AfghanistanIn , middle school consists of the primary school grades 5, 6, and 7 and the secondary school grade 9.
AlbaniaIn , middle school is included in primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory.
AlgeriaIn Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades: 6, 7, 8, and 9, consisting of students from ages 11–15.
ArgentinaThe of secondary education (ages 11–14) is roughly equivalent to middle school.
AustraliaNo regions of have middle schools, as students go directly from (for years K/preparatory–6) to secondary school (years 7–12, usually referred to as ). As an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" (years 7, 8, 9, and 10) and "senior high school" (years 11 and 12). Some have three levels, "junior" (years 7 and 8), "intermediate" (years 9 and 10), and "senior" (years 11 and 12). In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of * early adolescent needs * guiding principles for educators * appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning. The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale (approximately north of , SSW of and approximately due west of Coffs Harbour on the coast). Other schools have since followed this trend. The has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 (approximate age 13–15) and high school year 10–12 (approximate age 16–18). Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools. The middle schools cover years 5 to 8.
BangladeshIn , middle school is not separated as in other countries. Generally, schools are from class 1 to class 10. It means lower primary (1–5), upper primary (6–10). Class 6–8 is thought of as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 10 are considered high school (as middle school and high school are not considered separate) while 11–12 (inclusive) is called college. * 1-5 is known as primary (Part of Primary School) * 6-8 is known as lower secondary (Part of High School) * 9-10 is known as secondary (part of High School) * 11-12 is known as higher secondary also known as college.
BoliviaMiddle schools in have been abolished since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education.
Bosnia and HerzegovinaIn "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). " Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.
BrazilIn , middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School () called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14.
CanadaIn Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, and sometimes 9 (some older schools with the name 'carved in concrete' still use "Junior High" as part of their name, although grade nine is now missing), whereas middle schools are usually grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7 (i.e. around ages 11–14), varying from area to area and also according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Prince Edward Island junior high schools typically include grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" (sometimes just grades 7 and 8) are used, with the latter being used particularly in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga, Brampton, and Kitchener-Waterloo. In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities (such as Hamilton) specific schools do serve the intermediate grades (i.e. Grades 6–8 or Grades 7–8) but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system that is different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec, there is no Middle school section. The Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V.
ChileChile does not have middle schools, they instead have educacion basica that teaches basic education like elementary school, and educacion media, which is middle education like middle school or high school. Educacion basica is from 1st grade to 6th grade, and educacion media from 7th grade to 12th grade. Communities do not consider the 7th and 8th grades being part of educacion media despite the government rendering it, communities treat the grades as middle school.
ChinaIn the People's Republic of China, secondary school (, literally "middle school") has two stages, junior stage ( or ) (grades 7–9 (Primary school grades is 1-6), some places are grades 6–9 (Primary school grades is 1-5)) and senior stage ( or ) (grades 10–12). The junior stage education, equivalent to a U.S. middle school, is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens; while the senior stage education is optional but considered as critical preparation for college education. Some middle schools have both stages while some have either of them. The admissions for most students to enroll in upper secondary schools from the junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "zhongkao, Senior Middle School Entrance Exam",Commonly referred as "Zhong Kao" (Simplified Chinese: ). which are held by local governments. Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage.
ColombiaSecondary education is divided into basic secondary (grades 6 to 9) and mid-secondary (grades 10 and 11). The students in basic secondary, roughly equivalent to middle school, are 11 or 12 to 15 or 16 years old.
CroatiaIn Croatia "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–5 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 years). " Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.
Cuba(basic secondary, seventh through ninth grades) is the approximate equivalent of middle school in Cuba.
Czech RepublicIn the Czech Republic after completing the nine-year elementary school (compulsory school attendance) a student may apply for high school or grammar school.Czech Act No. 561/2004 Collection of Law, on Pre-school, Basic, Secondary, Tertiary Professional and Other Education
EcuadorThe 4th and last level of (ages 12–14) is roughly equivalent to middle school.
EgyptIn Egypt, middle school precedes high school. It is called the preparatory stage and consists of three phases: first preparatory in which students study more subjects than primary with different branches. For instance, algebra and geometry are taught instead of "mathematics." In the second preparatory phase, students study science, geography, the history of Egypt starting with History of ancient Egypt, pharaonic history, including Coptic history, Islamic history, and concluding with History of modern Egypt, modern history. The students are taught two languages, Arabic and English (language), English. Middle school (preparatory stage) lasts for three years.
FranceIn France, the equivalent period to middle school is Secondary education in France, collège, which lasts four years from the ("sixth," the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 6) to the ("third," the equivalent of the Canadian and American Grade 9), accommodating pupils aged between 11 and 14. Upon completion of the latter, students are awarded a if they obtain a certain number of points on a series of tests in various subjects (French, history/ geography, mathematics, science/physics/chemistry), but also on a series of skills completed during the last year and on oral examinations (e.g. about cross-subjects themes they work on the latest years, the fourth year of collège). They can then enter high school (called ), which lasts three years from the to the until the , and during which they can choose a general or a professional field of study.
GeorgiaIn Georgia (country), Georgia, the equivalent period to middle school covers ages 12 to 15, from the 7th grade to the 10th and guarantees basic educational degree certificate.
GibraltarThere are four middle schools in Gibraltar, following the English model of middle-deemed-primary schools accommodating pupils aged between 9 and 12 (National Curriculum Years 4 to 7). The schools were opened in 1972 when the government introduced comprehensive education in the territory.
GreeceIn Greece, the equivalent period to middle school is called (), which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th, and 9th grade.
IndiaIn India, Middle School is classified as Upper Primary (Class 6–9). Each state has its own State Board. Each has its own standards, which might be different from the Central Boards. In some institutions, providing education for 5th to 10th is known as a secondary school. The levels of education in India are: * Pre-Primary – Nursery to KG * Primary (Lower Primary) – Classes I to V * Middle School (Upper Primary) – Classes VI to IX * High school – Classes X to XII
IndonesiaIn Indonesia, middle school ( id, Sekolah Menengah Pertama, SMP) covers ages 12 to 14 or class 7 to class 9. Although compulsory education ends at junior high, most pursue higher education. There are around 22,000 middle schools in Indonesia with a balanced ownership between public and private sector.Middle school statistics between 2004–2005
IranIran calls Middle School Guidance School, which caters to children between the ages 12 and 15, i.e. 7th, 8th and 9th grade.
IsraelIn most of the cities in Israel, middle school (Hebrew: ) covers ages 12 to 15. From the 7th grade to the 9th.
ItalyIn Italy the equivalent is the formerly and commonly called lower middle school (), often shortened to middle school (). When the , the equivalent of high school, was formerly called higher middle school (), commonly called Superiori. The Middle School lasts three years from the student age of 11 to age 14. Since 2009, after Gelmini reform, the middle school was renamed (junior secondary school).
JamaicaMiddle school in Jamaica is called "Junior High School." It is from grade 7–9 but this idea is becoming rare now so these grades are considered lower secondary. (They also have a primary school (grades 1–6)
JapanJunior high schools () are for children aged twelve through fifteen years old.
KosovoIn Kosovo "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). " Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.
KuwaitIn Kuwait, middle school is from grade 6–9 and from age 11–14.
LebanonIn Lebanon, middle school or intermediate school consists of grades 7, 8, and 9. At the end of 9th grade, the student is given the National diploma (France), National diploma examination.
North MacedoniaIn North Macedonia middle school refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). " Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of middle school.
MalaysiaIn Malaysia, the middle school equivalent is called lower secondary school which consists of students from age 13 to 15 (Form 1-3).Pelajar Menengah Rendah Usually, these lower secondary schools are combined with upper secondary schools to form a single secondary school which is also known as high school. Students at the end of their lower secondary studies are required to sit for an examination called PT3 (Penilaian Menengah Rendah, Form 3. 7 subjects for non-Muslim students and 8 subjects for Muslim students) in order to determine their field of studies for upper secondary (Form 4-5).
MexicoIn Mexico, the middle school system is called and usually comprises three years, grades 7–9 (ages: 7 12–13, 8 13–14, 9: 14–15). It is completed after (Elementary School, up to grade 6: ages 6–12) and before (High School, grades 10–12 ages 15–18).
MontenegroIn Montenegro middle school refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). " Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.
New ZealandIn New Zealand middle schools are known as "intermediate schools." They generally cover years 7 and 8 (formerly known as Forms 1 to 2). Students are generally aged between 10 and 13. There are full primary schools which also contain year 7 and 8 with students continuing to high school at year 9 (formerly known as Form 3). Some high schools also include years 7 and 8. After 2000 there was an increased interest in middle schooling (for years 7–10) with at least seven schools offering education to this age group opening around the country in Auckland, Cambridge, Hamilton, Christchurch and Upper Hutt.
PakistanIn Pakistan, middle school (Class 1 – 8) is a combination of primary (Class 1 – 5) and middle (Class 6 – 8).
PeruThere aren't middle schools in Peru. Students aged 12 to 16 attend the five years of (secondary school.)
PhilippinesSince the implementation of the K–12 education system, middle school education in the Philippines is called "Junior High School." It lasts for 4 years from seventh grade, Grades 7 to tenth grade, 10 for students age 12 to 16. Some schools, such as Miriam College in Loyola Heights as well as Lourdes School of Quezon City in Sta. Mesa Heights, have their Middle Schools from Sixth grade, Grades 6 to Eighth grade, 8. It is preceded by a 6-year elementary school and followed by a 2-year "senior high school" program. Before that, there were no official middle school programs implemented and the equivalent years was simply called "High School" which ranged from First Year to Fourth Year.
PolandMiddle school in Poland, called , was first introduced in 1932. The education was intended for pupils of at least 12 years of age and lasted four years. Middle schools were part of the educational system until the reform of 1947, except during World War II. The middle schools were reinstated in Poland in 1999 now lasting three years after six years of . Pupils entering are usually 13 years old. Middle school is compulsory for all students, and it is also the final stage of mandatory education. In the final year students take a standardized test to evaluate their academic skills. Higher scorers in the test are allowed first pick of school if they want to continue their education, which is encouraged. Starting with the school year 2017/18, middle schools are scheduled to be disbanded and primary schools to be extended to lasting eight years, as it was before 1999.
PortugalIn Portugal, the middle school is known as 2nd and 3rd cycles of basic education (). It comprises the 5th till 9th year of compulsory education, for children between ten and fifteen years old. After the education reform of 1986, the former preparatory school * 1st cycle () – former primary education * "1st year" (6–7 years old) * "2nd year" (7–8 years old) * "3rd year" (8–9 years old) * "4th year" (9–10 years old) * 2nd cycle () – former preparatory education * "5th year" (10–11 years old) * "6th year" (11–12 years old) * 3rd cycle () * "7th year" (12–13 years old) * "8th year" (13–14 years old) * "9th year" (14–15 years old) * High School () * "10th year" (15–16 years old) * "11th year" (16–17 years old) * "12th year" (17–18 years old)
RomaniaMiddle school in Romania, or Gymnasium (school), gymnasium (), includes grades 5 to 8 and the students usually share the building with the students of primary school but in different wings/floors. Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as foreign languages, religion or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model where the students usually remain in the same classroom while the teachers rotate between courses. At the end of the eighth grade (usually corresponding to age 14 or 15), students take a written exam that counts for 80% (before, it used to be 50%) of the average needed to enroll in high school. Students then go to or vocational school, depending on their final grade. Schooling is compulsory until the tenth grade (which corresponds with the age of 16 or 17).The education process is done in numbered semesters, the first semester lasting 15 weeks between September and December and the second semester lasting 20 weeks between January and June.
RussiaMiddle school in Russia covers grades 5 to 9, and is a natural continuation of primary school activities (almost always they are in the same building with both primary and high school, usually located in different wings/floors). Primary school lessons are taught by a handful of teachers: most are covered by one of them, and more specific areas such as English or gym may have dedicated teachers. The transition to middle school changes that to a one teacher per course model, where teachers stay in their classrooms and pupils change rooms during breaks. Examples of courses include mathematics (split from grade 7 into algebra, geometry and physics), visual arts, Russian language, foreign language, history, literature, geography, biology, computer science, chemistry (from grade 8), social theory (in grade 9). The education process is done in numbered academic quarter (year division), quarters, with the first quarter covering September and October, second quarter November and December, third quarter going from mid January to mid March, fourth quarter covering April and May. There are one week long holidays between quarters 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4, somewhat longer holidays between quarters 2 and 3 to allow for New Year festivities, and a three-month break between the years. At the end of middle school most people stay in school for two more years and get a certificate allowing them to pursue university, but some switch to vocational-technical schools.
Saudi ArabiaIn Saudi Arabia, middle school includes grade 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15.
SerbiaIn Serbia middle school refers to the second half of primary (elementary) education for ages between 11 and 15 and lasts 4 years (grades 5 through 8), following the first half of (grades 1 through 5, ages 7 to 11). Middle schools are not considered separate from elementary school in Serbia but rather an extension of it and are usually held in the same school building, but in opposite shifts or in a different part of the school building. Middle school is the transitional period from primary education to secondary education (high school) where children are transitioned from having very generalized subjects and a main teacher for most of them with only a handful of other teachers for specialized subjects like English language, English, music and gym to a more serious curriculum with a course load that better mirrors high school. Middle school is the first time children have separate teachers for each subject and are introduced to courses like history, geography, biology and a second foreign language, and later physics and chemistry. Both elementary and middle school are compulsory in Serbia, after which almost all students take the state-issued universal entrance exam to qualify for high school, be it a Gymnasium (school), Gymnasium, a specialized high school for fields like Economics or Medicine, or a Vocational school (trade school).
SingaporeIn Singapore, middle school is usually referred to as secondary school. Students start secondary school after completing at the age of 13, and to 16 (four years if they are taking the Special, Express or Normal Technical courses), or 17 (five years if they are taking the Normal Academic courses). Students from the Special and Express courses take the GCE 'O' Levels after four years at the end of secondary education, and students from the Normal (Academic and Technical) courses take the GCE 'N' Level examinations after four years, and the Normal Academic students has the option to continue for the O Levels. Selected excelling students also have the option to change classes which then affect the years they study. After completing secondary school, students move on to pre-tertiary education (i.e. in institutes such as junior colleges, Institute of technology, polytechnics, Institute of Technical Education, ITE).
SloveniaIn Slovenia "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, and lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school (which lasts 8 or 9 years). " Gymnasiums" are the most prestigious type of "middle" school.
SomaliaIn Somalia, middle school identified as intermediate school is the four years between secondary school and primary school. Pupils start middle school from form as referred to in Somalia or year 5 and finish it at year 8. Students start middle school from the age of 11 and finish it when they are 14–15. Subjects, which middle school pupils take are: Somali language, Somali, Arabic, English language, English, Religion & Education, Religion, Science, Geography, History, Mathematics, Math, Textiles, Art and Design, Physical education, Physical Education (PE) (Football) and sometimes Music. In some middle schools, it is obligatory to study Italian language, Italian.
South KoreaIn South Korea, a middle school is called a (Hangul: ; Hanja: ) which includes grades 7 through 9 (referred to as: middle school 1st–3rd grades; approx. age 13–15).
SpainIn Spain, education is compulsory for children and teenagers between 6 and 16 years. Basic education is divided into (first grade through sixth grade), which is the Spanish equivalent of elementary school; and or ESO (seventh through tenth grade), roughly the Spanish equivalent of middle school and (partially) high school. The usual ages in ESO are 12 to 15 years old, but they can range between 11 and 16 depending on the birth date (a student who was born late in the year may start ESO at 11 if he or she will turn 12 before January 1, and a student who was born early in the year may finish ESO after turning 16). After ESO, students can continue their pre-university education attending to (eleventh and twelfth grade) or choose a (an improved type of vocational school).
TaiwanJunior high schools (three years from 7th to 9th grade) in Taiwan were originally called primary middle school."''chuzhong''" (初級中學, 初中 However, in August 1968, they were renamed nationals' middle school "''guozhong''" (國民中學, 國中 often translated junior high) when they became free of charge and compulsory. Private middle school nowadays are still called primary middle school. Taiwanese students older than twelve normally attend junior high school. Accompanied with the switch from junior high to middle school was the cancellation of entrance examination needed to enter middle school.
Tunisia and MoroccoIn Tunisia and Morocco, a middle school includes grades 7 through 9, consisting of students from ages 12 to 15.
England and WalesIn England and Wales, local education authority, local education authorities introduced middle schools in the 1960s and 1970s. The notion of Middle Schools was mooted by the Plowden Report of 1967 which proposed a change to a Three-tier education, three-tier model including First schools for children aged between 4 and 7, Middle Schools for 7–11 year-olds, and then upper or high schools for 11–16 year-olds. Some authorities introduced Middle Schools for ideological reasons, in line with the report, while others did so for more pragmatic reasons relating to the Raising Of School Leaving Age, raising of the school leaving age in compulsory education to 16, or to introduce a Comprehensive school, comprehensive system. Different authorities introduced different age-range schools, although in the main, three models were used: * 4–6 First schools, followed by 7–11 "middle schools," as suggested by Plowden * 5–9 First schools, followed by 9–13 "middle schools" * 5–10 First schools followed by 10–13 "middle schools," or intermediate schools In many areas "primary school" rather than first school was used to denote the first tier. In addition, some schools were provided as combined schools catering for pupils in the 5–12 age range as a combined first and middle school. Around 2000 middle and combined schools were in place in the early 1980s. However, that number began to fall in the later 1980s with the introduction of the National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), National Curriculum. The new curriculum's splits in Key Stages at age 11 encouraged the majority of local education authority, local education authorities to return to a two-tier system of Primary school, Primary (sometimes split into Infant schools and Junior schools) and Secondary schools. There are now fewer than 150 middle schools still operational in the United Kingdom, meaning that approximately 90% of middle schools have closed or reverted to primary school status since 1980. The system of 8–12 middle schools has fallen into complete disuse. Under current legislation, all middle schools must be deemed either primary or secondary. Thus, schools which have more primary year groups than KS3 or KS4 are termed "deemed primaries" or "middles-deemed-primaries," while those with more secondary-aged pupils, or with pupils in Y11 are termed "deemed secondaries" or "middles-deemed-secondaries." For statistical purposes, such schools are often included under primary and secondary categories "as deemed". Notably, most schools also follow teaching patterns in line with their deemed status, with most deemed-primary schools offering a primary-style curriculum taught by one class teacher, and most deemed-secondary schools adopting a more specialist-centred approach. Legally all-through schools are also considered middle schools (deemed secondary), although they are rarely referred to as such. Some middle schools still exist in various areas of England. They are supported by the National Middle Schools' Forum. See List of middle schools in England.
ScotlandIn Scotland, a similar system to the English one was trialled in Grangemouth middle schools, Falkirk (council area), Falkirk between 1975 and 1987. The label of "junior high school" is used for some through schools in Orkney and Shetland which cater for pupils from 5 up to the age of 14, at which point they transfer to a nearby secondary school.
Northern IrelandIn Northern Ireland, in the Armagh, Banbridge and Craigavon District Council area in County Armagh, the Dickson Plan operates, whereby pupils attend a primary school from ages 4–10, a junior high school from 11–14, and a senior high school or grammar school from 14–19.
United StatesMost middle schools in the United States cover grades 6–8, but sometimes 7-9, 7-8 or even 5-8. Historically, local public control (and private alternatives) have allowed for some variation in the organisation of schools. Elementary school (United States), Elementary school includes kindergarten through fourth, fifth, or sixth grade, but some elementary schools have four or eight grades - up to ages 10 or 14
UruguayIn Uruguay, the public middle school consists of two stages, one mandatory called "Basic Cycle" or "First Cycle". This consists of three years, ages 12–13, 13–14 and 14–15 (equivalent to American 7th, 8th, and 9th grades), and one optional called "Second Cycle", ages 15–16, 16–17 and 17–18 (equivalent to American 10th, 11th, and 12th grades). The Second Cycle is divided into 4 options in the Uruguayan 5th grade: "Human Sciences", "Biology", "Scientific" and "Arts", and 7 options in the 6th and last grade: "Law" or "Economy" (if Human Sciences course taken in 5th), "Medicine" or "Agronomy" (if Biological course taken in 5th), "Architecture" or "Engineering" (if Scientific course taken in 5th) and "Arts" (if Arts course taken in 5th). Both these stages are commonly known as "Liceo" (Spanish for "high school").
VenezuelaIn Venezuela, middle schools (, ages 12–15) are from 7th grade to 9th grade. In some institutions called "Technical Schools" there is an extra grade, for those who want to graduate as "Middle technician" in a certain area. This education would allow them to be hired at a higher level, or get introduced more easily into a college career.
VietnamSecondary school, or Junior High school, includes grade 6 to 9. After finishing grade 9, students have to take the national graduating test, which includes sections on Mathematics, Literature and English. The maximum score for each test is 10, with the first two subjects (called the Core Subjects) multiplied by two for a total possible score of 50. Reward points from a vocational course could also be added to the final score. Some public schools use graduating exam scores and student transcripts to make their decisions. Many other public and private schools require students who apply for those schools to take their entrance exams. The administration team student transcripts and exam scores to decide whether students are qualified based on their admissions criteria.
See also* QuickSmart * Virtual reality in primary education
Further reading* Arnold, J. "Needed: A Realistic Perspective of the Early Adolescent Learner." CLEARINGHOUSE 54:4 (1980). * Atwell, Nancie. "In the Middle: New Understanding About Writing, Reading, and Learning." Boynton/Cook Pub Backes * Beane, J. "Dance to the Music of Time: The Future of Middle Level Education." THE EARLY ADOLESCENT MAGAZINE 2 (September 1987):18–26. * Beane, J. A MIDDLE SCHOOL CURRICULUM: FROM RHETORIC TO REALITY. Columbus, Ohio: National Middle School Association, 1990a. * Beane, J. AFFECT IN THE CURRICULUM: TOWARD DEMOCRACY, DIGNITY, AND DIVERSITY. New York: Teachers College Press, 1990b. * Cross Keys Middle School. A PLACE OF OUR OWN. Florissant, Missouri: Florissant Public Schools, 1990. * Jennings, W., and Nathan, J. "Startling/Disturbing Research on School Program Effectiveness." PHI DELTA KAPPAN 59 (1977): 568–572. * Fenwick, J. (Primary Author) Taking Center Stage: A Commitment to Standards-Based Education for California's Middle Grades Students. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 2001