bros. franchises as Batman and other games from their DC Comics portfolio. The studio will create 300 jobs. Montreal plays an important role in the finance industry. The sector employs approximately 100,000 people in the Greater Montreal Area. As of March 2018, Montreal is ranked in the 12th position in the Global Financial Centres Index, a ranking of the Competition (companies), competitiveness of financial centres around the world. The city is home to the Montreal Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in Canada and the only financial derivatives exchange in the country. The corporate headquarters of the Bank of Montreal and Royal Bank of Canada, two of the biggest banks in Canada, were in Montreal. While both banks moved their headquarters to Toronto, Ontario, their legal corporate offices remain in Montreal. The city is home to head offices of two smaller banks, National Bank of Canada and Laurentian Bank of Canada. The Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, an institutional investor managing assets totalling $248 billion CAD, has its main business office in Montreal. Many foreign subsidiaries operating in the financial sector also have offices in Montreal, including HSBC, Aon (company), Aon, Société Générale, BNP Paribas and AXA. Several companies are headquartered in Greater Montreal Area including Rio Tinto Alcan, Bombardier Inc., Canadian National Railway, CGI Group, Air Canada, Air Transat, CAE (company), CAE, Saputo Incorporated, Saputo, Cirque du Soleil, Stingray Group, Quebecor, Ultramar, Kruger Inc., Jean Coutu Group, Uniprix, Proxim (pharmacy), Proxim, Domtar, Le Château, Power Corporation, Cellcom Communications, Bell Canada. Standard Life (Canada), Standard Life, Hydro-Québec, AbitibiBowater, Pratt and Whitney Canada, Molson, Tembec, Canada Steamship Lines, Fednav, Alimentation Couche-Tard, SNC-Lavalin, MEGA Brands, Aeroplan, Agropur, Metro Inc., Laurentian Bank of Canada, National Bank of Canada, Transat A.T., Via Rail, GardaWorld, Novacam Technologies, SOLABS, Dollarama, Rona (company), Rona and the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec. The Montreal Oil Refining Centre is the largest refining centre in Canada, with companies like Petro-Canada, Ultramar, Gulf Oil, Petromont, Ashland Canada, Parachem Petrochemical, Coastal Petrochemical, Interquisa (Cepsa) Petrochemical, Nova Chemicals, and more. Shell decided to close the refining centre in 2010, throwing hundreds out of work and causing an increased dependence on foreign refineries for eastern Canada.


Culture

Montreal was referred to as "Canada's Cultural Capital" by Monocle (2007 magazine), ''Monocle'' magazine. The city is Canada's centre for French-language television productions, radio, theatre, film, multimedia, and print publishing. Montreal's many cultural communities have given it a distinct local culture. Being at the confluence of the French and the English traditions, Montreal has developed a unique and distinguished cultural face. The city has produced much talent in the fields of visual arts, theatre, dance, and music, with a tradition of producing both jazz and rock music. Another distinctive characteristic of cultural life is the vibrancy of its downtown, particularly during summer, prompted by cultural and social events, including its more than 100 annual festivals, the largest being the Montreal International Jazz Festival which is the largest jazz festival in the world. Other popular events include the Just for Laughs (largest comedy festival in the world), Montreal World Film Festival, Les FrancoFolies de Montréal, Nuits d'Afrique, Pop Montreal, Divers/Cité, Fierté Montréal and the Montreal Fireworks Festival, and many smaller festivals. A cultural heart of classical art and the venue for many summer festivals, the Place des Arts is a complex of different concert and theatre halls surrounding a large square in the eastern portion of downtown. Place des Arts has the headquarters of one of the world's foremost orchestras, the Montreal Symphony Orchestra. The Orchestre Métropolitain du Grand Montréal and the chamber orchestra I Musici de Montréal are two other well-regarded Montreal orchestras. Also performing at Place des Arts are the Opéra de Montréal and the city's chief ballet company Les Grands Ballets Canadiens. Internationally recognized avant-garde dance troupes such as Compagnie Marie Chouinard, La La La Human Steps, O Vertigo, and the Jean-Pierre Perreault, Fondation Jean-Pierre Perreault have toured the world and worked with international popular artists on videos and concerts. The unique choreography of these troupes has paved the way for the success of the world-renowned Cirque du Soleil. Nicknamed ' (the city of a hundred steeples), Montreal is renowned for its churches. There are an estimated 600 churches on the island, with 450 of them dating back to the 1800s or earlier. Mark Twain noted, "This is the first time I was ever in a city where you couldn't throw a brick without breaking a church window." The city has four Roman Catholic basilicas: Mary, Queen of the World Cathedral, the aforementioned Notre-Dame Basilica, St. Patrick's Basilica, Montreal, St Patrick's Basilica, and Saint Joseph's Oratory. The Oratory is the largest church in Canada, with the second largest copper dome in the world, after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome.


Sports

The most popular sport is
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. The professional hockey team, the
Montreal Canadiens The Montreal CanadiensEven in English, the French spelling is always used instead of ''Canadians''. The French spelling of ''Montréal'' is also sometimes used in the English media. (french: link=no, Les Canadiens de Montréal) (officially ' an ...

Montreal Canadiens
, is one of the Original Six teams of the National Hockey League (NHL), and has won an NHL-record 24
Stanley Cup The Stanley Cup (french: La Coupe Stanley) is the championship trophy awarded annually to the National Hockey League (NHL) playoff winner. It is the oldest existing trophy to be awarded to a professional sports franchise in North America, and ...
championships. The Canadiens' most recent Stanley Cup victory came in 1993 Stanley Cup Finals, 1993. They have major rivalries with the Toronto Maple Leafs and Boston Bruins, both of which are also Original Six hockey teams, and with the Ottawa Senators, the closest team geographically. The Canadiens have played at the Bell Centre since 1996. Prior to that they played at the Montreal Forum. The Montreal Alouettes of the Canadian Football League (CFL) play at Molson Stadium on the campus of McGill University for their regular-season games. Late season and playoff games are played at the much larger, enclosed Olympic Stadium, which also played host to the 2008 Grey Cup. The Alouettes have won the Grey Cup seven times, most recently in 98th Grey Cup, 2010. The Alouettes has had two periods on hiatus. During the second one, the Montreal Machine played in the World League of American Football in 1991 and 1992. The McGill Redmen, Concordia Stingers, and Université de Montréal Montreal Carabins, Carabins play in the CIS football, CIS university football league. Montreal has a storied baseball history. The city was the home of the minor-league Montreal Royals of the International League until 1960. In 1946 Jackie Robinson broke the baseball Baseball color line, colour barrier with the Royals in an emotionally difficult year; Robinson was forever grateful for the local fans' fervent support. Major League Baseball came to town in the form of the Montreal Expos in 1969. They played their games at Jarry Park Stadium, Jarry Park until moving into Olympic Stadium in 1977. After 36 years in Montreal, the team relocated to Washington, D.C. in 2005 and re-branded themselves as the Washington Nationals. Discussions about MLB returning to Montreal remain active. CF Montréal (formerly known as the Montreal Impact) are the city's professional soccer team. They play at a soccer-specific stadium called Saputo Stadium. They joined North America's biggest soccer league, Major League Soccer in 2012. The Montreal games of the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup and 2014 FIFA U-20 Women's World Cup were held at Olympic Stadium, and the venue hosted Montreal games in the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup. Montreal is the site of a high-profile auto racing event each year: the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One (F1) racing. This race takes place on the famous Circuit Gilles Villeneuve on Île Notre-Dame. In 2009, the race was dropped from the Formula One calendar, to the chagrin of some fans, but the Canadian Grand Prix returned to the Formula 1 calendar in 2010. The Circuit Gilles Villeneuve also hosted a round of the Champ Car World Series from 2002 to 2007, and was home to the NAPA Auto Parts 200, a Xfinity Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series race, and the Montréal 200, a Grand American Road Racing Association, Grand Am Rolex Sports Car Series race. Uniprix Stadium, built in 1993 on the site of Jarry Park, is used for the Canada Masters, Rogers Cup men's and women's tennis tournaments. The men's tournament is a ATP World Tour Masters 1000, Masters 1000 event on the Association of Tennis Professionals, ATP Tour, and the women's tournament is a WTA Premier tournaments, Premier tournament on the Women's Tennis Association, WTA Tour. The men's and women's tournaments alternate between Montreal and Toronto every year. Montreal was the host of the 1976 Summer Olympic Games. The stadium cost $1.5 billion; with interest that figure ballooned to nearly $3 billion, and was only paid off in December 2006. Montreal also hosted the first ever World Outgames in the summer of 2006, attracting over 16,000 participants engaged in 35 sporting activities. Montreal was the host city for the 17th unicycling world championship and convention (UNICON) in August 2014. Montreal and the National Basketball Association (NBA) have been in early discussions for an expansion franchise located in the city.


Media

Montreal is Canada's second-largest media market, and the centre of francophone Canada's media industry. There are four Terrestrial television, over-the-air English-language television stations: CBMT-DT (CBC Television), CFCF-DT (CTV Television Network, CTV), CKMI-DT (Global Television Network, Global) and CJNT-DT (Citytv). There are also five over-the-air French-language television stations: CBFT-DT (Ici Radio-Canada Télé, Ici Radio-Canada), CFTM-DT (TVA (Canadian TV network), TVA), CFJP-DT (V (TV network), V), CIVM-DT (Télé-Québec), and CFTU-DT (Canal Savoir). Montreal has three daily newspapers, the English-language ''Montreal Gazette'' and the French-language ''Le Journal de Montréal'', and ''Le Devoir''; another French-language daily, ''La Presse (Canadian newspaper), La Presse'', became an online daily in 2018. There are two free French dailies, ''Metro International, Métro'' and ''24 Hours (newspaper), 24 Heures''. Montreal has numerous weekly tabloids and community newspapers serving various neighbourhoods, ethnic groups and schools.


Government

The head of the city government in Montreal is the mayor, who is first among equals in the city council. The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city, although much power is centralized in the executive committee. The council consists of 65 members from all boroughs. The council has jurisdiction over many matters, including public security, agreements with other governments, subsidy programs, the natural environment, environment, urban planning, and a three-year capital expenditure program. The council is required to supervise, standardize or approve certain decisions made by the borough councils. Reporting directly to the council, the executive committee exercises decision-making powers similar to those of the cabinet in a parliamentary system and is responsible for preparing various documents including budgets and by-laws, submitted to the council for approval. The decision-making powers of the executive committee cover, in particular, the awarding of contracts or grants, the management of human and financial resources, supplies and buildings. It may also be assigned further powers by the city council. Standing committees are the prime instruments for public consultation. They are responsible for the public study of pending matters and for making the appropriate recommendations to the council. They also review the annual budget forecasts for departments under their jurisdiction. A public notice of meeting is published in both French and English daily newspapers at least seven days before each meeting. All meetings include a public question period. The standing committees, of which there are seven, have terms lasting two years. In addition, the City Council may decide to create special committees at any time. Each standing committee is made up of seven to nine members, including a chairman and a vice-chairman. The members are all elected municipal officers, with the exception of a representative of the government of Quebec on the public security committee. The city is only one component of the larger Montreal Metropolitan Community (Communauté Métropolitaine de Montréal, CMM), which is in charge of planning, coordinating, and financing economic development, public transportation, garbage collection and waste management, etc., across the metropolitan area. The president of the CMM is the mayor of Montreal. The CMM covers , with 3.6 million inhabitants in 2006. Montreal is the seat of the Judicial districts of Quebec, judicial district of Montreal, which includes the city and the other communities on the island.


Crime

The overall crime rate in Montreal has declined, with a few notable exceptions, with murders at the lowest rate since 1972 (23 murders in 2016). Sex crimes have increased 14.5 percent between 2015 and 2016 and fraud cases have increased by 13 percent over the same period. The major criminal organizations active in Montreal are the Rizzuto crime family, Hells Angels and West End Gang.


Education

The Education in Quebec, education system in Quebec is different from other systems in North America. Between high school (which ends at grade 11) and university students must go through an additional school called CEGEP. CEGEPs offer pre-university (2-years) and technical (3-years) programs. In Montreal, List of CEGEPs, seventeen CEGEPs offer courses in French and five in English. French-language elementary and secondary public schools in Montreal are operated by the Centre de services scolaire de Montréal (CSDM), Centre de services scolaire Marguerite-Bourgeoys and the Centre de services scolaire de la Pointe-de-l'Île. English-language elementary and secondary public schools on Montreal Island are operated by the English Montreal School Board and the Lester B. Pearson School Board. With four universities, seven other degree-awarding institutions, and 12 CEGEPs in an radius, Montreal has the highest concentration of post-secondary students of all major cities in North America (4.38 students per 100 residents, followed by Boston at 4.37 students per 100 residents).


Higher education (English)

* McGill University is one of Canada's leading post-secondary institutions, and widely regarded as a world-class institution. In 2015, McGill was ranked as the top University in Canada for the eleventh consecutive year by Macleans, and as the best University in Canada; 24th best University in the world, by the QS World University Rankings. *
Concordia University Concordia University (french: link=no, Université Concordia), commonly referred to as Concordia, is a public comprehensive research university located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Founded in 1974 following the merger of Loyola College and Sir Ge ...
was created from the merger of Concordia University (Montreal)#Sir George Williams University, Sir George Williams University and Concordia University (Montreal)#Loyola College, Loyola College in 1974. The university has been ranked as one of the most comprehensive universities in Canada by Macleans.


Higher education (French)

* ''
Université de Montréal The Université de Montréal (UdeM; ; translates to University of Montreal) is a French-language public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The university's main campus is located on the northern slope of Mount Royal in the neighb ...

Université de Montréal
'' (UdeM) is the second largest research university in Canada and ranked as one of the top universities in Canada. Two separate institutions are affiliated to the university: the ''École Polytechnique de Montréal'' (School of Engineering) and ''HEC Montréal'' (School of Business). HEC Montreal was founded in 1907 and is considered as one of the best business schools in Canada. * ''Université du Québec à Montréal'' (''UQAM'') is the Montreal campus of ''Université du Québec''. ''UQAM'' generally specializes in liberal-arts, although many programs related to the sciences are available. ** The ''Université du Québec'' network also has three separately run schools in Montréal, notably the ''École de technologie supérieure (ETS)'', the ''École nationale d'administration publique (ÉNAP)'' and the ''Institut national de la recherche scientifique (INRS)''. * ''L'Institut de formation théologique de Montréal des Prêtres de Saint-Sulpice'' (''IFTM'') specializes in theology and philosophy. * ''Conservatoire de musique du Québec à Montréal'' offers both a Bachelor's degree, Bachelor and a Master's degree, Master program in classical music. Additionally, two French-language universities, Université de Sherbrooke and Université Laval have campuses in the nearby suburb of Longueuil on Montreal's South Shore (Montreal), south shore. Also, lInstitut de pastorale des Dominicains'' is Montreal's university centre of Ottawa's Collège Universitaire Dominicain/Dominican University College. The ''Faculté de théologie évangélique'' is
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's Acadia University Montreal based serving French Protestant community in Canada by offering both a Bachelor and a Master program in theology


Transportation

Like many major cities, Montreal has a problem with vehicular traffic congestion. Commuting traffic from the cities and towns in the West Island (such as Dollard-des-Ormeaux and Pointe-Claire) is compounded by commuters entering the city that use twenty-four road crossings from numerous off-island suburbs on the North Shore (Laval), North and South Shores. The width of the Saint Lawrence River has made the construction of fixed links to the south shore expensive and difficult. There are presently four road bridges (including two of the country's busiest) along with one bridge-tunnel, two railway bridges, and a Metro line. The far narrower Rivière des Prairies to the city's north, separating Montreal from Laval, is spanned by nine road bridges (seven to the city of Laval and two that span directly to the north shore) and a Metro line. The island of Montreal is a hub for the Quebec Autoroute (Quebec), Autoroute system, and is served by Quebec Autoroutes Quebec Autoroute 10, A-10 (known as the Bonaventure Expressway on the island of Montreal), Quebec Autoroute 15, A-15 (aka the Decarie Expressway south of the A-40 and the Laurentian Autoroute to the north of it), Quebec Autoroute 13, A-13 (aka Chomedey Autoroute), Quebec Autoroute 20, A-20, Quebec Autoroute 25, A-25, Quebec Autoroute 40, A-40 (part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, and known as "The Metropolitan" or simply "The Met" in its elevated mid-town section), Quebec Autoroute 520, A-520 and Quebec Autoroute 720, A-720 (aka the Ville-Marie Autoroute). Many of these Autoroutes are frequently congested at rush hour. However, in recent years, the government has acknowledged this problem and is working on long-term solutions to alleviate the congestion. One such example is the extension of
Quebec Autoroute 30 Autoroute 30 (A-30), or the Autoroute de l'Acier (In English, ''Steel Freeway'') is an Autoroute in Quebec, Canada. Construction of the A-30 dates back to the early days of autoroute construction in the 1960s. Originally called Highway 3, the A-30 ...

Quebec Autoroute 30
on Montreal's south shore, which will serve as a bypass (road), bypass for trucks and intercity traffic.


Société de transport de Montréal

Public local transport is served by a network of buses, subways, and commuter trains that extend across and off the island. The subway and bus system are operated by the Société de transport de Montréal (STM, Montreal Transit Society). The List of Montreal bus routes, STM bus network consists of 203 daytime and 23 nighttime routes. STM bus routes serve 1,347,900 passengers on an average weekday in 2010. It also provides adapted transport and wheelchair-accessible buses. The STM won the award of Outstanding Public Transit System in North America by the APTA in 2010. It was the first time a Canadian company won this prize. The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and has 68 stations on four lines. It is Canada's busiest subway system in total daily passenger usage, serving 1,050,800 passengers on an average weekday (as of Q1 2010). Each station was designed by different architects with individual themes and features original artwork, and the trains run on rubber tires, making the system quieter than most. The project was initiated by Montreal Mayor Jean Drapeau, who later brought the Summer Olympic Games to Montreal in 1976. The Metro system has long had a station on the South Shore in Longueuil, Quebec, Longueuil, and in 2007 was extended to the city of Laval, north of Montreal, with three new stations. The metro has recently been modernizing its trains, purchasing new ''Azur'' models with inter-connected wagons.


Air

Montreal has two international airports, one for passengers only, the other for cargo. Montréal-Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport (also known as ''Dorval Airport'') in the City of Dorval serves all commercial passenger traffic and is the headquarters of Air Canada and Air Transat. To the north of the city is Montréal-Mirabel International Airport, Montreal Mirabel International Airport in Mirabel, Quebec, Mirabel, which was envisioned as Montreal's primary airport but which now serves cargo flights along with MEDEVACs and general aviation and some passenger services. In 2018, Trudeau was the List of the busiest airports in Canada, third busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic and aircraft movements, handling 19.42 million passengers, and 240,159 aircraft movements. With 63% of its passengers being on non-domestic flights it has the largest percentage of international flights of any Canadian airport. It is one of Air Canada's major airline hub, hubs and operates on average approximately 2,400 flights per week between Montreal and 155 destinations, spread on five continents. Airlines servicing Trudeau offer year-round non-stop flights to five continents, namely Africa, Asia, Europe, North America and South America. It is one of only two airports in Canada with direct flights to five continents or more.


Rail

Montreal-based Via Rail provides rail service to other cities in Canada, particularly to Quebec City and Toronto along the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. Amtrak, the U.S. national passenger rail system, operates its ''Adirondack (Amtrak), Adirondack'' daily to New York. All intercity trains and most commuter rail, commuter trains operate out of Central Station (Montreal), Central Station. Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), headquartered in Calgary, Alberta, was founded here in 1881. Its corporate headquarters occupied Windsor Station (Montreal), Windsor Station at 910 Peel Street, Montreal, Peel Street until 1995. With the Port of Montreal kept open year-round by icebreakers, lines to Eastern Canada became surplus, and now Montreal is the railway's eastern and intermodal freight terminus. CPR connects at Montreal with the Port of Montreal, the Delaware and Hudson Railway to New York, the Quebec Gatineau Railway to Quebec City and Buckingham, Quebec, Buckingham, the Central Maine and Quebec Railway to Halifax, and Canadian National Railway, CN Rail. The CPR's flagship train, ''The Canadian'', ran daily from Windsor Station to Vancouver, but all passenger services have since been transferred to Via Rail Canada. Since 1990, ''The Canadian'' has terminated in Toronto. Montreal-based Canadian National Railways (CN) was formed in 1919 by the Canadian government following a series of country-wide rail bankruptcies. It was formed from the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, Grand Trunk, Midland and Canadian Northern Railways, and has risen to become CPR's chief rival in freight carriage in Canada. Like the CPR, CN has divested itself of passenger services in favour of Via Rail Canada. CN's flagship train, the ''Super Continental'', ran daily from Central Station to Vancouver and subsequently became a Via train in the late 1970s. It was eliminated in 1990 in favour of rerouting ''The Canadian''. The commuter rail system is managed and operated by Exo (public transit), Exo, and reaches the outlying areas of Greater Montreal with six lines. It carried an average of 79,000 daily passengers in 2014, making it the seventh busiest in North America following New York, Chicago, Toronto, Boston, Philadelphia, and Mexico City. On 22 April 2016 the forthcoming automated rapid transit system, the Réseau express métropolitain, was unveiled. Groundbreaking occurred 12 April 2018, and construction of the network – consisting of three branches, 26 stations, and the conversion of the region's busiest commuter railway – commenced the following month. To be opened in three phases as of 2021, the REM will be completed by mid-2023, becoming the fourth largest automated rapid transit network after the Dubai Metro, the Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore), Singapore Mass Rapid Transit, and the SkyTrain (Vancouver), Vancouver SkyTrain. Most of it will be financed by pension fund manager Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec.


Notable people


International relations


Sister cities

* Algiers, Algeria – 1999 * Brussels, Belgium * Bucharest, Romania * Busan, South Korea – 2000 * Dublin, Ireland – 2016 * Hanoi, Vietnam – 1997 * Hiroshima, Japan – 1998 * Lyon, France – 1979 * Manila, Philippines – 2005 * Port-au-Prince, Haiti – 1995 * San Salvador, El Salvador – 2001 * Shanghai, China – 1985 * Yerevan, Armenia – 1998


Friendship cities

*
Paris Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,175,601 residents as of 2018, in an area of more than . Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, co ...
, France – 2006


See also

* List of mayors of Montreal * List of Montreal music venues * List of shopping malls in Montreal * List of tallest buildings in Montreal


Notes


References


Further reading

* Collard, Edgar A. (1976). ''Montréal: the Days That Are No More'', in series, ''Totem Book[s].'' This ed. slightly edited [anew]. Toronto, Ont.: Doubleday Canada, [1978], cop. 1976. x, 140, [4] p., ill. in b&w with maps and numerous sketches. * Gagnon, Robert (1996). ''Anglophones at the C.E.C.M.: a Reflection of the Linguistic Duality of Montréal''. Trans. by Peter Keating. Montréal: Commission des écoles catholiques de Montréal. 124 p., ill. with b&w photos. * * Heritage Montréal (1992). ''Steps in Time = Patrimoine en marche''. Montréal: Québécor. 4 vol. of 20, 20 p. each. Text printed "tête-bêche" in English and in French. On title covers: "Montréal, fête, 350 ans". * * Tomàs, Mariona. "Exploring the metropolitan trap: the case of Montreal." ''International Journal of Urban and Regional Research'' (2012) 36#3 pp: 554–567. . * * * Natural Resources Canada (2005)
Canadian Geographical Names: Island of Montreal
Retrieved August 29, 2005. * Michael Sletcher, "Montréal", in James Ciment, ed., ''Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History'', (5 vols., N.Y., 2005).


External links

*
Official website

Official Tourism Montreal Website
{{good article Montreal, Cities and towns in Quebec 1832 establishments in Canada Administrative regions of Quebec Former colonial capitals in Canada French mission settlements in North America Hudson's Bay Company trading posts Populated places established in 1642 Quebec populated places on the Saint Lawrence River Port settlements in Quebec