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Meitei, or Meetei (also Manipuri ;Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues – 2000
Census of India, 2001
Meitheilon, Meeteilon, Meeʁteilon, from ''Meithei'' + ''-lon'' 'language'; Kathe) is a Tibeto-Burman language and the predominant language and lingua franca of the state of Manipur in northeastern India. It is one of the official languages of the Government of India. Meitei is the most spoken Tibeto-Burman language of India and the most spoken language in Northeast India after Bengali and Assamese. In the 2011 census of India, there were 1.8 million native speakers of Meitei. Additionally, there are around 200,000 native speakers of Meitei abroad. Meiteilon is also spoken in the Northeast Indian states of Assam and Tripura and in Bangladesh and Burma (now Myanmar). It is currently classified as a "vulnerable language" by UNESCO. Meiteilon is a tonal language whose exact classification within Sino-Tibetan remains unclear. It has lexical resemblances to Kuki and Tangkhul Naga. It has been recognised (under the name ''Manipuri'') by the Indian Union and has been included in the list of scheduled languages (included in the 8th schedule by the 71st amendment of the constitution in 1992). Meiteilon is taught as a subject up to the post-graduate level (Ph.D.) in some universities of India, apart from being a medium of instruction up to the undergraduate level in Manipur. Education in government schools is provided in Meiteilon through the eighth standard.


Name

The name ''Meitei'' or its alternate spelling ''Meithei'' is preferred by many native speakers of Meitei over ''Manipuri.''Chelliah (1997: 2) The term is derived from the Meitei word for the language ''Meitheirón'' (''Meithei'' + ''-lon'' 'language'). ''Meithei'' may be a compound from ''mí'' 'man' + ''they'' 'separate'. This term is used by most western linguistic scholarship. Meitei scholars use the term ''Mei(h)tei'' when writing in English and the term ''Meitheirón'' when writing in Meitei. Chelliah (2015: 89) notes that the ''Meitei'' spelling has replaced the earlier ''Meithei'' spelling. The language (and people) is also referred to by the loconym ''Manipuri.'' The term is derived from name of the state of Manipur. ''Manipur'' itself has basis on Hindu epic Mahabharata, in which a shining diamond called ''mani'' ('jewel') in Sanskrit is thrown from the head of a snake god Vasuki, which spreads natural beauty throughout the land. ''Manipuri'' is the official name of the language for the Indian government and is used by government institutions and non-Meitei authors. The term ''Manipuri'' is also used to refer to the Bishnupriya and people. Additionally, ''Manipuri,'' being a loconym, can refer to anything pertaining to Manipur state. The term ''Meetei'' is used by Meitei speakers who want political autonomy from India, so-called "revivalists".

Dialects

The Meitei language exhibits a degree of regional variation; however, in recent years the broadening of communication, as well as intermarriage, has caused the dialectal differences to become relatively insignificant. The only exceptions to this occurrence are the speech differences of the dialects found in Tripura, Bangladesh and Myanmar. The exact number of dialects of Meitei is unknown. The three main dialects of Meitei are: Meitei proper, Loi and Pangal. Differences between these dialects are primarily characterised by the extensions of new sounds and tonal shifts. Meitei proper is considered, of the three, to be the standard variety—and is viewed as more dynamic than the other two dialects. The brief table below compares some words in these three dialects: Devi (2002)Devi, L. Manimala. 2002. A comparative study of Imphal, Andro, Koutruk and Kakching dialects of Meiteiron. (Doctoral dissertation, Canchipur: Manipur University; 273pp.) compares the Imphal, Andro, Koutruk, and Kakching dialects of Meitei.


Syntax


Meitei language is an SOV language, though topics can be fronted.

Phonology




Tone


The Meitei language is a tonal language. There is a controversy over whether there are two or three tones.


Segments


Meitei makes use of the following sounds: Consonants Vowels Note: the central vowel /ɐ/ is transcribed as <ə> in recent linguistic work on Meitei. However, phonetically it is never but more usually It is assimilated to a following approximant: /ɐw/ = /ow/, /ɐj/ = j

Phonological processes




Velar deletion


A velar deletion is noted to occur on the suffix -lək when following a syllable ending with a /k/ phoneme.


Grassman's law


Meitei has a dissimilatory process similar to Grassmann's law found in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit, though occurring on the second aspirate. Here, an aspirated consonant is deaspirated if preceded by an aspirated consonant (including ) in the previous syllable. The deaspirated consonants are then voiced between sonorants. * ('pierce') + ('upward') → ('pierce upwards') * ('cow') + ('udder') → ('milk') * ('trim') + ('outward') → ('trim outwards')

Writing systems



Meitei script

Meitei has its own script, which was used until the 18th century. Its earliest use is not known. Pamheiba, the ruler of the Manipur Kingdom who introduced Hinduism, banned the use of the Meitei script and adopted the Bengali script. Now in schools and colleges, the Bengali script is gradually being replaced by the Meitei script. The local organisations have played a major role in spreading awareness about their own script. Many Meitei documents were destroyed at the beginning of the 18th century during the reign of Hindu converted King Pamheiba, under the instigation of the Bengali Hindu missionary, Shantidas Gosai. Between 1709 and the middle of the 20th century, the Meitei language was written using the Bengali script. During the 1940s and 1950s, Meitei scholars began campaigning to bring back the Old Meitei (Old Manipuri) alphabet. In 1976 at a writers conference, all the scholars finally agreed on a new version of the alphabet containing a number of additional letters to represent sounds not present in Meitei when the script was first developed. The current Meitei alphabet is a reconstruction of the ancient Meitei script. Since the early 1980s, the Meitei alphabet has been taught in schools in Manipur It is a syllabic alphabet in which consonants all have an inherent vowel /a/. Other vowels are written as independent letters or by using diacritical marks that are written above, below, before or after the consonant they belong to. Each letter is named after a part of the human body. There are some texts from the Maring and Limbu tribes of Manipur, which were written in the Meitei script.

Latin script

There exists an informal, but fairly consistent practical spelling of Meitei in Latin script. This spelling is used in the transcription of personal names and place names, and it is extensively used on the internet (Facebook, blogspots, etc.). It is also found in academic publications, for the spelling of Meitei book titles and the like (examples can be seen in the References, below). This spelling, on the whole, offers a transparent, unambiguous representation of the Meitei sound system, although the tones are usually not marked. It is "practical" in the sense that it does not use extra-alphabetical symbols, and can, therefore, be produced easily on any standard keyboard. The only point of ambiguity is found in the spelling of the vowels /ɐ/ and /a/, which are usually both written "a", except when they occur before an approximant (see table below). The vowel /a/ is sometimes written as "aa" to distinguish it from /ɐ/.

Bengali

Bangladesh and India currently use the Eastern Bengali script.

Grammar

A sentence in Meitei language use the format Subject + Object + Verb for example in the sentence ''Ei chak chai(ꯑꯩ ꯆꯥꯛ ꯆꯥꯢ)'' which literally mean ''I eat rice'' here, "Ei"=I,"Chak"=Rice,"Chai"=eat. So the simplest form of a grammatically correct sentence is (S+O+V).


Number agreement


Agreement in nouns and pronouns is expressed to clarify singular and plural cases through the addition of the suffixes -khoi (for personal pronouns and human proper nouns) and -sing (for all other nouns). Verbs associated with the pluralised nouns are unaffected. Examples are demonstrated below: When adjectives are used to be more clear, Meitei utilises separate words and does not add a suffix to the noun. Examples are show in the chart below:


Compound verbs


Compound verbs are created by combining root verbs each ending with aspect markers. While the variety of suffixes is high, all compound verbs utilise one of two: Aspect markers appear as suffixes that clarify verb tense and appear at the end of the compound verb. Overall, the formula to construct a compound verb becomes oot verb+ uffix+ spect marker Compound verbs can also be formed utilising both compound suffixes as well, allowing utterances such as ''pithokningle'' meaning "want to give out".

Number words



Linguistic tradition

The culture involved with the Meitei language is rooted deeply with pride and tradition based on having respect to the community elders. Young children who do not know about the tales that have been passed on from generation to generation are very rare. Regarding the history behind the ancient use of proverbs that defines the way conversation is held with the Meitei language, it is a way of expressing and telling stories and even using modern slang with old proverbs to communicate between one another. The Meitei language is known to be one of the oldest languages in northeastern India and has a lengthy 2000-year period of existence. It had its own script. The history behind the Meitei language itself comes primarily from the medieval period of northeastern India.


See also


* Languages of India * List of languages by number of native speakers in India * List of Manipuri poets * Sahitya Akademi Award to Manipuri Writers *Meitei inscriptions

References

* 1. ''A Short History of Kangleipak (Manipur) Part-I'', by Chingtamlen, 2005 * 2. ''A Short History of Kangleipak (Manipur) Part-II'', by Chingtamlen, 2007 * 3. ''A Short History of Kangleipak (Manipur) Part-III'', by Chingtamlen, 2008 * 4. ''The Meetei and the Bishnupriya'', by Chingtamlen, 2008

Culture

* Brara, N. Vijaylakshmi. (1998). ''Politics, society, and cosmology in India's North East''. Delphi: Oxford University Press. * Budha, W. (1992). ''Indigenous games of the Meiteis''. Manipur: Wangkeimayum Publications. * Kshetrimayum, Otojit. (2014). ''Ritual, Politics and Power in North East India: Contexualising the Lai Haraoba of Manipur''. Delhi: Ruby Press & Co. * Singh, M. Kirti. (1988). ''Religion and culture of Manipur''. Delhi: Manas Publications. * Singh, M. Kirti. (1993). ''Folk culture of Manipur''. Delhi: Manas Publications. * Singh, Saikhom Gopal. (2014). ''The Meeteis of Manipur: A Study in Human Geography''. Delhi: Ruby Press & Co.

Language

* Bhat, D. N. S.; & Ningomba, S. (1997). ''Manipuri grammar''. Munich: Lincom Europa. * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1990). Experiencer subjects in Manipuri. In V. M. Manindra & K. P. Mohanan (Eds.), ''Experiencer subjects in South Asian languages'' (pp. 195–211). Stanford: The Center for the Study of Language and Information. * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1992). Tone in Manipuri. In K. L. Adams & T. J. Hudak (Eds.), ''Papers from the first annual meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1991'' (pp. 65–85). Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1992). Bracketing paradoxes in Manipuri. In M. Aronoff (Ed.), ''Morphology now'' (pp. 33–47). Albany: State University of New York Press. * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1994). Morphological change and fast speech phenomena in the Manipuri verb. In K. L. Adams & T. J. Hudak (Eds.), ''Papers from the second annual meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society 1992'' (pp. 121–134). Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University. * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (1997). ''A grammar of Meitei''. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. . * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (2002). Early Meitei manuscripts. In C. I. Beckwith (Ed.), ''Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages: PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the ninth seminar of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000'' (pp. 59–71). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. * Chelliah, Shobhana L. (2002). A glossary of 39 basic words in archaic and modern Meitei. In C. I. Beckwith (Ed.), ''Medieval Tibeto-Burman languages: PIATS 2000: Tibetan studies: Proceedings of the ninth seminar of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, Leiden 2000'' (pp. 189–190). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. * * * Singh, Ningthoukhongjam Khelchandra. (1964). ''Manipuri to Manipuri & English dictionary''.

External links


Meitei Mayek (Meitei Script)
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Learn to speak Manipuri, with the right pronunciation



Learn Meithei Mayek (Meithei Script) – E-Pao.net


{{DEFAULTSORT:Meitei Language Category:Official languages of India Category:Languages of Myanmar Category:Meitei culture Category:Unclassified Sino-Tibetan languages