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Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the
U.S. state In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares ...
of
New York New York most commonly refers to: * New York City, the most populous city in the United States, located in the state of New York * New York (state), a state in the Northeastern United States New York may also refer to: Film and television * ''Ne ...
, in the
northeastern United States The northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the s ...
. At
New York Harbor New York Harbor is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay near the East River tidal estuary, and then into the Atlantic Ocean on the east coast of the United States. It is one of the largest natural harbors in the w ...
it is approximately from
Manhattan Island Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of t ...

Manhattan Island
and extends eastward over into the
Atlantic Ocean#REDIRECT Atlantic Ocean#REDIRECT Atlantic Ocean {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Atlantic Ocean
. The
island upright=1.15, Ireland (left) and Great Britain (right), are large islands of north-west Europe image:Small Island in Lower Saranac Lake.jpg, A small island in Lower Saranac Lake in the Adirondacks, New York state, U.S. Bangchuidao Isla ...
comprises four
counties A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the Old French ...
; Kings and Queens counties (the
New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the Unit ...

New York City
boroughs A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History In the Middle Ages ...
of
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
and
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
, respectively) and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two thirds. More than half of New York City's residents live on Long Island, in Brooklyn and in Queens.
Accessed July 21, 2017.
However, people in the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at , and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. The metropolitan area includes New York City (the most populous city in the Unit ...
colloquially use the term ''Long Island'' (or ''the Island'') to refer exclusively to Nassau and Suffolk counties, and conversely, employ the term ''the City'' to mean Manhattan alone. While the Nassau plus Suffolk definition of Long Island does not have any legal existence, it is recognized as a "region" by the state of New York. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands.To its west, Long Island is separated from
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of t ...

Manhattan
and
the Bronx The Bronx () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state of New York, and the third-most-densely populated county in the United States. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across ...
by the
East River The East River is a salt water tidal estuary in New York City. The waterway, which is actually not a river despite its name, connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates the borough of Queens ...
tidal estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environmen ...
. North of the island is
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East River in New York Ci ...

Long Island Sound
, across which lie
Westchester County, New York Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to ...
, and the state of
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of human development behind Massachusetts, and highest median household ...
. Across the
Block Island Sound Block Island Sound is a strait in the open Atlantic Ocean, approximately wide, separating Block Island from the coast of mainland Rhode Island in the United States. On the west, it extends to Montauk Point on the eastern tip of Long Island, as ...
to the northeast is the state of
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area and the seventh-least populous (1,059,361 as of 2019), but it is also the sec ...
.
Block Island Block Island is an American island in the state of Rhode Island located in Block Island Sound approximately south of the mainland and east of Montauk Point, Long Island, New York, named after Dutch explorer Adriaen Block. It is part of Washing ...
—which is part of
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area and the seventh-least populous (1,059,361 as of 2019), but it is also the sec ...
—and numerous smaller islands extend further into the Atlantic. To the extreme southwest, Long Island is separated from
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Richmond County, in the U.S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull an ...
and the state of
New Jersey New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean; on the west by the Delaware R ...
by
Upper New York Bay Bay in red. It is connected to Lower New York Bay on the south by the Narrows. Ellis Island (north) and Liberty Island (south) are shown in the northwest corner of the bay. Upper New York Bay, or Upper Bay, is the traditional heart of the Port o ...
,
the Narrows __NOTOC__ The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City, United States. It connects the Upper New York Bay and Lower New York Bay and forms the principal channel by which the Hudson River ...
, and
Lower New York Bay , 2. East River, 3. Long Island Sound, 4. Newark Bay, 5. Upper New York Bay, 6. Lower New York Bay, 7. Jamaica Bay, 8. Atlantic Ocean on Staten Island, New York Image:Raritan_Bay_from_Sandy_Hook.tif">250px, View over the Sandy Hook, New Jersey ...
. Both the longest and the largest island in the
contiguous United States The contiguous United States or officially the conterminous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states (plus the District of Columbia) on the continent of North America. The terms exclude the non-contiguous states of Alaska and Hawa ...
, Long Island extends eastward from New York Harbor to
Montauk Point Montauk ( ) is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP) in the Town of East Hampton in Suffolk County, New York, on the eastern end of the South Shore of Long Island. As of the 2010 United States census, the CDP's population was 3,326. The CDP e ...
, with a maximum north-to-south distance of between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of , Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the of the smallest U.S. state, Rhode Island. With a census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U.S. state or territory, and the 18th-most populous island in the world (ahead of
Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, ...

Ireland
,
Jamaica Jamaica () is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola). Jamaica lies about south of Cuba, and west of Hispaniola ...
, and
Hokkaidō is the second largest island of Japan and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaido from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel. The largest city on Hokkaido is ...
). Its
population density#REDIRECT Population density#REDIRECT Population density {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
is . If Long Island geographically constituted an independent
metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are neither legally incorporated as a city or town ...
, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States; while if it were a U.S. state, Long Island would rank thirteenth in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and
ethnically diverse The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, and of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms often used interc ...
, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the
Western Hemisphere#REDIRECT Western Hemisphere#REDIRECT Western Hemisphere {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
near the
shoreline A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake. In physical oceanography, a shore is the wider fringe that is geologically modified by the action of the body of water past and ...

shoreline
s as well as working-class areas in all four counties. As a hub of
commercial aviation Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline services) that involves operating aircraft for hire to transport passengers or multiple loads of cargo. History Origins Harry Bruno and Juan Trippe w ...
, Long Island is home to two of the
New York City New York City (NYC), often simply called New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2019 population of 8,336,817 distributed over about , New York City is also the most densely populated major city in the Unit ...

New York City
metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is an airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering , the airport is the third busiest airport serving New York City, and the twentieth busiest in the United States. The airport adopted its current name in 1953 fo ...

LaGuardia Airport
, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport; as well as two major
air traffic control Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace. The primary purp ...
radar facilities, the New York TRACON and the New York ARTCC. Nine bridges and thirteen tunnels (including
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, ...
tunnels) connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City.
Ferries A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo, across a body of water. A passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part ...
connect Suffolk County northward across
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East River in New York Ci ...

Long Island Sound
to the state of
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of human development behind Massachusetts, and highest median household ...
. The
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday r ...

Long Island Rail Road
is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates
24/74/7 may refer to: *April 7 (month-day date notation) *July 4 (day-month date notation) *4/7 (number), a fraction {{Numberdis ...
. Nassau County high school students often feature prominently as winners of the
Intel International Science and Engineering Fair The Regeneron International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) is an annual science fair in the United States. It is owned and administered by the Society for Science, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in Washington, D.C. Each May, mor ...
and similar
STEM Stem or STEM may refer to: Biology * Plant stem, the aboveground structures that have vascular tissue and that support leaves and flowers ** Stipe (botany), a stalk that supports some other structure ** Stipe (mycology), the stem supporting the ca ...
-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies Biotechnology is a broad area of biology, involving the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products. Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with related scientific fields. In the late 20th and early 21st c ...
and
scientific research The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given t ...

scientific research
play a significant role in Long Island's economy,
Accessed November 16, 2016.
including research institute, research facilities at
Brookhaven National Laboratory Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base. Its name stems f ...
,
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant biology, genomics, and quantitative biology. It is one of 68 institutions supported by the Cancer Centers Prog ...

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
,
Stony Brook University The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY at Stony Brook), more commonly known as Stony Brook University (SBU), is a public research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of ...
,
New York Institute of Technology New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), commonly known as New York Tech and by the initials NYIT, is a private research university founded in 1955. It has two main campuses in New York—one in Old Westbury, on Long Island; and one in Manhat ...
,
Plum Island Animal Disease Center Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of foreign animal diseases of livestock. It is part of the Department of Homeland Security Directorate for Science and Technology, and oper ...

Plum Island Animal Disease Center
, the
New York University Tandon School of Engineering The New York University Tandon School of Engineering (commonly referred to as Tandon) is the engineering and applied sciences school of New York University. Tandon is the second oldest private engineering and technology school in the United Stat ...
, the
City University of New York , mottoeng = The education of free people is the hope of Mankind , budget = $3.6 billion , established = 1961 , type = Public university system , chancellor = Félix V. Matos Rodríguez , city = New York City , state = New York , students = 2 ...
, and
Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine The Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell was established in 2008 by Hofstra University and the North Shore-LIJ Hospital system which was rebranded as Northwell Health in 2015. The Zucker School of Medicine enrolls 99 st ...
.


History


Early history

By the year
1643 Events January–June * January – Claudio Monteverdi's opera ''L'incoronazione di Poppea'' is first performed, at the Teatro Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Venice. * January 21 – Abel Tasman sights the island of Tonga. * Februar ...
, there were 13 indigenous tribes living on
Long Island Long Island is a densely populated island in the southeast part of the U.S. state of New York, in the northeastern United States. At New York Harbor it is approximately from Manhattan Island and extends eastward over into the Atlantic Ocean. ...

Long Island
: Canarsie, Rockaway,
Matinecock :''For the Native American people for which the village is named see ''Matinecock (tribe)'' The Incorporated Village of Matinecock is a village located within the Town of Oyster Bay in Nassau County, New York, United States. The population was 810 ...
, Merrick, Massapequa, Nissequoge, Secatoag, Seatauket, Patchoag, Corchaug, Shinnecock, Manhasset and Montauk. They used canoes as a source of transportation, and since they lived by the shores, they went fishing. The fishermen used bows, arrows, and hooks to catch seafood such as crabs, scallops, and lobster. The farmers used fish for fertilizer and planted vegetables such as corn, beans, and squash, which were popular among the indigenous people. They were exceptional farmers; they had a great understanding of how the weather and soil affected the crops. Many of them hunted animals, such as deer, raccoon, and turkey in the forest. The government that they set up was a participatory democracy and there was an alliance between the
tribes The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant usage of the term is in the discipline of anthropology. The definition is contested, in part due to conflicting theoretical understan ...
. Each tribe had their own territory and chief that was respected by other tribes. Prior to European contact, the
Lenape The Lenape ( or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in the United States and Canada. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and ...
people (named the ''Delaware'' by Europeans) inhabited the western end of Long Island, and spoke the
Munsee The Munsee (or Minsi or Muncee) or mə́n'si·w are a subtribe of the Lenape, originally constituting one of the three great divisions of that nation and dwelling along the upper portion of the Delaware River, the Minisink, and the adjacent countr ...
dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. The Lenape (who were part of the Shinnecock Tribe) practiced record keeping and used wooden tablets, trees, and stones to keep record. They also used
wampum Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of Native Americans. It includes white shell beads hand fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk shell and white and purple beads made from the quahog or Western North ...
belts to write down important messages. They also used their wampum to trade with the Europeans. The Lenape people, in specific, were seen as peacemakers by other indigenous tribes, although they would defend themselves if necessary. The Europeans admired their friendliness and their skills in mediation.
Giovanni da Verrazzano#REDIRECT Giovanni da Verrazzano {{R from other capitalisation ...
was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now
New York Bay New York Bay is the large body of water surrounding the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean. It is shared by the states of New York and New Jersey in the United States. Geography New York Bay is usually divided into ...
in 1524. The island's eastern portion was inhabited by speakers of the
Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language Mohegan-Pequot (also known as Mohegan-Pequot-Montauk, Secatogue, and Shinnecock-Poosepatuck; dialects in New England included Mohegan, Pequot, and Niantic; and on Long Island, Montauk and Shinnecock) is an Algonquian language formerly spoken by i ...
group of Algonquian
languages A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed of glyphs to inscribe the original sound or gesture and ...
; they were part of the
Pequot The Pequots () are a Native American people of Connecticut. Modern Pequots are members of the federally recognized Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, four other state-recognized groups in Connecticut including the Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation, or the Brot ...
and
Narragansett people The Narragansett people are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island. The tribe was nearly landless for most of the 20th century, but it worked to gain federal recognition and attained it in 1983. It is officially the Narragansett In ...
s inhabiting the area that now includes
Connecticut Connecticut () is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, second-highest level of human development behind Massachusetts, and highest median household ...
and
Rhode Island Rhode Island (, like ''road''), officially the State of Rhode Island, is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area and the seventh-least populous (1,059,361 as of 2019), but it is also the sec ...
. In 1609, the
English English usually refers to: * English language * English people English may also refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * ''English'', an adjective for something of, from, or related to England ** English national identity, an identity and ...
navigator
Henry Hudson Henry Hudson ( – disappeared 23 June 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator during the early 17th century, best known for his explorations of present-day Canada and parts of the northeastern United States. In 1607 and 1608, Hud ...
explored the harbor and purportedly landed at
Coney Island Coney Island is a peninsular neighborhood and entertainment area in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is bounded by Brighton Beach to its east, Lower New York Bay to the south and west, and Gra ...
. Dutch explorer
Adriaen Block Adriaen (Arjan) Block (c. 1567 – buried April 27, 1627) was a Dutch private trader, privateer, and ship's captain who is best known for exploring the coastal and river valley areas between present-day New Jersey and Massachusetts during four voy ...
followed in 1615, and is credited as the first European to determine that both
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of t ...

Manhattan
and Long Island are islands. In 1655, the European settlers purchased land from the Indigenous people. They split the land amongst themselves and continued to search the island for more land for settlement. Other parts of indigenous land were bought, areas that are now known as Brookhaven, Bellport, and South haven. These purchases occurred on June 10, 1664, the exchange was four coats and what is now $16.25. The indigenous people did not fully understand that the European claimed ownership of the land. They thought that the exchange was made for them to share the land. The white settlers and the indigenous people lived amicably together for a while. However, some of the white settlers did not trust some of indigenous people. During
King Philip's War King Philip's War (sometimes called the First Indian War, Metacom's War, Metacomet's War, Pometacomet's Rebellion, or Metacom's Rebellion) was an armed conflict in 1675–1678 between indigenous inhabitants of New England and New England colonis ...
in 1675, the English governor of New York ordered all canoes that were east of
Hell Gate Hell Gate is a narrow tidal strait in the East River in New York City. It separates Astoria, Queens from Randall's and Wards Islands. Etymology The name "Hell Gate" is a corruption of the Dutch phrase ''Hellegat'' (it first appeared on a Du ...
to be confiscated. This was done to prevent the Indigenous people from helping their allies in the mainland. After the Dutch began to move into Manhattan many of the indigenous people moved to Pennsylvania and Delaware. They felt pressure to move as they did not fit in with the European culture or religion at the time. Many of them who stayed behind died from smallpox. Native American land
deed In common law, a deed (anciently "an evidence") is any legal instrument in writing which passes, affirms or confirms an interest, right, or property and that is signed, attested, delivered, and in some jurisdictions, sealed. It is commonly assoc ...
s recorded by the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * D ...
from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as ' (' and ' were other spellings in the transliteration of Lenape). ' was one of the terms for
wampum Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of Native Americans. It includes white shell beads hand fashioned from the North Atlantic channeled whelk shell and white and purple beads made from the quahog or Western North ...
(commemorative stringed shell beads, for a while also used as currency by colonists in trades with the Lenape), and is also translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island. The name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. Later, the English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * D ...

Dutch
Prince (who later also ruled as King William III of
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continent ...
). It is unclear when the name "Nassau Island" was discontinued. Another indigenous name from colonial time, Paumanok, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The very first European settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day
New England New England is a region comprising six states in the Northeastern United States: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. It is bordered by the state of New York to the west and by the Canadian provinces of ...

New England
.
Lion Gardiner Lion Gardiner (1599–1663) was an English engineer and colonist who founded the first English settlement in New York, acquiring land on eastern Long Island. He had been working in the Netherlands and was hired to construct fortifications on the Co ...
settled nearby
Gardiners Island Gardiner's Island is a small island in the Town of East Hampton, New York, in Eastern Suffolk County. It is located in Gardiner's Bay between the two peninsulas at the east end of Long Island. It is long, wide and has of coastline. The island ...
. The first settlement on the geographic Long Island itself was on October 21, 1640, when Southold was established by the Rev. John Youngs and settlers from
New Haven New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, Connecticut, and is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,7 ...
, Connecticut. Peter Hallock, one of the settlers, drew the long straw and was granted the honor to step ashore first. He is considered the first New World settler on Long Island.
Southampton Southampton () is a city in Hampshire, South East England, approximately south-west of London and west of Portsmouth. A major port, and close to the New Forest, it lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water, at the confluence of the Ri ...
was settled in the same year. Hempstead followed in 1644, East Hampton in 1648, Huntington, New York, Huntington in 1653, Brookhaven, New York, Brookhaven in 1655, and Smithtown, New York, Smithtown in 1665. While the English eastern region of Long Island was first settled by the English, the western portion of Long Island was settled by the Dutch; until 1664, the jurisdiction of Long Island was split between the Dutch and English, roughly at the present border between Nassau County and Suffolk County. The Dutch founded six towns in present-day
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
beginning in 1645. These included: Brooklyn Heights, Brooklyn, Brooklyn, Gravesend, Brooklyn, Gravesend, Flatlands, Brooklyn, Flatlands, Flatbush, Brooklyn, Flatbush, New Utrecht, Brooklyn, New Utrecht, and Bushwick, Brooklyn, Bushwick. The Dutch had granted an English settlement in Hempstead, New York (now in Nassau County) in 1644, but after a boundary dispute they drove out English settlers from the Oyster Bay area. However, in 1664, the English returned to take over the Dutch colony of New Netherland, including Long Island. The 1664 land patent granted to the James II of England, Duke of York included all islands in Long Island Sound. The Duke of York held a grudge against Connecticut, as New Haven had hidden List of regicides of Charles I, three of the judges (John Dixwell, Edward Whalley and William Goffe) who sentenced the Duke's father, List of regicides of Charles I, King Charles I, to death in 1649. Settlers throughout Suffolk County pressed to stay part of Connecticut, but Governor Sir Edmund Andros threatened to eliminate the settlers' rights to land if they did not yield, which they did by 1676. All of Long Island (as well as the islands between it and Connecticut) became part of the Province of New York within the York Shire (Province of New York), Shire of York. Present-day Suffolk County was designated as the ''East Riding'' (of Yorkshire), present-day Brooklyn was part of the ''West Riding'', and present-day Queens and Nassau were part of the larger ''North Riding''. In 1683, Yorkshire was dissolved and the three original counties on Long Island were established: Kings, Queens, and Suffolk.


18th and 19th centuries

Early in the American Revolutionary War, the island was captured by the British from General George Washington in the Battle of Long Island, a decisive battle after which Washington narrowly evacuated his troops from Brooklyn Heights under a dense fog. After the British victory on Long Island, many Patriot (American Revolution), Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalist (American Revolution), Loyalists behind. The island was a British stronghold until the end of the war in 1783. General Washington based his Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War, espionage activities on Long Island, due to the western part of the island's proximity to the British Armed Forces, British military headquarters in New York City. The Culper Spy Ring included agents operating between Setauket, New York, Setauket and Manhattan. This ring alerted Washington to valuable British secrets, including the treason of Benedict Arnold and a plan to use counterfeiting to induce economic sabotage. Long Island's colonists served both Loyalist and Patriot causes, with many prominent families divided among both sides. During the occupation British troops used a number of civilian structures for defense and demanded to be quartered in the homes of civilians. A number of structures from this era remain. Among these are Raynham Hall Museum, Raynham Hall, the Oyster Bay, New York, Oyster Bay home of patriot spy Robert Townsend (spy), Robert Townsend, and the Caroline Church and Cemetery, Caroline Church in Setauket, New York, Setauket, which contains bullet holes from a skirmish known as the Battle of Setauket. Also in existence is a reconstruction of Brooklyn's Old Stone House (Brooklyn), Old Stone House, on the site of the Maryland 400's celebrated last stand during the Battle of Long Island. In the 19th century, Long Island was still mainly rural and devoted to agriculture. The predecessor to the
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday r ...

Long Island Rail Road
(LIRR) began service in 1836 from the South Ferry, Brooklyn, South Ferry in
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
, through the remainder of Brooklyn, to Jamaica, Queens, Jamaica in
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
. The line was completed to the east end of Long Island in 1844 (as part of a plan for transportation to Boston). Competing railroads (soon absorbed by the LIRR) were built along the south shore to accommodate travellers from those more populated areas. For the century from 1830 until 1930, total population roughly doubled every twenty years, with more dense development in areas near Manhattan. Several cities were incorporated, such as the 'City of Brooklyn' in Kings County, and Long Island City in Queens. Until the 1883 completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, the only means of travel between Long Island and the rest of the United States was by boat or ship. As other bridges and tunnels were constructed, areas of the island began to be developed as residential suburbs, first around the railroads that offered commuting into the city. On January 1, 1898, Kings County and portions of Queens were consolidated into the 'City of Greater New York', abolishing all cities and towns within them. The easternmost of Queens County, which were not part of the consolidation plan, separated from Queens in 1899 to form Nassau County. At the close of the 19th century, wealthy industrialists who made vast fortunes during the Gilded Age began to construct large "baronial" country estates in Nassau County communities along the North Shore of Long Island, favoring the many land lot, properties with water views. Proximity to Manhattan attracted such men as J. P. Morgan, William K. Vanderbilt, and Charles Pratt, whose estates led to this area being nicknamed the North Shore (Long Island), Gold Coast. This period and the area was immortalized in fiction, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald's ''The Great Gatsby'', which has also been adapted in The Great Gatsby (disambiguation), films.


20th century

Charles Lindbergh lifted off from Roosevelt Field with his ''Spirit of Saint Louis'' for his historic 1927 solo flight to Europe, one of the events that helped to establish Long Island as an early center of aviation during the 20th Century. Other famous aviators such as Wiley Post originated notable flights from Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, which became the first major airport serving New York City before it was superseded by the opening of La Guardia Airport in 1939. Long Island was also the site of Mitchel Air Force Base and was a major center of military aircraft production by companies such as Grumman and Fairchild Aircraft during World War II and for some decades afterward. Aircraft production on Long Island extended all the way into the Space Age – Grumman was one of the major contractors that helped to build the early lunar flight and space shuttle vehicles. Although the aircraft companies eventually ended their Long Island operations and the early airports were all later closed – Roosevelt Field, for instance, became the site of a Roosevelt Field (shopping mall), major shopping mall – the Cradle of Aviation Museum on the site of the former Mitchel Field documents the Island's key role in the history of aviation. From the 1920s to the 1940s, Long Island began the transformation from backwoods and farms as developers created numerous suburbs. Numerous branches of the LIRR already enabled commuting from the suburbs to Manhattan. Robert Moses engineered various automobile parkways in New York, parkway projects to span the island, and developed beaches and state parks for the enjoyment of residents and visitors from the city. Gradually, development also followed these parkways, with various communities springing up along the more traveled routes. After World War II, suburban development increased with incentives under the G.I. Bill, and Long Island's population skyrocketed, mostly in Nassau County and western Suffolk County. Second and third-generation children of immigrants moved out to eastern Long Island to settle in new housing developments built during the post-war boom. Levittown, New York, Levittown became noted as a suburb, where housing construction was simplified to be produced on a large scale. These provided opportunities for white World War II military veterans returning home to buy houses and start a family. In his 1966 book, ''My Private America'' (''Moja prywatna Ameryka''), Kazimierz Wierzyński, a Polish poet who could not go back to Poland after World War Two, describes Polish farmers living there, as "walking novels".


21st century

By the start of the 21st century, a number of Long Island communities had converted their assets from Manufacturing, industrial uses to post-industrial roles. Brooklyn reversed decades of population decline and factory closings to resurface as a globally renowned cultural and intellectual hotbed. Gentrification has affected much of Brooklyn and a portion of Queens, relocating a sizeable swath of New York City's population. On eastern Long Island, such villages as Port Jefferson, New York, Port Jefferson, Patchogue, New York, Patchogue, and Riverhead, New York, Riverhead have been changed from inactive shipbuilding and mill towns into tourist-centric commercial centers with cultural attractions. The descendants of late 19th and early 20th-century immigrants from southern Europe, southern and eastern Europe, and Great Migration (African American), black migrants from the South, have been followed by more recent immigrants from Asia and Latin America. Long Island has many ethnic Irish Americans in New York City, Irish, Jews in New York City, Jews, and Italian Americans in New York City, Italians, as well as an increasing numbers of Asian Americans in New York City, Asians and Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanics, reflecting later migrations.


Geography

The westernmost end of Long Island contains the New York City
boroughs A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely. History In the Middle Ages ...
of
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
(Kings County) and
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
(Queens County). The central and eastern portions contain the suburban Nassau County, New York, Nassau and Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk counties. However, colloquial usage of the term "Long Island" usually refers only to Nassau and Suffolk counties. For example, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York has a district named "Long Island (Nassau-Suffolk Metro Division)." At least as late as 1911, locations in Queens were still commonly referred to as being on Long Island. Some institutions in the New York City section of the island use the island's names, like Long Island University and Long Island Jewish Medical Center. In 1985, the United States Supreme Court ruled in ''United States v. Maine'' that Long Island is legally not an island, because New York State's boundaries contained its offshore soil and seabeds. Despite the legal decision the United States Board on Geographic Names still considers Long Island an island, because it is surrounded by water. Nassau County is more densely developed than Suffolk County. While affluent overall, Nassau County has pockets of more pronounced wealth with estates covering greater acreage within the Gold Coast, Long Island, Gold Coast of the North Shore (Long Island), North Shore and the Five Towns area on the South Shore (Long Island), South Shore. South Shore (Long Island), South Shore communities are built along protected wetlands of the island and contain white sandy beaches of Outer Barrier Islands fronting on the Atlantic Ocean. Dutch and English settlers from the time before the American Revolutionary War, as well as communities of Native Americans, populated the island. The 19th century saw the infusion of the wealthiest Americans in the so-called Gold Coast, Long Island, Gold Coast of the North Shore (Long Island), North Shore, where wealthy Americans and Europeans in the Gilded Age built lavish country homes. In its easternmost sections, Suffolk County remains semi-rural, as in Greenport, Suffolk County, New York, Greenport on the North Fork (Long Island), North Fork and some of the periphery of the area prominently known as The Hamptons, although summer tourism swells the population in those areas. The North Fork peninsula of Suffolk County's East End (Long Island), East End has developed a burgeoning Long Island AVA, wine region. In addition, the South Fork (Long Island), South Fork peninsula is known for beach communities, including the Hamptons, and for the Montauk Point Lighthouse at the eastern tip of the island. The Long Island Central Pine Barrens, Pine Barrens is a preserved pine forest encompassing much of eastern Suffolk County.


Geology

A detailed Geomorphology, geomorphological study of Long Island provides evidence of glacial period, glacial history of the kame and terminal moraines of the island which were formed by the advance and retreat of two ice sheets. Long Island, as part of the Outer Lands region, is formed largely of two spines of glacial moraine, with a large, sandy outwash plain beyond. These moraines consist of gravel and loose rock left behind during the two most recent pulses of Wisconsin glaciation during the ice ages some 21,000 years ago (19,000 BC). The northern moraine, which directly abuts the North Shore (Long Island), North Shore of Long Island at points, is known as the Harbor Hill moraine. The more southerly moraine, known as the Ronkonkoma, New York, Ronkonkoma moraine, forms the "backbone" of Long Island; it runs primarily through the very center of Long Island, roughly coinciding with the length of the Long Island Expressway. The land to the south of this moraine to the South Shore is the outwash plain of the last glacier. One part of the outwash plain was known as the Hempstead Plains, and this land contained one of the few natural prairies to exist east of the Appalachian Mountains. The glaciers melted and receded to the north, resulting in the difference between the topography of the North Shore beaches and the South Shore beaches. The North Shore beaches are rocky from the remaining glacial debris, while the South Shore's are crisp, clear, outwash sand. Jayne's Hill, at , within Suffolk County near its border with Nassau County, is the highest hill along either moraine; another well-known summit is Bald Hill (Farmingville, New York), Bald Hill in Brookhaven Town, not far from its geographical center at Middle Island, New York, Middle Island. The glaciers also formed Lake Ronkonkoma (lake), Lake Ronkonkoma in Suffolk County and Lake Success, New York, Lake Success in Nassau County, each a deep kettle lake.


Countyscapes


Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification, Long Island lies in a transition zone between a humid subtropical climate (Cfa/Do) and a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa). The climate features hot, usually humid summers with occasional thunderstorms, mild spring and fall weather, and cold winters with a mix of snow and rain and stormier conditions. Spring can be cool due to the relatively cooler temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean and occasional Block (meteorology), blocking. Thunderstorms rarely form directly over Long Island, but can form over inland areas and then move eastward. Some storms may weaken as they approach Long Island due to the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean. The ocean also brings afternoon sea breezes to the immediate South Shore areas (within ) that temper the heat in the warmer months. The temperatures south of Sunrise Highway (New York State Route 27, RT27) tend to be significantly cooler than the rest of Long Island in the spring and summer months because of the relatively cooler temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean. Long Island has a moderately sunny climate, averaging 2,400 to 2,800 hours of sunshine annually. Due to its coastal location, Long Island winter temperatures are milder than most of the state. The coldest month is January, when average temperatures range from , and the warmest month is July, when average temperatures range from . Temperatures seldom fall below or rise above . Coldest temp ever recorded on Long Island was on January 22, 1961. Long Island temperatures vary from west to east, with the western part (Nassau County, Queens, and Brooklyn) generally 2 to 3 degrees F (1 to 2 degrees C) warmer than the east (Suffolk County). This is due to several factors: the western part is closer to the mainland and more densely developed, causing the "urban heat island" effect, and Long Island's land mass veers northward as one travels east. Also, daytime high temperatures on the eastern part of Long Island are cooler on most occasions, due to the moderating effect of the Atlantic Ocean and Long Island Sound. On dry nights with no clouds or wind, the Central Part of Suffolk County and Pine Barrens forest of eastern Suffolk County can be almost 5 to 10 F (3 to 5 C) cooler than the rest of the island, due to radiational cooling. Average dew points, a measure of atmospheric moisture, typically lie in the range during July and August. Precipitation is distributed uniformly throughout the year, with approximately on average during each month. Average yearly snowfall totals range from approximately , with the north shore and western parts averaging more than the immediate south shore (South of Sunrise Hwy) and the east end. In any given winter, however, some parts of the island can see up to of snow or more. There are also milder winters, in which much of the island see less than of snow. On August 13, 2014, flash flooding occurred in western-central Suffolk County after a record-setting rainfall deposited more than three months' worth of precipitation on the area within a few hours. Long Island is somewhat vulnerable to tropical cyclones. While it lies north of where most tropical cyclones turn eastward and out to sea (most landfalls on the East Coast of the USA occur from North Carolina southward), several tropical cyclones have struck Long Island, including a devastating Category 3, the 1938 New England Hurricane (also known as the "Long Island Express"), and another Category 3, Hurricane Carol in 1954. Other 20th-century storms that made landfall on Long Island at hurricane intensity include the Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944, Hurricane Donna in 1960, Hurricane Belle (1976), Hurricane Belle in 1976, and Hurricane Gloria in 1985. Also, the eyewall of Hurricane Bob in 1991 brushed the eastern tip. In August 2011, portions of Long Island were evacuated in preparation for Hurricane Irene (2011), Hurricane Irene, a Category 1 hurricane which weakened to a tropical storm before it reached Long Island. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused extensive damage to low-lying coastal areas of Nassau and Suffolk counties, Brooklyn, and Queens, destroying or severely damaging thousands of area homes and other structures by ocean and bay storm surges. Hundreds of thousands of residents were left without electric power for periods of time ranging up to several weeks while the damage was being repaired. The slow-moving "Superstorm Sandy" (so-nicknamed because it merged with a nor'easter before it made landfall) caused 90% of Long Island households to lose power and an estimated $18 billion in damages in Nassau and Suffolk counties alone. The storm also had a devastating impact on coastal communities in the Brooklyn and Queens portions of the island, including
Coney Island Coney Island is a peninsular neighborhood and entertainment area in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is bounded by Brighton Beach to its east, Lower New York Bay to the south and west, and Gra ...
in Brooklyn and the Rockaway Peninsula in Queens, although estimates of monetary damages there are usually calculated as part of the overall losses suffered in New York City as a whole. When allowance is made for inflation, the extent of Sandy's damages is second only to that of those caused by the 1938 Long Island Express. Although a lower central pressure was recorded in Sandy, the National Hurricane Center estimates that the 1938 hurricane had a lower pressure at landfall. Hurricane Sandy and its profound impacts have prompted the discussion of constructing seawalls and other coastal barriers around the shorelines of Long Island and New York City to minimize the risk of destructive consequences from another such event in the future.


Additional islands

Several smaller islands, though geographically distinct, are in proximity to Long Island and are often grouped with it. These islands include Fire Island, the largest of the outer barrier islands that parallels the southern shore of Long Island for approximately ; Plum Island (New York), Plum Island, which was home to the
Plum Island Animal Disease Center Plum Island Animal Disease Center (PIADC) is a United States federal research facility dedicated to the study of foreign animal diseases of livestock. It is part of the Department of Homeland Security Directorate for Science and Technology, and oper ...

Plum Island Animal Disease Center
, a Biological warfare, biological weapons research institute, research facility; as well as Robins Island,
Gardiners Island Gardiner's Island is a small island in the Town of East Hampton, New York, in Eastern Suffolk County. It is located in Gardiner's Bay between the two peninsulas at the east end of Long Island. It is long, wide and has of coastline. The island ...
, Fishers Island, Long Beach, New York#Long Beach Barrier Island, Long Beach Barrier Island, Jones Beach Island, Great Gull Island, Little Gull Island, and Shelter Island (town), New York, Shelter Island.


Demographics

Long Island is one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. At the United States 2010 Census, 2010 U.S. census, the total population of all four counties of Long Island was 7,568,304, which was 39% of the population of the State of New York. As of 2017, the proportion of New York City residents living on Long Island had risen to 58%, given the 5,007,353 residents living in Brooklyn or Queens. Furthermore, the proportion of New York State's population residing on Long Island has also been increasing, with Long Island's Census-estimated population increasing 4.0% since 2010, to 7,869,820 in 2017, representing 39.6% of New York State's Census-estimated 2017 population of 19,849,399 and with a
population density#REDIRECT Population density#REDIRECT Population density {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
of on Long Island. Long Island's population is greater than 37 of the 50 U.S. states. At the 2010 census, the combined population of Nassau and Suffolk counties was 2,832,882 people; Suffolk County's share being 1,493,350 and Nassau County's 1,339,532. Nassau County had a larger population for decades, but Suffolk County surpassed it in the 1990 census as growth and development continued to spread eastward. As Suffolk County has more than three times the land area of Nassau County, the latter still has a much higher population density and is growing faster in the 21st century, given its proximity to New York City. According to the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau's 2008 American Community Survey, Nassau and Suffolk counties had the 10th and 26th highest median household incomes in the nation, respectively. Population figures from the U.S. Census Bureau ''Census 2010'' show that whites are the largest racial group in all four counties, and are in the majority in Nassau and Suffolk counties. In 2002, ''The New York Times'' cited a study by the non-profit group ERASE Racism, which determined that Nassau and Suffolk counties constitute the most racially segregated suburbs in the United States. In contrast, Queens is the most ethnically diverse county in the United States and the most diverse urban area in the world. According to a 2000 report on religion, which asked congregations to respond, Catholic Church, Catholics are the largest religious group on Long Island, with non-affiliated in second place. Catholics make up 52% of the population of Nassau and Suffolk, versus 22% for the country as a whole, with Jews at 16% and 7%, respectively, versus 1.7% nationwide. Only a small percentage of Protestantism, Protestants responded, 7% and 8% respectively, for Nassau and Suffolk counties. This is in contrast with 23% for the entire country on the same survey, and 50% on self-identification surveys. A growing population of nearly half a million Chinese people in New York City#Queens, Chinese Americans now live on Long Island.
Accessed September 3, 2017.
Rapidly expanding Chinatowns in New York, Chinatowns have developed in Chinatowns in Brooklyn, Brooklyn (布魯克林) and Chinatowns in Queens, Queens, with Chinese immigrants also moving into Nassau County, as did earlier European immigrants, such as the Irish American, Irish and Italian American, Italians. The busy intersection of Main Street (Queens), Main Street, Kissena Boulevard, and 41st Avenue defines the center of Downtown Flushing and the Flushing Chinatown, known as the "Chinese Times Square" or the "Chinese
Manhattan Manhattan (), known regionally as the City and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City, and coextensive with the County of New York, one of the original counties of t ...

Manhattan
". The segment of Main Street between Kissena Boulevard and Roosevelt Avenue, punctuated by the
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday r ...

Long Island Rail Road
trestle overpass, represents the cultural heart of the Flushing Chinatown. Housing over 30,000 individuals born in China alone, the largest by this metric outside Asia, Flushing, Queens, Flushing has become home to the largest and one of the fastest-growing Chinatowns in the world as the heart of over 250,000 ethnic Chinese in Queens, representing the largest Chinese population of any U.S. municipality other than New York City in total. Conversely, the Flushing Chinatown has also become the epicenter of prostitution, organized prostitution in the United States, importing women from China, Koreatown, Long Island, Korea, Thailand, and Eastern Europe to sustain the underground North American sex trade. Flushing, Queens, Flushing is undergoing rapid gentrification with investment by Chinese transnational entities, More recently, a Little India (location), Little India community has emerged in Hicksville, New York, Hicksville, Nassau County, spreading eastward from the more established Little India enclaves in Queens. Rapidly growing Chinatowns in New York, Chinatowns have developed in Chinatowns in Brooklyn, Brooklyn and Chinatowns in Queens, Queens, as did earlier European immigrants, such as the Irish and Italians. As of 2019, the Asian population in Nassau County had grown by 39% since 2010 to an estimated 145,191 individuals, including approximately 50,000 Indians in the New York City metropolitan region, Indian Americans and 40,000 Chinese people in New York City, Chinese Americans, as Nassau County has become the leading suburban destination in the U.S. for Chinese emigration, Chinese immigrants. Likewise, the Koreatown, Long Island, Long Island Koreatown originated in Flushing, Queens, and is expanding eastward along Northern Boulevard and into Nassau County. Long Island is home to two Indian reservation, Native American reservations, Poospatuck Reservation, New York, Poospatuck Reservation, and Shinnecock Reservation, New York, Shinnecock Reservation, both in Suffolk County. Numerous island place names are Native American in origin. A 2010 article in ''The New York Times'' stated that the expansion of the immigrant workforce on Long Island has not displaced any jobs from other Long Island residents. Half of the immigrants on Long Island hold white-collar worker, white-collar positions. The counties of Nassau and Suffolk have been long renowned for their affluence. Long Island is home to some of the wealthiest communities in the United States, including The Hamptons, on the East End (Long Island), East End of the South Shore (Long Island), South Shore of Suffolk County; the North Shore (Long Island), Gold Coast, in the vicinity of the island's North Shore, along
Long Island Sound Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying predominantly between the U.S. state of Connecticut to the north, and Long Island in New York to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches from the East River in New York Ci ...

Long Island Sound
; and increasingly, the western shoreline of Brooklyn, facing Manhattan. In 2016, according to ''Business Insider'', the 11962 zip code encompassing Sagaponack, New York, Sagaponack, within
Southampton Southampton () is a city in Hampshire, South East England, approximately south-west of London and west of Portsmouth. A major port, and close to the New Forest, it lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water, at the confluence of the Ri ...
, was listed as the most expensive in the U.S., with a median home sale price of $8.5 million.


Economy

File:Aerial View of Brookhaven National Laboratory.jpg, left,
Brookhaven National Laboratory Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base. Its name stems f ...
is a major US Department of Energy research institution. Long Island has played a prominent role in
scientific research The scientific method is an empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what is observed, given t ...

scientific research
and in engineering. It is the home of the
Brookhaven National Laboratory Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base. Its name stems f ...
in nuclear physics and United States Department of Energy, Department of Energy research. Long Island is also home to the
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) is a private, non-profit institution with research programs focusing on cancer, neuroscience, plant biology, genomics, and quantitative biology. It is one of 68 institutions supported by the Cancer Centers Prog ...

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
, which was directed for 35 years by James D. Watson (who, along with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin, discovered the double helix structure of DNA). Companies such as Sperry Rand, Computer Associates (headquartered in Islandia, New York, Islandia), Zebra Technologies (now occupying the former headquarters of Symbol Technologies, and a former Grumman plant in Holtsville, New York, Holtsville), have made Long Island a center for the Tech companies on Long Island, computer industry.
Stony Brook University The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY at Stony Brook), more commonly known as Stony Brook University (SBU), is a public research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of ...
and
New York Institute of Technology New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), commonly known as New York Tech and by the initials NYIT, is a private research university founded in 1955. It has two main campuses in New York—one in Old Westbury, on Long Island; and one in Manhat ...
conduct advanced medical and technology, technological research. Long Island is home to the East Coast of the United States, East Coast's largest industrial park, the Hauppauge Industrial Park, hosting over 1,300 companies which employ more than 71,000 individuals. Companies in the park and abroad are represented by the Hauppauge Industrial Association. As many as 20% of Long Islanders commute to jobs in Manhattan. The island's eastern end is still partly agricultural. Development of vineyards on the North Fork has spawned a major viticulture, viticultural industry, replacing potato fields. Pumpkin farms have been added to traditional truck farming. Farms allow fresh fruit picking by Long Islanders for much of the year. Fishing continues to be an important industry, especially at Huntington, New York, Huntington, Northport, New York, Northport, Montauk, New York, Montauk, and other coastal communities of the East End and South Shore. From about 1930 to about 1990, Long Island was considered one of the aerospace manufacturing centers of the United States, with companies such as Grumman Aircraft, Republic Aviation, Republic, Fairchild Aircraft, Fairchild, and Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, Curtiss having their headquarters and factories on Long Island. These operations have largely been phased out or significantly diminished.


Government and politics

Nassau County and Suffolk County each have their own governments, with a County Executive leading each. Each has a county legislature and countywide-elected officials, including district attorney, county clerk, and county comptroller. The Political subdivisions of New York State#Town, towns in both counties have their own governments as well, with town supervisors and a town council. Nassau County is divided into three Political subdivisions of New York State#Town, towns and two small incorporated cities (Glen Cove, New York, Glen Cove and Long Beach, New York, Long Beach). Suffolk County is divided into ten towns.
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the most populous county in the state, the second-most densely populated county in the United States, and New York City's most populous ...
and
Queens Queens is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York. It is the largest borough of New York City in area and is adjacent to the borough of Brooklyn at the western end of Long Island, with Nassau Coun ...
, on the other hand, do not have county governments. As borough (New York City), boroughs of New York City, both have Borough President, borough presidents, which have been largely ceremonial offices since the shutdown of the New York City Board of Estimate. The respective Borough Presidents are responsible for appointing individuals to the Community Boards of Brooklyn, Brooklyn Community Boards and Community Boards of Queens, Queens Community Boards, each of which serves an advisory function on local issues. Brooklyn's sixteen members and Queens' fourteen members represent the first and second largest borough contingents of the New York City Council.


Law enforcement

Queens and Brooklyn are patrolled by the New York City Police Department. Nassau and Suffolk counties are served by the Nassau County Police Department (New York), Nassau County Police Department and Suffolk County Police Department, respectively, although several dozen villages and the two cities in Nassau County have their own police departments. The Nassau County Sheriff's Department (New York), Nassau County Sheriff's Department and Suffolk County Sheriff's Office handle civil procedure, evictions, warrant service and enforcement, prisoner transport and detention, and operation of the county jail. The Suffolk County Sheriff also has a patrol division, and in 2008, had patrol duties along the Long Island Expressway, when the County Executive briefly disbanded the Suffolk County Police Highway Patrol Division.New York State Police patrol List of New York state parks, state parks and Parkways in New York, parkways, with the exception of the Long Island Expressway, which is an interstate patrolled by County Police. The several SUNY colleges and universities are patrolled by the New York State University Police.


Statehood proposals

The secession of Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island from New York State was proposed as early as 1896, but talk was revived towards the latter part of the twentieth century. On March 28, 2008, Suffolk County Comptroller Joseph Sawicki proposed a plan that would make Nassau and Suffolk counties on Long Island the 51st state of the United States of America. Sawicki claimed all of Nassau and Suffolk taxpayers' money would remain locally, rather than the funds being dispersed all over the entire state of New York, with these counties sending to Albany, New York, Albany over three billion dollars more than they receive. The state of Long Island would have included nearly 3 million people (a larger population than that of fifteen other states). Nassau County executive Ed Mangano came out in support of such a proposal in April 2010 and commissioned a study on it.


Education


Primary and secondary education

Many public and private high schools on Long Island are ranked among the best in the United States. Nassau and Suffolk counties are the home of List of school districts in New York#Long Island Region, 125 public school districts containing List of Long Island public school districts and schools, 656 public schools. It also hosts private schools such as Friends Academy, Chaminade High School, Kellenberg Memorial High School, St. Anthony's High School (New York), St. Anthony's High School, and North Shore Hebrew Academy, as well as parochial schools, many of which are operated by the Catholic Roman Catholic Diocese of Rockville Centre, Diocese of Rockville Centre. In contrast, all of Brooklyn and Queens are served by the New York City Department of Education, the largest school district in the United States. Three of the nine specialized high schools in New York City are in the two Long Island boroughs, those being Brooklyn Latin School, Brooklyn Technical High School (one of the original three specialized schools), and Queens High School for the Sciences. Like Nassau and Suffolk counties, they are home to private schools such as Poly Prep Country Day School, Packer Collegiate Institute, and Saint Ann's School (Brooklyn), Saint Ann's School, and Berkeley Carroll School, and parochial schools operated by the Catholic Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn, Diocese of Brooklyn.


Colleges and universities

Long Island is home to a range of higher education, higher-education institutions, both public and private. Brooklyn and Queens contain five of eleven senior colleges within City University of New York, CUNY, the public university system of New York City and one of the largest in the country. Among these are the notable institutions of Brooklyn College and Queens College. Brooklyn also contains private colleges such as Pratt Institute and the New York University Polytechnic School of Engineering, an engineering college that merged with New York University in 2014. Several colleges and universities within the State University of New York system are on Long Island, including
Stony Brook University The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY at Stony Brook), more commonly known as Stony Brook University (SBU), is a public research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of ...
(which noted its health sciences research and medical center), as well as Nassau Community College and Suffolk County Community College that serve their respective counties. Private institutions include Molloy College in Rockville Centre, the
New York Institute of Technology New York Institute of Technology (NYIT), commonly known as New York Tech and by the initials NYIT, is a private research university founded in 1955. It has two main campuses in New York—one in Old Westbury, on Long Island; and one in Manhat ...
, Hofstra University and Adelphi University (both in the Town of Hempstead), as well as Long Island University (with its LIU Post, C.W. Post campus, on a former Gold Coast estate in Brookville, New York, Brookville, and a LIU Brooklyn, satellite campus in downtown Brooklyn). Long Island also contains the Webb Institute, a small naval architecture college in Glen Cove, New York, Glen Cove. The island is also home to the United States Merchant Marine Academy, a Federal Service Academy in Kings Point, New York, Kings Point, on the North Shore.


Culture


Music

Music on Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk) is strongly influenced by the proximity to New York City and by the youth culture of the suburbs. Psychedelic rock was widely popular in the 1960s as flocks of disaffected youth travelled to NYC to participate in protest and the culture of the time. R & B also has a history on Long Island, most notably Huntington-born Mariah Carey, one of the top-selling musicians of all time. In the late 1970s through the 1980s, the influence of radio station WLIR made Long Island one of the first places in the U.S. to hear and embrace European New wave music, New Wave bands such as Depeche Mode, the Pet Shop Boys, and Culture Club. In the 1990s, hip-hop became popular with rap pioneers Rakim, EPMD, MF Doom, and Public Enemy (group), Public Enemy growing up on Long Island. Long Island was the home of a bustling emo scene in the 2000s, with bands such as Brand New (band), Brand New, Taking Back Sunday, Straylight Run, From Autumn to Ashes and As Tall as Lions. More recently, newer acts from Long Island, including Austin Schoeffel, Jon Bellion, and Envy on the Coast, have made a name for themselves. Famous rock bands from Long Island include The Rascals, The Ramones (from Queens), Dream Theater, Blue Öyster Cult, Twisted Sister, and guitar virtuosos Buck Dharma, Donald (Buck Dharma) Roeser, John Petrucci, Steve Vai and Joe Satriani, as well as drummer Mike Portnoy. Rock and pop singer Billy Joel grew up in Hicksville, New York, Hicksville, and his music often reflects Long Island and his youth. National The Nassau Coliseum and Nikon at Jones Beach Theater, Northwell Health at Jones Beach Theater are venues used by national touring acts as performance spaces for concerts. Nikon at Jones Beach Theater, Northwell Health at Jones Beach Theater is an outdoor amphitheatre at Jones Beach State Park. It is a popular place to view summer concerts that feature new and classic artists. It hosts a large Fourth of July fireworks show every year which fills the stands. People also park cars along the highway leading to the show, and others watch from the nearby beaches. Long Island is also known for its school music programs. Many schools in Suffolk County have distinguished music programs, with high numbers of students who are accepted into the statewide All-State music groups, or even the National All-Eastern Coast music groups. Both the Suffolk County and Nassau County Music Educator's Associations are recognized by The National Association for Music Education (NAfME), and host numerous events, competitions, and other music-related activities.


Cuisine

Long Island has historically been a center for fishing and seafood. This legacy continues in the Blue Point, New York, Blue Point oyster, a now ubiquitous variety originally harvested on the Great South Bay that was the favorite oyster of Queen Victoria. Clams are also a popular food and clam digging a popular recreational pursuit, with Manhattan clam chowder reputed to have Long Island origins. Of land-based produce, Long Island duck has a history of national recognition since the 19th century, with four duck farms continuing to produce 2 million ducks a year . Two symbols of Long Island's duck farming heritage are the Long Island Ducks minor-league baseball team and the Big Duck, a 1931 duck-shaped building that is a historic landmark and tourist attraction. In addition to Long Island's duck industry, Riverhead, New York, Riverhead contains one of the largest American bison, buffalo farms on the East coast. Long Island is well known for its production of alcoholic beverages. Eastern Long Island is a significant producer of Long Island AVA, wine. Vineyards are most heavily concentrated on Long Island's North Fork (Long Island), North Fork, which contains 38 wineries. Most of these contain tasting rooms, which are popular attractions for visitors from across the New York metropolitan area. Long Island has also become a producer of diverse craft beers, with 15 microbrewery, microbreweries across Nassau and Suffolk counties . The largest of these is Blue Point Brewing Company, best known for its ''toasted lager''. Long Island is also globally known for its signature cocktail, the Long Island Iced Tea, which was purportedly invented at the popular Babylon, Oak Beach Inn nightclub in the 1970s. Long Island's eateries are largely a product of the region's local ethnic populations. Asian cuisines, Italian cuisine, Jewish cuisine, and Latin American cuisines were the most popular ethnic cuisines on Long Island as of the second decade of the 2000s. Asian cuisines are predominantly represented by East Asian cuisine, East Asian, South Asian cuisine, South Asian, and Middle-Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern cuisines. Italian cuisine is found in ubiquitous pizzerias throughout the island, with the region hosting an annual competition, the Long Island Pizza Festival & Bake-Off. Jewish cuisine is likewise represented by delicatessens and bagel stores. Latin American cuisines span their geographical origins, from Brazilian cuisine, Brazilian rodizios to Mexican cuisine, Mexican taquerias.


Sports


Major league sports

The New York Mets baseball team plays at Citi Field in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park, Queens. Their former stadium, Shea Stadium was also home for the New York Jets football team from 1964 until 1983. The new stadium has an exterior façade and main entry rotunda (architecture), rotunda inspired by Brooklyn's famous Ebbets Field (see below). The New York Mets planned to move their Double-A farm team to Long Island, as part of the ambitious but now-defunct plan for Nassau County called The Lighthouse Project. The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets. The Cyclones play at MCU Park just off the boardwalk on
Coney Island Coney Island is a peninsular neighborhood and entertainment area in the southwestern section of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The neighborhood is bounded by Brighton Beach to its east, Lower New York Bay to the south and west, and Gra ...
in Brooklyn. An artificial turf baseball complex named Baseball Heaven is in Yaphank, New York, Yaphank. The Barclays Center, a sports arena, business, and residential complex built partly on a platform over the Atlantic Yards at Atlantic Avenue (New York City), Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn, is the home of the Brooklyn Nets basketball team and the New York Islanders hockey team. The move from New Jersey in the summer of 2012 marked the return to Long Island for the Nets franchise, which played at Nassau Veterans Memorial Coliseum in Uniondale, New York, Uniondale from 1972 to 1977. The Islanders played at Nassau Coliseum from their 1972 inception through 2015, and then splitting time between Nassau Coliseum and Barclays Center from 2017 to present. The Islanders anticipate moving full-time to a new hockey arena at Belmont Park, in Elmont, NY, in 2022. Ebbets Field, which stood in Brooklyn from 1913 until its demolition in 1960, was the home of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team, who moved to California after the 1957 Major League Baseball season to become the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Dodgers won several National League pennants in the 1940s and 1950s, losing several times in the World Series—often called ''Subway Series''—to their The Bronx, Bronx rivals, the New York Yankees. The Dodgers won their lone championship in Brooklyn in the 1955 World Series versus the Yankees. Despite this success during the latter part of the team's stay in Brooklyn, they were a second-division team with an unspectacular winning record for much of their history there – but nonetheless became legendary for the almost-fanatical devotion of the Brooklynites who packed the relatively small ballpark to vigorously root for the team they affectionately called, "Dem Bums". Loss of the Dodgers to California was locally considered a civic tragedy that negatively affected the community far more than the similar moves of other established teams to new cities in the 1950s, including the Dodgers' long-time arch-rival New York Giants (NL), New York Giants, who also left for California after 1957.


Minor league and college sports

The Stony Brook Seawolves represent
Stony Brook University The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY at Stony Brook), more commonly known as Stony Brook University (SBU), is a public research university in Stony Brook, New York. It is one of four university centers of the State University of ...
, and have had a bevy of athletic accomplishments such as reaching the 2012 College World Series as an underdog after defeating the LSU Tigers baseball, LSU Tigers in a best-of-3 series. Long Island is also home to the Long Island Ducks minor league baseball team of the Atlantic League of Professional Baseball, Atlantic League. Their stadium, Bethpage Ballpark, is in Central Islip, New York, Central Islip. The Brooklyn Cyclones minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets, plays in the Short-Season A classification New York–Penn League. The Cyclones play at MCU Park just off the Riegelmann Boardwalk, Coney Island Boardwalk in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The New York Dragons of the Arena Football League played their home games at Nassau Coliseum.The two main rugby union teams are the Long Island RFC in East Meadow, New York, East Meadow and the Suffolk Bull Moose in Stony Brook, New York, Stony Brook. The New York Sharks is a women's American football team that is a member of the Women's Football Alliance.The New York Sharks home field is at Aviator Sports Complex in Brooklyn. Long Island's professional soccer club, the New York Cosmos (2010), New York Cosmos, play in the United States soccer league system#Men's leagues, Division 2 North American Soccer League (2011–2017), North American Soccer League at James M. Shuart Stadium in Hempstead. Long Island has historically been a hotbed of lacrosse at the youth and college lacrosse, college level, which made way for a Major League Lacrosse team in 2001, the Long Island Lizards. The Lizards play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in Uniondale, New York, Uniondale.


Other sports

Long Island has a wide variety of golf courses found all over the island. Two of the most well-known are the Shinnecock Hills Golf Club and the public Bethpage Black Course that has hosted multiple U.S. Open (golf), U.S. Open tournaments as well as several other top level international championships. Queens also hosts one of the four tennis grand slams, the US Open (tennis), US Open. Every August (September, in Olympic years) the best tennis players in the world travel to Long Island to play the championships held in the USTA National Tennis Center, adjacent to Citi Field in Flushing Meadows Park. The complex also contains the biggest tennis stadium in the world, the Arthur Ashe Stadium. Long Island also has two horse racing tracks, Aqueduct Racetrack in Ozone Park, Queens and Belmont Park on the Queens/Nassau border in Elmont, New York, Elmont, home of the Belmont Stakes. The longest dirt thoroughbred racing, thoroughbred racecourse in the world is also at Belmont Park. Another category of sporting events popular in this region involves Firematic Racing, firematic racing events, involving many local volunteer fire departments.


Notable sportspeople and teams

Long Island is home to numerous famous athletes, including Hall of Famers Jim Brown, Julius Erving, John Mackey (American football), John Mackey, Whitey Ford, Nick Drahos, and Carl Yastrzemski. Others include gold medalists Sue Bird, Sarah Hughes and Derrick Adkins, USWNT World Cup champions Crystal Dunn and Alexandra Long, D'Brickashaw Ferguson, Billy Donovan, Larry Brown (basketball), Larry Brown, Rick Pitino, John McEnroe, Jumbo Elliott (American football), Jumbo Elliott, Mick Foley, Zack Ryder, Matt Serra, Boomer Esiason, Vinny Testaverde, Craig Biggio, Frank Catalanotto, Greg Sacks, Gilles Villemure, Rob Burnett (American football), Rob Burnett, Steve Park (NASCAR), Steve Park, Frank Viola, Chris Weidman, Marques Colston and Speedy Claxton. Several NHL players were born and/or raised on Long Island, such as Vancouver Canucks Chris Higgins (ice hockey), Christopher Higgins and Matt Gilroy, Nashville Predators Eric Nystrom, Toronto Maple Leaf Mike Komisarek, Pittsburgh Penguin Rob Scuderi, and New Jersey Devil Keith Kinkaid. Both Komisarek and Higgins played on the same Suffolk County Hockey League team at an early age, and later played on the Montreal Canadiens together. Nick Drahos was an All Scholastic and All Long Island honoree at Lawrence High School, Nassau Co. in 1936 and 1937, and a two-time Unanimous National College All-American in the years of 1939 and 1940 at Cornell University.


Transportation

Many major forms of transportation serve Long Island, including aviation via John F. Kennedy International Airport,
LaGuardia Airport LaGuardia Airport is an airport in East Elmhurst, Queens, New York City. Covering , the airport is the third busiest airport serving New York City, and the twentieth busiest in the United States. The airport adopted its current name in 1953 fo ...

LaGuardia Airport
, and Long Island MacArthur Airport, and multiple smaller airports; commuter rail, rail transportation via the
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday r ...

Long Island Rail Road
and the New York City Subway; bus routes via MTA Regional Bus Operations, Nassau Inter-County Express, and Suffolk County Transit; ferry service via NYC Ferry and multiple smaller ferry companies; and several major highways. There are historic and modern bridges, and Trails on Long Island, recreational and commuter trails, serving various parts of Long Island. There are eleven road crossings out of Long Island, all but one providing Brooklyn-Manhattan, Queens-Manhattan, and Queens-Bronx connections across the East River, with the Triborough Bridge providing two connections from Queens, one each to Manhattan and the Bronx. The single non-East River crossing is the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge, connecting Brooklyn to
Staten Island Staten Island () is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Richmond County, in the U.S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull an ...
across The Narrows. Plans for a Long Island Sound link at locations in Nassau and Suffolk counties (a proposed bridge or tunnel that would link Long Island to the south with
Westchester County, New York Westchester County is located in the U.S. state of New York. It is the seventh most populated county in New York and the most populated north of New York City. According to the 2010 U.S. census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to ...
or Connecticut to the north across Long Island Sound) have been discussed for decades, but there are no plans to construct such a crossing.


Public transportation

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority, MTA implements mass transit, mass transportation for the
New York metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area is the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass, at , and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. The metropolitan area includes New York City (the most populous city in the Unit ...
including all five boroughs of New York City, the suburban counties of Dutchess County, New York, Dutchess, Nassau County, New York, Nassau, Orange County, New York, Orange, Putnam County, New York, Putnam, Rockland County, New York, Rockland, Suffolk County, New York, Suffolk, and Westchester County, New York, Westchester, all of which together are the "Metropolitan Commuter Transportation District (MCTD)". The MTA considers itself to be the largest regional public transportation provider in the Western Hemisphere. , MTA agencies move about 8.6 million customers per day (translating to 2.65 billion rail and bus customers a year). The MTA's systems carry over 11 million passengers on an average weekday systemwide, and over 850,000 vehicles on its MTA Bridges and Tunnels, seven toll bridges and two tunnels per weekday.


Rail

The
Long Island Rail Road The Long Island Rail Road , often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday r ...

Long Island Rail Road
(LIRR) is North America's busiest Commuter rail in North America, commuter railroad system, carrying an average of 282,400 passengers each weekday on 728 daily trains. Chartered on April 24, 1834, and operating continuously since, it is also the oldest
railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on tracks. In contrast to road transport, where the vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, ...
in the U.S. that still operates under its original charter and name. The Metropolitan Transportation Authority has operated the LIRR as one of its two commuter railroads since 1966, and the LIRR is one of the few railroads worldwide that provides service 24/7, all the time, year round. In July 2017, a $2 billion plan to add a third railroad track to the LIRR Main Line (Long Island Rail Road), Main Line between the Floral Park (LIRR station), Floral Park and Hicksville stations in Nassau County was approved. Other LIRR projects, such as the Ronkonkoma Branch Double Track Project, are also underway. Five "readiness projects" across the LIRR system, which will cost a combined $495 million, are also under construction in preparation for expanded peak-hour LIRR service after the completion of East Side Access, which will bring LIRR trains to Grand Central Terminal.


Bus

Nassau Inter-County Express (NICE) provides bus service in Nassau County, while Suffolk County Transit, an agency of the Suffolk County government, provides bus service in Suffolk County. In 2012, NICE replaced the former MTA Long Island Bus in transporting Long Islanders across Nassau County while allowing them to use MTA MetroCard (New York City), MetroCards as payment.


Roads

The Long Island Expressway, Northern State Parkway, and Southern State Parkway, all products of the automobile-centered planning of Robert Moses, are the island's primary east–west high-speed controlled-access highways.


Ground transportation

Several hundred transportation companies service the Long Island/New York City area. Winston Airport Shuttle, the oldest of these companies in business since 1973, was the first to introduce door-to-door shared-ride service to and from the major airports, which almost all transportation companies now use.


See also

* Geography of New York City * List of films shot on Long Island * List of Long Island recreational facilities * List of Long Islanders, famous residents of Nassau and Suffolk * List of people from New York City, including famous residents of Brooklyn and Queens * List of references to Long Island places in popular culture * Long Island (proposed state) * Timeline of town creation in Downstate New York


Notes


References


External links

* * * {{Authority control Long Island, Islands of New York (state) Coastal islands of New York (state) Moraines of the United States New York metropolitan area Islands of New York City Landforms of Long Island