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Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter, an upper-case letter in any type of writing * Capital city, the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status, usually but not always the seat of the governm ...
and most-populous city of the
Australian state The States and Territories of Australia are the regional governments in Australia, distinct from the federal government and local governments. States are self-administered regions with their own constitutions, legislature, police force, depar ...
of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixt ...

Australia
and Oceania. Its name refers to an
urban agglomeration An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or ...

urban agglomeration
of , comprising a
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area usually comp ...
with 31 municipalities, and is also a common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of
Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait through a narrow channel known as The Rip, ...
bay and spreads into the
Hinterland Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar). The term's use in English was first documented by geographer George Chisholm in his ''Handbook of Commercial Geography'' (1888). Originally the term was associated ...
towards the
Dandenong Dandenong is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, south-east from the Melbourne CBD. Situated on the northwest bank of the Dandenong Creek, it is from the namesake Dandenong Ranges to its northeast and completely unrelated in both lo ...
and
Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece. The kingdom was founded and initially ruled by the roya ...
ranges,
Mornington Peninsula The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula located south of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is surrounded by Port Phillip to the west, Western Port to the east and Bass Strait to the south, and is connected to the mainland in the north. Geograph ...

Mornington Peninsula
and
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River in Victoria, Australia. The river originates approximately 240 kilometres east of the Melbourne central business district and flows towards it and out into Port Phillip Bay. The name Y ...
. It has a population of 5 million (19% of the population of Australia), and its inhabitants are commonly referred to as "Melburnians". Home to
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before British colonisation. They include the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia. The term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander p ...
for over 40,000 years, the Melbourne area served as a popular meeting place for local
Kulin nation The Kulin nation is an alliance of five Indigenous Australian nations in south central Victoria, Australia. Their collective territory extends around Port Phillip and Western Port, up into the Great Dividing Range and the Loddon and Goulburn Riv ...
clans. A short-lived
penal settlement A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to a ...
was built at Port Phillip, then part of the
British colony Within the British Empire, a Crown colony or royal colony was a colony administered by the Government of the United Kingdom (the Crown). There was usually a Governor, appointed by the Monarch on the advice of the ''Home'' (UK) Government, with or ...
of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
, in 1803, but it was not until 1835, with the arrival of free settlers from
Van Diemen’s Land Van Diemen's Land was the name of the British crown colony and a name for the island of Tasmania. The name of the colony was changed to Tasmania in 1856. History Exploration The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first known European to lan ...
(modern-day
Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main i ...
), that Melbourne was founded. It was incorporated as a
Crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It was excavated by Swedish Crown P ...
settlement in 1837, and named after the then British Prime Minister,
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 177924 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, was a British Whig Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for being prime ministe ...
. In 1851, four years after
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was lo ...

Queen Victoria
declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. During the 1850s
Victorian gold rush#REDIRECT Victorian gold rush#REDIRECT Victorian gold rush {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises. After the
federation of Australia The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Austr ...
in 1901, it served as the interim seat of
government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government is a ...
of the new nation until
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. Unusual am ...

Canberra
became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading
financial centre A financial centre, financial center, or financial hub is a location with a concentration of participants in banking, asset management, insurance or financial markets with venues and supporting services for these activities to take place. Parti ...
in the
Asia-Pacific 300px, Map showing the general definition of Asia-Pacific. Dark green refers to the core Asia-Pacific countries, while light green refers to regions that may be included. The Asia-Pacific is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean ...
region and ranks 27th globally in the 2020
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Ba ...
. Melbourne is home to many of Australia's best-known landmarks, such as the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Victoria. Founded and managed by the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the largest stadium in the Southern Hemisphe ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
, the
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest, largest and most visited art museum. The NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection acros ...
and the
World Heritage A World Heritage Site is a landmark or area with legal protection by an international convention administered by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). World Heritage Sites are designated by UNESCO for ha ...
-listed
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, built in 1879-80 as part of the international exhibition movement, which presented over 50 exhibitions between 1851 and 1915 around the globe. Th ...
. Noted for its cultural heritage, the city gave rise to
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "footy", is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an oval field, often a modified cricket ground. Points are ...
,
Australian impressionism , ''Golden Summer, Eaglemont'', 1889 Image:Tom Roberts - Shearing the rams - Google Art Project.jpg">300px, Tom Roberts, ''Shearing the Rams'', 1890 The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century. It has latterly ...
and
Australian cinema The cinema of Australia had its beginnings with the 1906 production of ''The Story of the Kelly Gang'', the earliest feature film ever made. Since then, Australian crews have produced many films, a number of which have received international ...
, and has more recently been recognised as a
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace an ...

UNESCO
City of Literature UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of the wider Creative Cities Network. The ''Network'' was launched in 2004, and now has member cities in seven creative fields. The other creative fields are: Crafts and Folk Art, Design, Film, Gastro ...
and a global centre for
street art Street art is unofficial and independent visual art created in public locations for public visibility. Street art is associated with the terms "independent art", "post-graffiti", "neo-graffiti", and guerrilla art. Background Street art is a f ...
,
live music A concert is a live music performance in front of an audience. The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes then called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, choir, or band. Concerts are held in a wide variety ...
and theatre. It hosts major annual international events, such as the
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia currently under contract to host Formula One until 2025. It is the second oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia, after the Alpine rally of East Gippslan ...
and the
Australian Open The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January at Melbourne Park in Melbourne, Australia. The tournament is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events held each year, preceding the French Open ...
, and also hosted the
1956 Summer Olympics The 1956 Summer Olympics (officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad) were an international multi-sport event held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, from 22 November to 8 December 1956, with the exception of the equestrian events, which ...
and the
2006 Commonwealth Games The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006, was an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 and 26 March 200 ...
. Melbourne consistently ranked as the world's most liveable city for much of the 2010s.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, and the second busiest airport in Australia. It opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the ...
, also known as Tullamarine Airport, is the second busiest airport in Australia, and the city's port is the nation's busiest seaport. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main
regional rail Regional rail, also known as local trains and stopping trains, are passenger rail services that operate between towns and cities. These trains operate with more stops over shorter distances than inter-city rail, but fewer stops and faster servic ...
and road coach terminus is
Southern Cross Crux () is a constellation centred on four stars in the southern sky in a bright portion of the Milky Way. It is among the most easily distinguished constellations as its hallmark (asterism) stars each have an apparent visual magnitude brighter ...
station. It also has Australia's most extensive freeway network and the largest urban tram network in the world.


History


Early history and foundation

Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before British colonisation. They include the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia. The term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander p ...
have lived in the Melbourne area for at least 40,000 years. When
European settlers European, or Europeans, may refer to: In general * ''European'', an adjective referring to something of, from, or related to Europe ** Ethnic groups in Europe ** Demographics of Europe ** European cuisine, the cuisines of Europe and other Western ...
arrived in the 19th century, at least 20,000
Kulin people The Kulin nation is an alliance of five Indigenous Australian nations in south central Victoria, Australia. Their collective territory extends around Port Phillip and Western Port, up into the Great Dividing Range and the Loddon and Goulburn Riv ...
from three distinct language groups — the
Wurundjeri The Wurundjeri are an Aboriginal Australian nation of the Woiwurrung language group, in the Kulin alliance. They occupied the Birrarung (Yarra River) Valley before British colonisation of the area, around the present location of Melbourne. The ...
, Boonwurrung and
Wathaurong Wathaurong, also called the Wathaurung, Wadawurrung and Wadda Wurrung, are an Aboriginal Australian people living in the area near Melbourne, Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula in the state of Victoria. They are part of the Kulin alliance. The Wa ...
— resided in the area.
It was an important meeting place for the clans of the
Kulin nation The Kulin nation is an alliance of five Indigenous Australian nations in south central Victoria, Australia. Their collective territory extends around Port Phillip and Western Port, up into the Great Dividing Range and the Loddon and Goulburn Riv ...
alliance and a vital source of food and water.Isabel Ellender and Peter Christiansen, ''People of the Merri Merri. The Wurundjeri in Colonial Days'', Merri Creek Management Committee, 2001 The first British settlement in Victoria, then part of the
penal colony A penal colony or exile colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory. Although the term can be used to refer to a ...
of
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
, was established by Colonel
David CollinsDavid Collins may refer to: Sports * David Collins (Hampshire cricketer), 18th-century cricketer associated with Hampshire * David Collins (New Zealand cricketer) (1887–1967), played for Wellington and Cambridge University * David Collins (Scottis ...
in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circumvesuviana rail lin ...
. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to
Van Diemen's Land Van Diemen's Land was the name of the British crown colony and a name for the island of Tasmania. The name of the colony was changed to Tasmania in 1856. History Exploration The Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first known European to lan ...
(present-day
Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main i ...
) and founded the city of
Hobart Hobart (,) is the capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. Home to almost half of all Tasmanians, it is the least populated Australian state capital city, and second smallest if territories are taken into accou ...
. It would be 30 years before another settlement was attempted. In May and June 1835,
John Batman John Batman (21 January 18016 May 1839) was an Australian grazier, entrepreneur and explorer, best known for his role in the founding of Melbourne. Born and raised in the then-British colony of New South Wales, Batman settled in Van Diemen's La ...
, a leading member of the
Port Phillip Association The Port Phillip Association (originally the Geelong and Dutigalla Association) was formally formed in June 1835 to settle land in what would become Melbourne, which the association believed had been acquired by John Batman for the association fro ...
in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, and later claimed to have negotiated a purchase of with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial river in east-central Victoria, Australia. The lower stretch ...
, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups ultimately agreed to share the settlement, initially known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by
Richard Bourke General Sir Richard Bourke, KCB (4 May 1777 – 12 August 1855), was an Irish-born British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1831 to 1837. As a lifelong Whig (Liberal), he encouraged the emancipation of convicts and hel ...
, the
Governor of New South Wales The Governor of New South Wales is the viceregal representative of the Australian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, in the state of New South Wales. In an analogous way to the Governor-General of Australia at the national level, the Governors of the A ...
(who at the time governed all of eastern mainland Australia), with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the
Port Phillip District The Port Phillip District was a historical administrative division of the Colony of New South Wales, which existed from September 1836 until 1 July 1851, when it was separated from New South Wales and became the Colony of Victoria. The District' ...
of New South Wales, and commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the
Hoddle Grid The Hoddle Grid is the contemporary name given to the approximately grid of streets that form the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. Bounded by Flinders Street, Spring Street, La Trobe Street, and Spencer Street, it lies at an an ...
, in 1837. Known briefly as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne on 10 April 1837 by Governor
Richard Bourke General Sir Richard Bourke, KCB (4 May 1777 – 12 August 1855), was an Irish-born British Army officer who served as Governor of New South Wales from 1831 to 1837. As a lifelong Whig (Liberal), he encouraged the emancipation of convicts and hel ...
after the
British Prime Minister The prime minister of the United Kingdom is the head of government in the United Kingdom. The prime minister chairs the Cabinet and selects its ministers, and advises the sovereign on the exercise of much of the Royal Prerogative. As modern p ...
,
William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, (15 March 177924 November 1848), in some sources called Henry William Lamb, was a British Whig Home Secretary (1830–1834) and Prime Minister (1834 and 1835–1841). He is best known for being prime ministe ...
, whose
seat SEAT, S.A. (, ; ''Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo'') is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Spain. It was founded on May 9, 1950, by the Instituto Nacional de Industria (INI), a Spanish state-owned i ...
was
Melbourne Hall Melbourne Hall is a Georgian country house in Melbourne, Derbyshire, England. Once the seat of the Victorian Prime Minister William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, the hall is the origin of the name of the city of Melbourne, Australia. The house is no ...

Melbourne Hall
in the
market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host markets (market right), which distinguished it from a village or city. In Britain, small rural towns with a hinterland of v ...
of
Melbourne Melbourne ( ; wyi, Naarm) is the capital and most-populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of , comprising a metropolitan area with ...
,
Derbyshire Derbyshire () is a county in the East Midlands of England. Much of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire, containing the southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills, which extend into the north of the county. It contains pa ...
. That year, the settlement's
general post office The General Post Office (GPO) was the state postal system and telecommunications carrier of the United Kingdom until 1969. Before the Acts of Union 1707, it was the postal system of the Kingdom of England, established by Charles II in 1660. Simi ...
officially opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were largely dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne. The British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however, their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured
squatters Squatting is the action of occupying an abandoned or unoccupied area of land or a building, usually residential, that the squatter does not own, rent or otherwise have lawful permission to use. The United Nations estimated in 2003 that there wer ...
who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences then issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come.
Letters patent upLetters patent transferring a predecessor of the Nancy in 1768">Nancy, France">Nancy in 1768 Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a mon ...
of
Queen Victoria Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was lo ...
, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from
New South Wales New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of :Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian ...
to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.


Victorian gold rush

The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a gold rush, and Melbourne, the colony's major port, experienced rapid growth. Within months, the city's population had nearly doubled from 25,000 to 40,000 inhabitants. Exponential growth ensued, and by 1865 Melbourne had overtaken
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug: ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about on its periphery toward ...

Sydney
as Australia's most populous city. An influx of intercolonial and international migrants, particularly from Europe and China, saw the establishment of slums, including
Chinatown A Chinatown () is an ethnic enclave of Chinese people located outside mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as "Chinatown" exist throughout the world, including Europe, North America, South Ameri ...
and a temporary "tent city" on the southern banks of the Yarra. In the aftermath of the 1854
Eureka Rebellion The Eureka Rebellion occurred in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, who revolted against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom. It culminated in the Battle of the Eureka Stockade, which was fought between ...
, mass public support for the plight of the miners resulted in major political changes to the colony, including improvements in working conditions across mining, agriculture, manufacturing and other local industries. At least twenty nationalities took part in the rebellion, giving some indication of immigration flows at the time. With the wealth brought in from the gold rush and the subsequent need for public buildings, a program of grand civic construction soon began. The 1850s and 1860s saw the commencement of Parliament House, the Treasury Building, the
Old Melbourne Gaol The Old Melbourne Gaol is a former jail and current museum on Russell Street, in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It consists of a bluestone building and courtyard, and is located next to the old City Police Watch House and City Courts buildings. ...

Old Melbourne Gaol
, , the
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,
University of Melbourne The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. Its main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north ...
,
General Post Office The General Post Office (GPO) was the state postal system and telecommunications carrier of the United Kingdom until 1969. Before the Acts of Union 1707, it was the postal system of the Kingdom of England, established by Charles II in 1660. Simi ...
,
Customs House A custom house or customs house was traditionally a building housing the offices for a jurisdictional government whose officials oversaw the functions associated with importing and exporting goods into and out of a country, such as collecting cu ...
, the
Melbourne Town Hall Melbourne Town Hall is the central city and town hall, and is a historic building that has been there since 1867, Australia, in the State of Victoria. It is located on the northeast corner of Swanston and Collins Streets, in the central business ...

Melbourne Town Hall
, St Patrick's cathedral, though many remained uncompleted for decades, with some still not finished . The layout of the inner suburbs on a largely one-mile grid pattern, cut through by wide radial boulevards and parklands surrounding the central city, was largely established in the 1850s and 1860s. These areas rapidly filled with the ubiquitous terrace houses, as well as with detached houses and grand mansions, while some of the major roads developed as shopping streets. Melbourne quickly became a major finance centre, home to several banks, the
Royal Mint The Royal Mint is a government-owned mint that produces coins for the United Kingdom. Operating under the legal name ''The Royal Mint Limited'', the mint is a limited company that is wholly owned by Her Majesty's Treasury and is under an exclus ...

Royal Mint
, and (in 1861) Australia's first
stock exchange#REDIRECT Stock exchange#REDIRECT Stock exchange {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
. In 1855, the
Melbourne Cricket Club The Melbourne Cricket Club (MCC) is a sports club based in Melbourne, Australia. It was founded in 1838 and is one of the oldest sports clubs in Australia. The MCC is responsible for management and development of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, ...
secured possession of its now famous ground, the MCG. Members of the
Melbourne Football Club The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is a professional Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League (AFL). It is based in Melbourne, Victoria, and plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (M ...
codified
Australian football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "footy", is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an oval field, often a modified cricket ground. Points are ...
in 1859, and in 1861, the first
Melbourne Cup The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most famous annual Thoroughbred horse race. It is a 3200-metre race for three-year-olds and over, conducted by the Victoria Racing Club on the Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Victoria as part of the Melbourn ...
race was held. Melbourne acquired its first public monument, the
Burke and Wills#REDIRECT Burke and Wills expedition {{R from other capitalisation ...
statue, in 1864. With the gold rush largely over by 1860, Melbourne continued to grow on the back of continuing gold-mining, as the major port for exporting the agricultural products of Victoria (especially wool) and with a developing manufacturing sector protected by high tariffs. An extensive radial railway network spread into the countryside from the late 1850s. Construction started on further major public buildings in the 1860s and 1870s, such as the
Supreme Court The supreme court is the highest court within the hierarchy of courts in many legal jurisdictions. Other descriptions for such courts include court of last resort, apex court, and high (or final) court of appeal. Broadly speaking, the decisio ...

Supreme Court
,
Government House Government House is the name of many of the residences of governors-general, governors and lieutenant-governors in the Commonwealth and the remaining colonies of the British Empire. The name is also used in some other countries. It generally serves ...
, and the
Queen Victoria Market The Queen Victoria Market (also known colloquially as Vic Market or Queen Vic) is a major landmark in the central business district (CBD) of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Covering over , it is the largest open air market in the Southern Hemis ...
. The central city filled up with shops and offices, workshops, and warehouses. Large banks and hotels faced the main streets, with fine townhouses in the east end of Collins Street, contrasting with tiny cottages down laneways within the blocks. The Aboriginal population continued to decline, with an estimated 80% total decrease by 1863, due primarily to introduced diseases (particularly
smallpox Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, ''Variola major'' and ''Variola minor''. The agent of variola virus (VARV) belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus. The last naturally occurring case was diagnosed in October ...

smallpox
), frontier violence and dispossession of their lands.


Land boom and bust

The 1880s saw extraordinary growth: consumer confidence, easy access to credit, and steep increases in land prices led to an enormous amount of construction. During this "land boom", Melbourne reputedly became the richest city in the world, and the second-largest (after London) in the
British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire#REDIRECT British Empire {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. The decade began with the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880, held in the large purpose-built Exhibition Building. A telephone exchange was established that year, and the foundations of St Paul's were laid. In 1881, electric light was installed in the Eastern Market, Melbourne, Eastern Market, and a generating station capable of supplying 2,000 incandescent lamps was in operation by 1882. The Melbourne cable tramway system opened in 1885 and became one of the world's most extensive systems by 1890. In 1885, visiting English journalist George Augustus Henry Sala coined the phrase "Marvellous Melbourne", which stuck long into the twentieth century and has come to refer to the opulence and energy of the 1880s, during which time large commercial buildings, grand hotels, banks, coffee palaces, terrace house, terrace housing and palatial mansions proliferated in the city. The establishment of a hydraulic facility in 1887 allowed for the local manufacture of elevators, resulting in the first construction of high-rise buildings such as the 12-story APA Building, Melbourne, APA Building, among the world's tallest commercial buildings upon completion in 1889. This period also saw the expansion of a major radial rail-based transport network. Melbourne's land-boom peaked in 1888, the year it hosted the Centennial Exhibition. A brash boosterism that had typified Melbourne during this time ended in the early 1890s with a severe economic depression, sending the local finance- and property-industries into a period of chaos. Sixteen small "land banks" and building societies collapsed, and 133 limited companies went into liquidation. The Melbourne financial crisis was a contributing factor in the Economic history of Australia, Australian economic depression of the 1890s and in the Australian banking crisis of 1893. The effects of the depression on the city were profound, with virtually no new construction until the late 1890s.


''De facto'' capital of Australia

At the time of Australia's Federation of Australia, federation on 1 January 1901 Melbourne became the seat of government of the federated Commonwealth of Australia. The first federal parliament convened on 9 May 1901 in the Royal Exhibition Building, subsequently moving to the Victorian Parliament House, where it sat until it moved to
Canberra Canberra ( ) is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest city overall. Unusual am ...

Canberra
in 1927. The Governor-General of Australia resided at Government House, Melbourne, Government House in Melbourne until 1930, and many major national institutions remained in Melbourne well into the twentieth century.


Post-war period

In the immediate years after World War II, Melbourne expanded rapidly, its growth boosted by post-war immigration to Australia, primarily from Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region, Mediterranean. While the "Paris End" of Collins Street began Melbourne's boutique shopping and open air Coffeehouse, cafe cultures, the city centre was seen by many as stale—the dreary domain of office workers—something expressed by John Brack in his famous painting ''Collins St., 5 pm'' (1955). Up until the 21st century, Melbourne was considered Australia's "industrial heartland". Height limits in the CBD were lifted in 1958, after the construction of ICI House, transforming the city's skyline with the introduction of skyscrapers. Suburban expansion then intensified, served by new indoor malls beginning with Chadstone Shopping Centre. The post-war period also saw a major renewal of the CBD and St Kilda Road which significantly modernised the city. New fire regulations and redevelopment saw most of the taller pre-war CBD buildings either demolished or partially retained through a policy of Facadism#Melbourne, facadism. Many of the larger suburban mansions from the boom era were also either demolished or subdivided. To counter the trend towards low-density suburban residential growth, the government began a series of controversial public housing projects in the inner city by the Housing Commission of Victoria, which resulted in the demolition of many neighbourhoods and a proliferation of high-rise towers. In later years, with the rapid rise of motor vehicle ownership, the investment in freeway and highway developments greatly accelerated the outward suburban sprawl and declining inner-city population. The Henry Bolte, Bolte government sought to rapidly accelerate the modernisation of Melbourne. Major road projects including the remodelling of St Kilda Junction, the widening of Hoddle Street and then the extensive 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan changed the face of the city into a car-dominated environment. Australia's financial and mining booms during 1969 and 1970 resulted in establishment of the headquarters of many major companies (BHP Billiton and Rio Tinto Group, Rio Tinto, among others) in the city. Nauru's then booming economy resulted in several ambitious investments in Melbourne, such as Nauru House. Melbourne remained Australia's main business and financial centre until the late 1970s, when it began to lose this primacy to Sydney. Melbourne experienced an economic downturn between 1989 and 1992, following the collapse of several local financial institutions. In 1992, the newly elected Jeff Kennett, Kennett government began a campaign to revive the economy with an aggressive development campaign of public works coupled with the promotion of the city as a tourist destination with a focus on major events and sports tourism. During this period the
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia currently under contract to host Formula One until 2025. It is the second oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia, after the Alpine rally of East Gippslan ...
moved to Melbourne from Adelaide. Major projects included the construction of a new facility for the Melbourne Museum, Federation Square, the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre, Crown Melbourne, Crown Casino and the CityLink Toll road, tollway. Other strategies included the privatisation of some of Melbourne's services, including power and public transport, and a reduction in funding to public services such as health, education and public transport infrastructure.


Contemporary Melbourne

Since the mid-1990s, Melbourne has maintained significant population and employment growth. There has been substantial international investment in the city's industries and property market. Major inner-city urban renewal has occurred in areas such as Southbank, Victoria, Southbank, Port Melbourne, Melbourne Docklands and more recently, South Wharf, Victoria, South Wharf. Melbourne sustained the highest population increase and economic growth rate of any Australian capital city from 2001 to 2004. From 2006, the growth of the city extended into "green wedges" and beyond the city's urban growth boundary. Predictions of the city's population reaching 5 million people pushed the state government to review the growth boundary in 2008 as part of its Melbourne @ Five Million strategy. In 2009, Melbourne was less affected by the late-2000s financial crisis in comparison to other Australian cities. At this time, more new jobs were created in Melbourne than any other Australian city—almost as many as the next two fastest growing cities, Brisbane and Perth, combined, and Melbourne's property market remained highly priced, resulting in historically high property prices and widespread rent increases. In 2020, Melbourne was classified as an Alpha city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.


Geography

Melbourne is in the southeastern part of mainland Australia, within the state of Victoria. Geologically, it is built on the confluence of Quaternary lava flows to the west, Silurian mudstones to the east, and Holocene sand accumulation to the southeast along
Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait through a narrow channel known as The Rip, ...
. The southeastern suburbs are situated on the Selwyn fault which transects Mount Martha, Victoria, Mount Martha and Cranbourne, Victoria, Cranbourne. Melbourne extends along the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial river in east-central Victoria, Australia. The lower stretch ...
towards the
Yarra Valley The Yarra Valley is the region surrounding the Yarra River in Victoria, Australia. The river originates approximately 240 kilometres east of the Melbourne central business district and flows towards it and out into Port Phillip Bay. The name Y ...
and the Dandenong Ranges to the east. It extends northward through the undulating bushland valleys of the Yarra's tributaries—Moonee Ponds Creek (toward Tullamarine Airport), Merri Creek, Darebin Creek and Plenty River—to the outer suburban growth corridors of Craigieburn, Victoria, Craigieburn and Whittlesea, Victoria, Whittlesea. The city reaches southeast through Dandenong, Victoria, Dandenong to the growth corridor of Pakenham, Victoria, Pakenham towards West Gippsland, and southward through the Dandenong Creek valley and the city of Frankston, Victoria, Frankston. In the west, it extends along the Maribyrnong River and its tributaries north towards Sunbury, Victoria, Sunbury and the foothills of the Shire of Macedon Ranges, Macedon Ranges, and along the flat volcanic plain country towards Melton, Victoria, Melton in the west, Werribee at the foothills of the You Yangs granite ridge south west of the CBD. The Little River, Victoria, Little River, and the township of the same name, marks the border between Melbourne and neighbouring Geelong city. Melbourne's major bayside beaches are in the various suburbs along the shores of Port Phillip Bay, in areas like Port Melbourne, Albert Park, Victoria, Albert Park, St Kilda, Victoria, St Kilda, Elwood, Victoria, Elwood, Brighton, Victoria, Brighton, Sandringham, Victoria, Sandringham, Mentone, Victoria, Mentone, Frankston, Victoria, Frankston, Altona, Victoria, Altona, Williamstown, Victoria, Williamstown and Werribee South. The nearest ocean surface wave, surf beaches are south of the Melbourne CBD in the back-beaches of Rye, Victoria, Rye,
Sorrento Sorrento (, ; nap, Surriento ; la, Surrentum) is a town overlooking the Bay of Naples in Southern Italy. A popular tourist destination, Sorrento is located on the Sorrentine Peninsula at the south-eastern terminus of the Circumvesuviana rail lin ...
and Portsea, Victoria, Portsea.


Climate

Melbourne has a temperate oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification ''Cfb'') with warm to hot summers and mild winters. Melbourne is well known for its southerly buster, changeable weather conditions, mainly due to it being located on the boundary of hot inland areas and the cool southern ocean. This temperature differential is most pronounced in the spring and summer months and can cause strong cold fronts to form. These cold fronts can be responsible for varied forms of severe weather from gales to thunderstorms and hail, large temperature drops and heavy rain. Winters, however, are usually very stable, but rather damp and often cloudy.
Port Phillip Port Phillip (Kulin: ''Naarm''), also commonly referred to as Port Phillip Bay, is a horsehead-shaped bay on the central coastline of southern Victoria, Australia. The bay opens into the Bass Strait through a narrow channel known as The Rip, ...
is often warmer than the surrounding oceans and/or the land mass, particularly in spring and autumn; this can set up a "bay effect", similar to the "lake-effect snow, lake effect" seen in colder climates, where showers are intensified leeward of the bay. Relatively narrow streams of heavy showers can often affect the same places (usually the eastern suburbs) for an extended period, while the rest of Melbourne and surrounds stays dry. Overall, Melbourne is, owing to the rain shadow of the Otway Ranges, nonetheless drier than average for southern Victoria. Within the city and surrounds, rainfall varies widely, from around at Little River, Victoria, Little River to on the eastern fringe at Gembrook, Victoria, Gembrook. Melbourne receives 48.6 clear days annually. Dewpoint temperatures in the summer range from . Melbourne is also prone to isolated convective showers forming when a cold pool crosses the state, especially if there is considerable daytime heating. These showers are often heavy and can include hail, squalls, and significant drops in temperature, but they often pass through very quickly with a rapid clearing trend to sunny and relatively calm weather and the temperature rising back to what it was before the shower. This can occur in the space of minutes and can be repeated many times a day, giving Melbourne a reputation for having "four seasons in one day", a phrase that is part of local popular culture. The lowest temperature on record is , on 21 July 1869. The highest temperature recorded in Melbourne city was , on Black Saturday bushfires, 7 February 2009. While snow is occasionally seen at higher elevations in the outskirts of the city, it has not been recorded in the Central Business District since 1986. The average temperature of the sea ranges from in September to in February; at Port Melbourne, the average sea temperature range is the same.


Urban structure

Melbourne's urban area is approximately 2,453 km2, slightly larger than that of London and Mexico City, while its
metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories under the same administrative division, sharing industry, infrastructure and housing. A metro area usually comp ...
is 9,993 km2 (3,858 sq mi)–larger than Jakarta (at 7,063 km2), but smaller than New York City (at 11,875 km2). The
Hoddle Grid The Hoddle Grid is the contemporary name given to the approximately grid of streets that form the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. Bounded by Flinders Street, Spring Street, La Trobe Street, and Spencer Street, it lies at an an ...
, a grid of streets measuring approximately , forms the nucleus of Melbourne's central business district (CBD). The grid's southern edge fronts onto the Yarra River. More recent office, commercial and public developments in the adjoining districts of Southbank, Victoria, Southbank and Melbourne Docklands, Docklands have made these areas into extensions of the CBD in all but name. A byproduct of the CBD's layout is its network of lanes and Arcade (architecture), arcades, such as Block Arcade, Melbourne, Block Arcade and Royal Arcade, Melbourne, Royal Arcade. Melbourne's CBD has unrestricted height limits, unlike other Australian cities. As a result, it has become Australia's most densely populated area, with approximately 19,500 residents per square kilometre, and is home to List of tallest buildings in Australia#Cities with the most skyscrapers, more skyscrapers than any other Australian city, the tallest being Australia 108, situated in Southbank. Melbourne's newest planned skyscraper, Southbank by Beulah, Southbank By Beulah (also known as "Green Spine"), has recently been approved for construction and will be the tallest structure in Australia by 2025. The CBD and surrounds also contain many significant historic buildings such as the
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, built in 1879-80 as part of the international exhibition movement, which presented over 50 exhibitions between 1851 and 1915 around the globe. Th ...
, the
Melbourne Town Hall Melbourne Town Hall is the central city and town hall, and is a historic building that has been there since 1867, Australia, in the State of Victoria. It is located on the northeast corner of Swanston and Collins Streets, in the central business ...

Melbourne Town Hall
and Parliament House. Although the area is described as the ''centre'', it is not actually the demographic centre of Melbourne at all, due to an urban sprawl to the south east, the demographic centre being located at Glen Iris, Victoria, Glen Iris. Melbourne is typical of Australian capital cities in that after the turn of the 20th century, it expanded with the underlying notion of a 'quarter acre home and garden' for every family, often referred to locally as the Australian Dream. This, coupled with the popularity of the private automobile after 1945, led to the auto-centric urban structure now present today in the middle and outer suburbs. Much of Metropolitan area, metropolitan Melbourne is accordingly characterised by low-density sprawl, whilst its inner-city areas feature predominantly medium-density, transit-oriented urban forms. The city centre, Docklands, St. Kilda Road and Southbank areas feature high-density forms. Melbourne is often referred to as Australia's garden city, and the state of Victoria was once known as ''the garden state''. There is an abundance of Melbourne parks and gardens, parks and gardens in Melbourne, many close to the Melbourne Central Business District, CBD with a variety of common and rare plant species amid landscaped vistas, pedestrian pathways and tree-lined avenues. Melbourne's parks are often considered the best public parks in all of Australia's major cities. There are also many parks in the surrounding suburbs of Melbourne, such as in the municipalities of City of Stonnington, Stonnington, City of Boroondara, Boroondara and City of Port Phillip, Port Phillip, south east of the central business district. Several national parks have been designated around the urban area of Melbourne, including the Mornington Peninsula National Park, Port Phillip Heads Marine National Park and Point Nepean, Victoria, Point Nepean National Park in the southeast, Organ Pipes National Park to the north and Dandenong Ranges National Park to the east. There are also a number of significant state parks just outside Melbourne. The extensive area covered by urban Melbourne is formally divided into hundreds of suburbs (for addressing and postal purposes), and administered as local government areas 31 of which are located within the metropolitan area.


Housing

Melbourne has minimal public housing and high demand for rental housing, which is becoming unaffordable for some. Public housing is managed and provided by the Victorian Government's Department of Families, Fairness and Housing, and operates within the framework of the Commonwealth-State Housing Agreement, by which both federal and state governments provide funding for housing. Melbourne is experiencing high population growth, generating high demand for housing. This housing boom has increased house prices and rents, as well as the availability of all types of housing. Subdivision (land), Subdivision regularly occurs in the outer areas of Melbourne, with numerous developers offering house and land packages. However, since the release of Melbourne 2030 in 2002, planning policies have encouraged Medium-density housing, medium-density and High density housing, high-density development in existing areas with good access to public transport and other services. As a result of this, Melbourne's middle and outer-ring suburbs have seen significant Brownfield land, brownfields redevelopment.


Architecture

On the back of the 1850s gold rush and 1880s land boom, Melbourne became renowned as one of the world's great Victorian-era cities, a reputation that persists due to its diverse range of Victorian architecture. High concentrations of well-preserved Victorian-era buildings can be found in the inner suburbs, such as Carlton, Victoria, Carlton, East Melbourne, Victoria, East Melbourne and South Melbourne, Victoria, South Melbourne. Outstanding examples of Melbourne's built Victorian heritage include the World Heritage Site, World Heritage-listed
Royal Exhibition Building The Royal Exhibition Building is a World Heritage-listed building in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, built in 1879-80 as part of the international exhibition movement, which presented over 50 exhibitions between 1851 and 1915 around the globe. Th ...
(1880), the General Post Office, Melbourne, General Post Office (1867), Hotel Windsor (Melbourne), Hotel Windsor (1884) and the Block Arcade, Melbourne, Block Arcade (1891). Comparatively little remains of Melbourne's pre-gold rush architecture; St James Old Cathedral (1839) and St Francis' Church, Melbourne, St Francis' Church (1845) are among the few examples left in the CBD. Many of the CBD's Victorian boom-time landmarks were also demolished in the decades after World War II, including the Federal Coffee Palace (1888) and the APA Building, Melbourne, APA Building (1889), one of the tallest early skyscrapers upon completion. List of heritage-listed buildings in Melbourne, Heritage listings and Heritage Overlay, heritage overlays have since been introduced in an effort to prevent further losses of the city's historic fabric. The city also features the Shrine of Remembrance, which was built as a memorial to the men and women of Victoria who served in World War I and is now a memorial to all Australians who have served in war. Residential architecture is not defined by a single architectural style, but rather an eclectic mix of large McMansion-style houses (particularly in areas of urban sprawl), apartment buildings, condominiums, and townhouses which generally characterise the medium-density inner-city neighbourhoods. Freestanding dwellings with relatively large gardens are perhaps the most common type of housing outside inner city Melbourne. Victorian terrace housing, townhouses and historic Italianate, Tudor revival and Georgian architecture, Neo-Georgian mansions are all common in inner-city neighbourhoods such as Carlton, Fitzroy and further into suburban enclaves like Toorak, Victoria, Toorak.


Culture

Often referred to as Australia's cultural capital, Melbourne is recognised globally as a centre of sport, music, theatre, comedy, art, literature, film and television. For much of the 2010s, it held the top position in ''The Economist Intelligence Units list of the World's most liveable cities#World's Most Liveable Cities, world's most liveable cities, partly due to its cultural attributes. The city celebrates a wide variety of annual cultural events and festivals of all types, including the Melbourne International Arts Festival, Melbourne International Comedy Festival, Melbourne Fringe Festival and Moomba, Australia's largest free community festival. The State Library of Victoria, founded in 1854, is one of the world's oldest free public library, public libraries and, as of 2018, the fourth most-visited library globally. Between the gold rush and the crash of 1890, Melbourne was Australia's literary capital, famously referred to by Henry Kendall (poet), Henry Kendall as "that wild bleak Bohemia south of the Murray River, Murray". At this time, Melbourne-based writers and poets Marcus Clarke, Adam Lindsay Gordon and Rolf Boldrewood produced classic visions of colonial life. Fergus Hume's ''The Mystery of a Hansom Cab'' (1886), the fastest-selling crime novel of the era, is set in Melbourne, as is Australia's best-selling book of poetry, C. J. Dennis' ''The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke'' (1915). Contemporary Melbourne authors who have written award-winning books set in the city include Peter Carey (novelist), Peter Carey, Helen Garner and Christos Tsiolkas. Melbourne has Australia's widest range of bookstores, as well as the nation's largest publishing sector. The city is also home to the Melbourne Writers Festival and hosts the Victorian Premier's Literary Awards. In 2008, it became the second city to be named a UNESCO
City of Literature UNESCO's City of Literature programme is part of the wider Creative Cities Network. The ''Network'' was launched in 2004, and now has member cities in seven creative fields. The other creative fields are: Crafts and Folk Art, Design, Film, Gastro ...
. Ray Lawler's play ''Summer of the Seventeenth Doll'' is set in Carlton, Victoria, Carlton and debuted in 1955, the same year that Dame Edna Everage, Edna Everage, Barry Humphries' Moonee Ponds housewife character, first appeared on stage, both sparking international interest in Australian theatre. Melbourne's East End Theatre District is known for its Victorian era theatres, such as the Athenaeum, Melbourne, Athenaeum, Her Majesty's Theatre, Melbourne, Her Majesty's and the Princess Theatre, Melbourne, Princess, as well as the Forum Theatre, Forum and the Regent Theatre, Melbourne, Regent. Other heritage-listed theatres include the art deco landmarks The Capitol, Melbourne, The Capitol and St Kilda's Palais Theatre, Australia's largest seated theatre with a capacity of 3,000 people. The Melbourne Arts Precinct, Arts Precinct in Southbank is home to Arts Centre Melbourne (which includes the State Theatre (Melbourne), State Theatre and Hamer Hall, Melbourne, Hamer Hall), as well as the Melbourne Recital Centre and Southbank Theatre, home of the Melbourne Theatre Company, Australia's oldest professional theatre company. The Australian Ballet, Opera Australia and Melbourne Symphony Orchestra are also based in the precinct. Melbourne has been called "the live music capital of the world";Donoughue, Paul (12 April 2018)
"Melbourne is the live music capital of the world, study says"
ABC News. Retrieved 13 November 2018.
one study found it has more music venues per capita than any other world city sampled, with 17.5 million patron visits to 553 venues in 2016. The Sidney Myer Music Bowl in Kings Domain hosted the largest crowd ever for a music concert in Australia when an estimated 200,000 attendees saw Melbourne band The Seekers in 1967. Airing between 1974 and 1987, Melbourne's ''Countdown (music show), Countdown'' helped launch the careers of Crowded House, Men at Work and Kylie Minogue, among other local acts. Several distinct post-punk scenes flourished in Melbourne during the late 1970s, including the Fitzroy, Victoria, Fitzroy-based Little Band scene and the St Kilda, Victoria#Music, St Kilda scene centered at the Crystal Ballroom (Melbourne), Crystal Ballroom, which gave rise to Dead Can Dance and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, respectively. More recent independent acts from Melbourne to achieve global recognition include The Avalanches, Gotye and King Gizzard and the Lizard Wizard. Melbourne is also regarded as a centre of Electronic dance music, EDM, and lends its name to the Electro house#Melbourne bounce, Melbourne Bounce genre and the Melbourne Shuffle dance style, both of which emerged from the city's underground rave scene. Established in 1861, the
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest, largest and most visited art museum. The NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection acros ...
is Australia's oldest and largest art museum. Several art movements originated in Melbourne, most famously the Heidelberg School of impressionists, named after Heidelberg, Victoria, a suburb where they camped to paint ''en plein air'' in the 1880s. They were followed by the Australian Tonalism, Australian tonalists, some of whom founded Montsalvat, Australia's oldest art colony. During World War II, the Angry Penguins, a group of avant-garde artists, convened at a Bulleen, Victoria, Bulleen dairy farm, now the Heide Museum of Modern Art. The city is also home the Australian Centre for Contemporary Art. In the 2000s, street art in Melbourne, Melbourne street art became globally renowned and a major tourist drawcard, with "laneway galleries" such as Hosier Lane attracting more Instagram#Hashtags, Instagram hashtags than some of the city's traditional attractions, such as the Melbourne Zoo. A quarter century after bushranger Ned Kelly's execution at
Old Melbourne Gaol The Old Melbourne Gaol is a former jail and current museum on Russell Street, in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It consists of a bluestone building and courtyard, and is located next to the old City Police Watch House and City Courts buildings. ...

Old Melbourne Gaol
, the Melbourne-produced ''The Story of the Kelly Gang'' (1906), the world's first feature film, feature-length narrative film, premiered at the above-named Athenaeum, spurring Australia's first cinematic boom.More Australian than Aristotelian: The Australian Bushranger Film, 1904–1914. By William Routt
Melbourne remained a world leader in filmmaking until the mid-1910s, when several factors, including a bushranger ban, ban on bushranger films, contributed to a decades-long decline of the industry. A notable film shot and set in Melbourne during this lull was ''On the Beach (1959 film), On the Beach'' (1959). Melbourne filmmakers led the Australian New Wave, Australian Film Revival with Ocker#Ocker films, ocker comedies such as ''Stork (film), Stork'' (1971) and ''Alvin Purple'' (1973). Other list of films shot in Melbourne, films shot and set in Melbourne include ''Mad Max'' (1979), ''Romper Stomper'' (1992), ''Chopper (film), Chopper'' (2000) and ''Animal Kingdom (film), Animal Kingdom'' (2010). The Melbourne International Film Festival began in 1952 and is one of the world's oldest film festivals. The AACTA Awards, Australia's top screen awards, were inaugurated by the festival in 1958. Melbourne is also home to Docklands Studios Melbourne (the city's largest film and television studio complex), the Australian Centre for the Moving Image and the headquarters of Village Roadshow Pictures, Australia's largest film production company.


Sports

File:Rafael Nadal Vs Philipp Kohlschreiber (4309085696).jpg, Melbourne hosts the
Australian Open The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January at Melbourne Park in Melbourne, Australia. The tournament is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events held each year, preceding the French Open ...
, the first of four annual Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis tournaments. Melbourne has long been regarded as Australia's sporting capital due to the role it has played in the development of Australian sport, the range and quality of its sporting events and venues, and its high rates of spectatorship and participation. The city is also home to Sport in Victoria#Melbourne 2, 27 professional sports teams competing at the national level, the most of any Australian city. Melbourne's sporting reputation was recognised in 2016 when, after being ranked as the world's top sports city three times biennially, the Ultimate Sports City Awards in Switzerland named it 'Sports City of the Decade'. The city has hosted a number of major international sporting events, most notably the 1956 Summer Olympic Games, the first Olympic Games held outside Europe and the United States. Melbourne also hosted the
2006 Commonwealth Games The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006, was an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 and 26 March 200 ...
, and is home to several major annual international events, including the
Australian Open The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January at Melbourne Park in Melbourne, Australia. The tournament is the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events held each year, preceding the French Open ...
, the first of the four Grand Slam (tennis), Grand Slam tennis tournaments. First held in 1861 and declared a public holiday for all Melburnians in 1873, the
Melbourne Cup The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most famous annual Thoroughbred horse race. It is a 3200-metre race for three-year-olds and over, conducted by the Victoria Racing Club on the Flemington Racecourse in Melbourne, Victoria as part of the Melbourn ...
is the world's richest handicap horse race, and is known as "the race that stops a nation". The Formula One
Australian Grand Prix The Australian Grand Prix, is a motor race held annually in Australia currently under contract to host Formula One until 2025. It is the second oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia, after the Alpine rally of East Gippslan ...
has been held at the Albert Park Circuit since 1996. Cricket was one of the first sports to become organised in Melbourne with the
Melbourne Cricket Club The Melbourne Cricket Club (MCC) is a sports club based in Melbourne, Australia. It was founded in 1838 and is one of the oldest sports clubs in Australia. The MCC is responsible for management and development of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, ...
forming within three years of settlement. The club manages one of the world's largest stadiums, the 100,000 capacity
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Victoria. Founded and managed by the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the largest stadium in the Southern Hemisphe ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
(MCG). Established in 1853, the MCG is notable for hosting the first Test cricket, Test match and the first One Day International, played between Australia cricket team, Australia and England cricket team, England in 1877 and 1971, respectively. It is also the home of the National Sports Museum, and serves as the home ground of the Victoria cricket team. At Twenty20 level, the Melbourne Stars and Melbourne Renegades compete in the Big Bash League.
Australian rules football Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called "Aussie rules", "football" or "footy", is a contact sport played between two teams of 18 players on an oval field, often a modified cricket ground. Points are ...
, Australia's most popular spectator sport, traces origins of Australian rules football, its origins to matches played in Yarra Park, parklands next to the MCG in 1858. Its first laws were codified the following year by the
Melbourne Football Club The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is a professional Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League (AFL). It is based in Melbourne, Victoria, and plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground (M ...
, also a founding member, in 1896, of the Australian Football League (AFL), the sport's elite professional competition. Headquartered at Docklands Stadium, the AFL fields a further eight Melbourne-based clubs: Carlton Football Club, Carlton, Collingwood Football Club, Collingwood, Essendon Football Club, Essendon, Hawthorn Football Club, Hawthorn, North Melbourne Football Club, North Melbourne, Richmond Football Club, Richmond, St Kilda Football Club, St Kilda, and the Western Bulldogs. The city hosts up to five AFL matches per round during the home and away season, attracting an average of 40,000 spectators per game. The AFL Grand Final, traditionally held at the MCG, is the List of sports attendance figures, highest attended club championship event in the world. In soccer, Melbourne is represented in the A-League by Melbourne Victory FC, Melbourne Victory, Melbourne City FC and Western United FC. The rugby league team Melbourne Storm plays in the National Rugby League, and in rugby union, the Melbourne Rebels and Melbourne Rising compete in the Super Rugby and National Rugby Championship competitions, respectively. North American sports have also gained popularity in Melbourne: basketball sides South East Melbourne Phoenix and Melbourne United play in the National Basketball League (Australia), NBL; Melbourne Ice and Melbourne Mustangs play in the Australian Ice Hockey League; and Melbourne Aces plays in the Australian Baseball League. Rowing (sport), Rowing also forms part of Melbourne's sporting identity, with a number of clubs located on the Yarra River, out of which many Australian Olympians trained.


Economy

Melbourne has a highly diversified economy with particular strengths in finance, manufacturing, research, IT, education, logistics, transportation and tourism. Melbourne houses the headquarters of many of Australia's largest corporations, including five of the ten largest in the country (based on revenue), and five of the largest seven in the country (based on market capitalisation) (Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, ANZ, BHP Billiton (the world's largest mining company), the National Australia Bank, CSL Limited, CSL and Telstra, as well as such representative bodies and think tanks as the Business Council of Australia and the Australian Council of Trade Unions. Melbourne's suburbs also have the head offices of Coles Group (owner of Coles Supermarkets) and Wesfarmers companies Bunnings, Target Australia, Target, Kmart Australia, K-Mart and Officeworks. The city is home to Australia's second busiest Port of Melbourne, seaport, after Port Botany in
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug: ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about on its periphery toward ...

Sydney
.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, and the second busiest airport in Australia. It opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the ...
provides an entry point for national and international visitors, and is Australia's second busiest airport. Melbourne is also an important financial centre. In the 2018
Global Financial Centres Index The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Ba ...
, Melbourne was ranked as having the 15th most competitive financial centre in the world. Two of the Big Four (banks), big four banks, National Australia Bank, NAB and Australia and New Zealand Banking Group, ANZ, are headquartered in Melbourne. The city has carved out a niche as Australia's leading centre for Superannuation in Australia, superannuation (pension) funds, with 40% of the total, and 65% of Industry superannuation, industry super-funds including the AU$109 billion-dollar Federal Government Future Fund. The city was rated 41st within the top 50 financial cities as surveyed by the MasterCard Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index (2008), second only to Sydney (12th) in Australia. Melbourne is Australia's second-largest industrial centre. It is the Australian base for a number of significant manufacturers including Boeing, truck-makers Kenworth and Iveco, Cadbury as well as Bombardier Transportation and Jayco, among many others. It is also home to a wide variety of other manufacturers, ranging from petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals to fashion garments, paper manufacturing and food processing. The south-eastern suburb of Scoresby, Victoria, Scoresby is home to Nintendo Australia, Nintendo's Australian headquarters. The city also has a research and development hub for Ford Australia, as well as a global design studio and technical centre for General Motors and Toyota respectively. CSL Limited, CSL, one of the world's top five biotech companies, and Sigma Pharmaceuticals have their headquarters in Melbourne. The two are the largest listed Australian pharmaceutical companies. Melbourne has an important Information and Communication Technology, ICT industry that employs over 60,000 people (one third of Australia's ICT workforce), with a turnover of AU$19.8 billion and export revenues of AU615 million. In addition, tourism also plays an important role in Melbourne's economy, with about 7.6 million domestic visitors and 1.88 million international visitors in 2004. Melbourne has been attracting an increasing share of domestic and international conference markets. Construction began in February 2006 of an AU$1 billion 5000-seat international convention centre, Hilton Hotel (disambiguation), Hilton Hotel and commercial precinct adjacent to the Melbourne Exhibition and Convention Centre to link development along the
Yarra River The Yarra River or historically, the Yarra Yarra River, (Kulin languages: ''Berrern'', ''Birr-arrung'', ''Bay-ray-rung'', ''Birarang'', ''Birrarung'', and ''Wongete'') is a perennial river in east-central Victoria, Australia. The lower stretch ...
with the Southbank, Victoria, Southbank precinct and multibillion-dollar Melbourne Docklands, Docklands redevelopment. The Economist Intelligence Unit ranks Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world to live in according to its worldwide cost of living index in 2013. The Economist Intelligence Unit also has ranked Melbourne as the most liveable city in the world for seven consecutive years (2011-2017).


Tourism

Melbourne is the second most visited city in Australia and the seventy-third most visited city in the world. In 2018, 10.8 million domestic overnight tourists and 2.9 million international overnight tourists visited Melbourne. The most visited attractions are: Federation Square,
Queen Victoria Market The Queen Victoria Market (also known colloquially as Vic Market or Queen Vic) is a major landmark in the central business district (CBD) of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Covering over , it is the largest open air market in the Southern Hemis ...
, Crown Melbourne, Crown Casino, Southbank, Victoria, Southbank, Melbourne Zoo, Melbourne Aquarium, Docklands, Victoria, Docklands,
National Gallery of Victoria The National Gallery of Victoria, popularly known as the NGV, is an art museum in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. Founded in 1861, it is Australia's oldest, largest and most visited art museum. The NGV houses an encyclopedic art collection acros ...
, Melbourne Museum, Melbourne Observation Deck, The Arts Centre, Arts Centre Melbourne, and the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park, Melbourne, Victoria. Founded and managed by the Melbourne Cricket Club, it is the largest stadium in the Southern Hemisphe ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
. Luna Park, Melbourne, Luna Park, a theme park modelled on New York's Coney Island and Seattle's Luna Park, Seattle, Luna Park, is also a popular destination for visitors. In its annual survey of readers, the Condé Nast Traveler magazine found that both Melbourne and Auckland were considered the world's friendliest cities in 2014. The magazine highlighted the connection the city inhabitants have to public art and the many parks across the city. Its high liveability rankings make it one of the safest world cities for travellers. Furthermore, the city's prevalent cafe culture, alfresco dining, rooftop bars and diverse food culture make it a popular spot for gastronomical tourism.


Demographics

In 2018, the population of the Melbourne metropolitan area was 4,963,349. Although Victoria's net interstate migration has fluctuated, the population of the Melbourne statistical division has grown by about 70,000 people a year since 2005. Melbourne has now attracted the largest proportion of international overseas immigrants (48,000) finding it outpacing Sydney's international migrant intake on percentage, along with having strong interstate migration from Sydney and other capitals due to more affordable housing and cost of living. In recent years, Shire of Melton, Melton, City of Wyndham, Wyndham and City of Casey, Casey, part of the Melbourne statistical division, have recorded the highest growth rate of all Local government in Australia, local government areas in Australia. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, Melbourne was on track to overtake
Sydney Sydney ( ; Dharug: ) is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about on its periphery toward ...

Sydney
in population by 2028. The Australian Bureau of Statistics, ABS has projected in two scenarios that Sydney will remain larger than Melbourne beyond 2056, albeit by a margin of less than 3% compared to a margin of 12% today. After a trend of declining population density since World War II, the city has seen increased density in the inner and Western Suburbs (Melbourne), western suburbs, aided in part by Victorian Government planning, such as Postcode 3000 and Melbourne 2030, which have aimed to curtail urban sprawl. As of 2018, the CBD is the most densely populated area in Australia with more than 19,000 residents per square kilometre, and the inner city suburbs of Carlton, Victoria, Carlton, South Yarra, Fitzroy, Victoria, Fitzroy and Collingwood, Victoria, Collingwood make up Victoria's top five.


Ancestry and immigration

At the 2016 census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were: 0.5% of the population, or 24,062 people, identified as
Indigenous Australians Indigenous Australians are people with familial heritage to groups that lived in Australia before British colonisation. They include the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia. The term Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander p ...
(Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders) in 2016. Melbourne has the Foreign born#Metropolitan and Urban regions with largest foreign born populations, 10th largest immigrant population among world metropolitan areas. In Greater Melbourne at the 2016 census, 63.3% of residents were born in Australia. The other most common countries of birth were India (3.6%), Mainland China (3.5%), England (3%), Vietnam (1.8%) and New Zealand (1.8%).


Language

As of the 2016 census, 62% of Melburnians speak only English at home. Mandarin Chinese, Mandarin (4.1%), Greek language, Greek (2.4%), Italian language, Italian (2.3%), Vietnamese language, Vietnamese (2.3%), and Cantonese (1.7%) were the most common foreign languages spoken at home by residents of Melbourne as of 2016.


Religion

Melbourne has a wide range of religious faiths, the most widely held of which is Christianity. This is signified by the city's two large cathedrals— St Patrick's (Roman Catholic), and St Paul's (Anglican). Both were built in the Victorian era and are of considerable heritage significance as major landmarks of the city. In recent years, Greater Melbourne's irreligious community has grown to be one of the largest in Australia. According to the 2016 Census, the largest responses on religious belief in Melbourne were Irreligion, no religion (31.9%), Catholic Church in Australia, Catholic (23.4%), none stated (9.1%), Anglicanism in Australia, Anglican (7.6%), Eastern Orthodox (4.3%), Islam (4.2%), Buddhism (3.8%), Hinduism (2.9%), Uniting Church (2.3%), Presbyterian, Presbyterian and Reformed (1.6%), Baptist (1.3%), Sikhism (1.2%) and Judaism (0.9%). Over 180,000 Muslims live in Melbourne. Muslim religious life in Melbourne is centred on more than 25 mosques and a large number of prayer rooms at university campuses, workplaces and other venues. , Melbourne had the largest population of Polish Jews in Australia. The city was also home to the largest number of Holocaust survivors of any Australian city, indeed the highest per capita outside Israel itself. Reflecting this vibrant community, Melbourne has a plethora of Jewish cultural, religious and educational institutions, including over 40 synagogues and 7 full-time parochial day schools, along with a Australian Jewish News, local Jewish newspaper.


Education

Some of Australia's most prominent and well-known schools are based in Melbourne. Of the top twenty high schools in Australia according to th
My Choice Schools Ranking
five are in Melbourne. There has also been a rapid increase in the number of International students studying in the city. Furthermore, Melbourne was ranked the world's fourth top university city in 2008 after London, Boston and Tokyo in a poll commissioned by the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology. Eight public universities operate in Melbourne: the
University of Melbourne The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is Australia's second oldest university and the oldest in Victoria. Its main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north ...
, Monash University, Swinburne University of Technology, Deakin University, RMIT University, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT University), La Trobe University, Australian Catholic University, Australian Catholic University (ACU) and Victoria University of Technology, Victoria University (VU). Melbourne universities have campuses all over Australia and some internationally. Swinburne University and Monash University have campuses in Malaysia, while Monash has a research centre based in Prato, Italy. The University of Melbourne, the second oldest university in Australia, was ranked first among Australian universities in the 2016 Times Higher Education, THES international rankings. In 2018 Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne the 32nd best university in the world which is higher than the rankings in 2016 and 2017, Monash University was ranked 80th best. Both are members of the Group of Eight (Australian universities), Group of Eight, a coalition of leading Australian tertiary institutions offering comprehensive and leading education. As of 2017 RMIT University is ranked 17th in the world in art & design, and 28th in architecture. The Swinburne University of Technology, based in the inner-city Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn, was as of 2014 ranked 76th–100th in the world for physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Deakin University maintains two major campuses in Melbourne and Geelong, and is the third largest university in Victoria. In recent years, the number of international students at Melbourne's universities has risen rapidly, a result of an increasing number of places being made available for them. Education in Melbourne is overseen by the Victorian Department of Education and Training (Victoria), Department of Education (DET), whose role is to 'provide policy and planning advice for the delivery of education'.


Media

Melbourne is served by thirty digital free-to-air television channels: # ABV (TV station), ABC # ABC HD (Australia), ABC HD (ABC broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # ABC TV Plus, ABC TV Plus/KIDS # ABC ME # ABC News (Australia), ABC News # SBS (Australian TV channel), SBS # SBS HD (SBS broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # SBS Viceland # SBS Viceland HD (SBS Viceland broadcast in High-definition television, HD) # Food Network (Australia), SBS Food # SBS World Movies # National Indigenous Television, NITV # HSV (TV station), Seven # 7HD (Seven broadcast in HD) # 7Two # 7mate # 7mate HD # 7flix # Racing.com # openshop # GTV (Australia), Nine # 9HD (Nine broadcast in HD) # 9Gem # 9Go! # 9Life # 9Rush # ATV (Australia), Ten # Ten HD (Ten broadcast in HD) # 10 Bold # 10 Peach # 10 Shake # TVSN # Spree TV # C31 Melbourne (Melbourne's community TV station) Three daily newspapers serve Melbourne: the ''Herald Sun'' (tabloid), ''The Age'' (formerly broadsheet, now compact) and ''The Australian'' (national broadsheet). Six free-to-air television stations service Greater Melbourne and Geelong: ABC Television, ABC Victoria, (ABV (TV station), ABV), Special Broadcasting Service, SBS Victoria (SBS), Seven Network, Seven Melbourne (HSV (TV station), HSV), Nine Network, Nine Melbourne (GTV (Australia), GTV), Network Ten, Ten Melbourne (ATV (Australia), ATV), C31 Melbourne (MGV) – community television. Each station (excluding C31) broadcasts a primary channel and several multichannels. C31 is only broadcast from the transmitters at Mount Dandenong and South Yarra. Hybrid digital/print media companies such as Broadsheet and ThreeThousand are based in and primarily serve Melbourne. Pay television in Melbourne is largely delivered through cable and satellite services. Foxtel, Optus Television, Optus and Fetch TV, Fetch are the main pay television providers. Sky News Australia, Sky News and Fox Sports (Australia), Fox Sports both have studio facilities based in Melbourne. A long List of radio stations in Australia#Melbourne, list of AM and FM radio stations broadcast to greater Melbourne. These include "public" (i.e., state-owned ABC Radio (Australia), ABC and SBS Radio, SBS) and Community radio#Australia, community stations. Many Commercial broadcasting, commercial stations are networked-owned: NOVA Entertainment has Nova 100 and Smooth 91.5, Smooth; Australian Radio Network, ARN controls Gold 104.3 and KIIS 101.1; and Southern Cross Austereo runs both Fox FM (Melbourne), Fox and 3MMM, Triple M. Stations from towns in regional Victoria may also be heard (e.g. 93.9 Bay FM, Geelong). Youth alternatives include ABC Triple J and youth run 3SYN, SYN. Triple J, and similarly 3PBS, PBS and 3RRR, Triple R, strive to play under represented music. 3JOY, JOY 94.9 caters for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender audiences. For fans of classical music there are 3MBS and ABC Classic FM. Light FM is a contemporary Christian station. AM stations include ABC: 774 ABC Melbourne, 774, Radio National, and ABC NewsRadio, News Radio; also Fairfax Media, Fairfax affiliates 3AW (talk radio, talk) and Magic 1278, Magic (easy listening). For sport fans and enthusiasts there is SEN 1116. Melbourne has many community run stations that serve alternative interests, such as 3CR (Melbourne), 3CR and 3KND (Indigenous). Many suburbs have low powered community run stations serving local audiences.


Governance

The governance of Melbourne is split between the government of Victoria and the Local Government Areas of Victoria#Municipalities of Greater Melbourne, 27 cities and four shires that make up the metropolitan area. There is no ceremonial or political head of Melbourne, but the Lord Mayor of Melbourne, Lord Mayor of the City of Melbourne often fulfils such a role as a first among equals, particularly when interstate or overseas. The local councils are responsible for providing the functions set out in the ''Local Government Act'' 1989 such as urban planning and waste management. Most other government services are provided or regulated by the government of Victoria, Victorian state government, which governs from Parliament House in Spring Street, Melbourne, Spring Street. These include services associated with local government in other countries and include public transport, main roads, traffic control, policing, education above preschool level, health and planning of major infrastructure projects. The state government retains the right to override certain local government decisions, including urban planning, and Melburnian issues often feature prominently in state election.


Infrastructure

In 2012, Mercer Consulting ranked Melbourne's infrastructure 17th in the world, behind only one other Australian city, Sydney, which ranked 10th in the world.


Health

The Victorian Government's Department of Health (Victoria), Department of Health oversees about 30 public hospitals in the Melbourne metropolitan region and 13 health services organisations. There are many major medical, neuroscience and biotechnology research institutions located in Melbourne: St. Vincent's Institute of Medical Research, Australian Stem Cell Centre, the Burnet Institute, Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Victorian Institute of Chemical Sciences, Brain Research Institute, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, and the Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre. Other institutions include the Howard Florey Institute, the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute and the Australian Synchrotron. Many of these institutions are associated with and are located near universities. Melbourne also is the home of the Royal Children's Hospital and the Monash Children's Hospital. Among Australian capital cities, Melbourne ties with Canberra in first place for the highest male life expectancy (80.0 years) and ranks second behind Perth in female life expectancy (84.1 years).


Transport

Like many Australian cities, Melbourne has a high dependency on the automobile for transport, particularly in the outer suburban areas where the largest number of cars are bought, with a total of 3.6 million private vehicles using of road, and one of the highest lengths of road per capita in the world. The early 20th century saw an increase in popularity of automobiles, resulting in large-scale suburban expansion and a tendency towards the development of urban sprawl–like all Australian cities, inhabitants would live in the suburbs and commute to the city for work. By the mid 1950s there was just under 200 passenger vehicles per 1000 people, and by 2013 there was 600 passenger vehicles per 1000 people. Today it has an extensive network of freeways and arterial roadways used by private vehicles including freight as well as public transport systems including buses and taxis. Major highways feeding into the city include the Eastern Freeway, Melbourne, Eastern Freeway, Monash Freeway and West Gate Freeway (which spans the large West Gate Bridge), whilst other freeways circumnavigate the city or lead to other major cities, including CityLink (which spans the large Bolte Bridge), EastLink, Melbourne, Eastlink, the Western Ring Road, Melbourne, Western Ring Road, Calder Freeway, Tullamarine Freeway (main airport link) and the Hume Freeway which links Melbourne and Sydney. Melbourne has an integrated public transport system based around extensive train, tram, bus and taxi systems. Flinders Street railway station, Flinders Street station was the world's busiest passenger station in 1927 and Melbourne's tram network overtook Sydney's to become the world's largest in the 1940s. From the 1940s, public transport usage in Melbourne declined due to a rapid expansion of the road and freeway network, with the largest declines in tram and bus usage. This decline quickened in the early 1990s due to large public transport service cuts. The operations of Melbourne's public transport system was privatised in 1999 through a franchising model, with operational responsibilities for the train, tram and bus networks licensed to private companies. After 1996 there was a rapid increase in public transport patronage due to growth in employment in central Melbourne, with the mode share for commuters increasing to 14.8% and 8.4% of all trips. A target of 20% public transport mode share for Melbourne by 2020 was set by the state government in 2006. Since 2006 public transport patronage has grown by over 20%. The Melbourne rail network dates back to the 1850s gold rush era, and today consists of List of Melbourne railway stations, 218 suburban stations on 16 lines which radiate from the City Loop, a mostly-underground subway system around the CBD. Flinders Street railway station, Flinders Street station, Australia's busiest transportation hub, rail hub, serves the entire network, and remains a prominent Melbourne landmark and meeting place. The city has rail connections with regional Victorian cities, as well as direct interstate rail services which depart from Melbourne's other major rail terminus, Southern Cross railway station, Southern Cross station, in Docklands. ''The Overland'' to Adelaide departs twice a week, while the New South Wales XPT, XPT to Sydney departs twice daily. In the 2017–2018 financial year, the Melbourne rail network recorded 240.9 million passenger trips, the highest ridership in its history. Many rail lines, along with dedicated lines and rail yards, are also used for freight. Trams in Melbourne, Melbourne's tram network dates from the 1880s land boom and, as of 2019, consists of of double track, 475 trams, List of Melbourne tram routes, 25 routes, and 1,763 tram stops, making it the largest in the world. In 2017–2018, 206.3 million passenger trips were made by tram. Around 75 per cent of Melbourne's tram network shares road space with other vehicles, while the rest of the network is separated or are light rail routes. Melbourne's trams are recognised as iconic cultural assets and a tourist attraction. W-class Melbourne tram, Heritage trams operate on the free City Circle Tram, City Circle route, intended for visitors to Melbourne, and heritage Colonial Tramcar Restaurant, restaurant trams travel through the city and surrounding areas during the evening. Melbourne is currently building 50 new E Class trams with some already in service in 2014. The E Class trams are about 30 metres long and are superior to the C2 class tram of similar length. Melbourne's bus network consists of almost List of Melbourne bus routes, 300 routes which mainly service the outer suburbs and fill the gaps in the network between rail and tram services. 127.6 million passenger trips were recorded on Melbourne's buses in 2013–2014, an increase of 10.2 percent on the previous year. Ship transport is an important component of Melbourne's transport system. The Port of Melbourne is Australia's largest container and general cargo port and also its busiest. The port handled two million shipping containers in a 12-month period during 2007, making it one of the top five ports in the Southern Hemisphere. Station Pier on Port Phillip Bay is the main passenger ship terminal with cruise ships and the TT-Line Pty. Ltd., Spirit of Tasmania ferries which cross Bass Strait to
Tasmania Tasmania (; abbreviated as Tas, nicknamed Tassie, xpz, Lutruwita; Palawa kani: ''Lutruwita'') is an island state of Australia. It is located to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main i ...
docking there. Ferries and water taxis run from Berth (moorings), berths along the Yarra River as far upstream as South Yarra and across Port Phillip Bay. Melbourne has List of airports in the Melbourne area, four airports.
Melbourne Airport Melbourne Airport , colloquially known as Tullamarine Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Melbourne, and the second busiest airport in Australia. It opened in 1970 to replace the nearby Essendon Airport. Melbourne Airport is the ...
, at Tullamarine, is the city's main international and domestic gateway and second busiest in Australia. The airport is home base for passenger airline Jetstar Airways and cargo airlines Australian air Express and Toll Priority, and is a major hub for Qantas and Virgin Australia. Avalon Airport, located between Melbourne and Geelong, is a secondary hub of Jetstar. It is also used as a freight and maintenance facility. Buses and taxis are the only forms of public transport to and from the city's main airports. Air Ambulance facilities are available for domestic and international transportation of patients. Melbourne also has a significant general aviation airport, Moorabbin Airport in the city's south east that also handles a small number of passenger flights. Essendon Airport, which was once the city's main airport also handles passenger flights, general aviation and some cargo flights. The city also has a bicycle sharing system that was established in 2010 and uses a network of marked road lanes and segregated cycle facilities.


Utilities

Water storage and supply for Melbourne is managed by Melbourne Water, which is owned by the Victorian Government. The organisation is also responsible for management of sewerage and the major water catchments in the region as well as the Wonthaggi desalination plant and North-South Pipeline, North–South Pipeline. Water is stored in a series of reservoirs located within and outside the Greater Melbourne area. The largest dam, the Thomson River Dam, located in the Victorian Alps, is capable of holding around 60% of Melbourne's water capacity, while smaller dams such as the Upper Yarra Dam, Yan Yean Reservoir, and the Cardinia Reservoir carry secondary supplies. Gas is provided by three distribution companies: * AusNet Services, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner western suburbs to southwestern Victoria. * Multinet Gas, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner eastern suburbs to eastern Victoria. (owned by SP AusNet after acquisition, but continuing to trade under the brand name Multinet Gas) * Australian Gas Networks, which provides gas from Melbourne's inner northern suburbs to northern Victoria, as well as the majority of southeastern Victoria. Electricity is provided by five distribution companies: * Citipower, which provides power to Melbourne's CBD, and some inner suburbs * Powercor, which provides power to the outer western suburbs, as well as all of western Victoria (Citipower and Powercor are owned by the same entity) * Jemena, which provides power to the northern and inner western suburbs * Alinta, United Energy, which provides power to the inner eastern and southeastern suburbs, and the
Mornington Peninsula The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula located south of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is surrounded by Port Phillip to the west, Western Port to the east and Bass Strait to the south, and is connected to the mainland in the north. Geograph ...

Mornington Peninsula
* AusNet Services, which provides power to the outer eastern suburbs and all of the north and east of Victoria. Numerous telecommunications companies provide Melbourne with terrestrial and mobile telecommunications services and wireless internet services and at least since 2016 Melbourne offers a free public WiFi which allows for up to 250 MB per device in some areas of the city.


Crime

Melbourne has one of the lowest crime rates of any major city globally, ranking 10th in ''The Economists 2019 Safe Cities Index. Reports of crime in Victoria fell by 7.8 per cent in 2018 to its lowest in three years, with 5,922 cases per 100,000 people. Melbourne City Centre, Melbourne's city centre (CBD) reported the highest incident rate of local government areas in Victoria.


See also

* Melway (the native street directory and general information source in Melbourne) * voy:Melbourne, Melbourne, the travel article at sister project Wikivoyage


Lists

* List of Melbourne suburbs * List of museums in Melbourne * List of people from Melbourne * List of songs about Melbourne * Local government in Victoria


Notes


References


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

*
Official tourist board site of Melbourne
* {{Authority control Melbourne, 1835 establishments in Australia 1835 establishments in Oceania Australian capital cities Cities in Victoria (Australia) Coastal cities in Australia Former national capitals Metropolitan areas of Australia Populated places established in 1835 Port cities in Victoria (Australia) Regions of Victoria (Australia)