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The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a
London borough The London boroughs are the 32 local authority districts that make up the ceremonial county of Greater London Greater London is a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London region ...
located in East London; it covers much of the traditional East End. It was formed in 1965 from the merger of the former metropolitan boroughs of
Stepney
Stepney
,
Poplar
Poplar
and
Bethnal Green Bethnal Green is an area in the East End of London northeast of Liverpool Street station. It has two Overground stations (one being named Cambridge Heath railway station, Cambridge Heath) and one Underground station. It currently also gives its n ...

Bethnal Green
. The new authority's historical name refers to an alternative title for the Tower Division; the area of south-east
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
, focused on (but not limited to) the area of the modern borough, which owed military service to the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separat ...
. The borough lies adjacent to the east side of the
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It con ...
and on the north bank of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
. It includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including
West India Docks The West India Docks are a series of three Dock (maritime), docks on the Isle of Dogs in London, England the first of which opened in 1802. Following the closure of the docks to commercial traffic in 1980, the Canary Wharf development was built on ...
and Canary Wharf. Many of the tallest buildings in London occupy the centre of the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park is in Tower Hamlets. The borough has a population of 272,890, which includes one of the highest Muslim populations in the country and has an established British Bangladeshi business and residential community. Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of Muslims in England outnumbering Christians, and has more than forty mosques and Islamic centres, including the East London Mosque, Britain's biggest mosque. Brick Lane's restaurants, neighbouring street market and shops provide the largest range of Bengali cuisine, woodwork, Bangladesh textile industry, carpets and clothes in Europe.Tower Hamlets Council Corporate Research Unit
Religion in Tower Hamlets 2011 Census: Key Facts (Briefing 2013-03)
A 2017 study by Trust for London and New Policy Institute found that Tower Hamlets has the highest rate of poverty, child poverty, unemployment, and pay inequality of any London borough. However, it has the lowest gap for educational outcomes at secondary level. The Local government in England, local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council. As of January 2019, the councillors are: 42 Labour Party (UK), Labour, 2 Conservative Party (UK), Conservative and 1 Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrat.


Geography


Physical geography

Tower Hamlets is located north of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
in East London. Water features form the boundary on two sides; the River Lea to the east and the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
, whose influence has done so much to shape the history of the borough, to the south. The borough's Thames frontage extends from the site of the former inlet called Tower Dock (infilled in the 1950s), immediately west of the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separat ...
, through several miles of former docklands, including the Isle of Dogs peninsula, to the confluence of the Thames and Lea at Blackwall, London, Blackwall. The
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It con ...
lies to the west, the London Borough of Hackney to the north, while the River Lea forms the boundary with the London Borough of Newham in the east. The River Lea also forms the boundary between those parts of the London region historically in
Middlesex Middlesex (; abbreviation: Middx) is a Historic counties of England, historic county in South East England, southeast England. Its area is almost entirely within the wider urbanised area of London and mostly within the Ceremonial counties of En ...

Middlesex
and those formerly in Essex. The areas along the Thames and Lea flood plains were historically frequently flooded, but works such as the Thames Barrier, further east, have reduced that risk. The Regent's Canal enters the borough from Hackney to meet the River Thames at Limehouse Basin. A stretch of the Hertford Union Canal leads from the Regent's canal, at a basin in the north of Mile End, to join the River Lea at Old Ford. A further canal, Limehouse Cut, London's oldest, leads from locks at Bromley-by-Bow to Limehouse Basin. Most of the canal tow-paths are open to both pedestrians and cyclists. The Borough includes open spaces such as Victoria Park, London, Victoria Park, King Edward Memorial Park, Mile End Park and part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.


Districts within the borough

web, url=https://www.towerhamlets.gov.uk/lgnl/community_and_living/borough_statistics/Area_profiles.aspx, title=Tower Hamlets Area Profiles 2014, website=Tower Hamlets, access-date=28 August 2019 * Bethnal Green * Blackwall * Bow, London, Bow * Bromley-by-Bow * Canary Wharf * Cubitt Town * Island Gardens * Lansbury * Limehouse * Mile End * Poplar, London, Poplar * Shadwell * Spitalfields * St Dunstan's * St Katharine Docks, St Katharine's * St Peter's * Stepney Green Wapping * Weavers * Whitechapel


History

The earliest reference to the name "Tower Hamlets" was in 1554, when the Council of the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separat ...
ordered a muster of "men of the hamlets which owe their service to the tower". This covered a wider area than the present-day borough. In 1605, the Lieutenant of the Tower was given the right to muster the militia, which led to the area east of the tower to be a distinct military unit, officially called Tower division, Tower Hamlets (or the Tower Division). The Hamlets of the Tower paid taxes for the militia in 1646.1648 Ordinance for Militia within the Hamblets of the Tower of London
British History Online
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets forms the core of the East End. It lies east of the ancient walled
City of London The City of London is a City status in the United Kingdom, city, Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London. It con ...
and north of the
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
. Use of the term "East End" in a pejorative sense began in the late 19th century, as the expansion of the population of London led to extreme overcrowding throughout the area and a concentration of poor people and immigrants in the districts that made it up.From 1801 to 1821, the population of Bethnal Green more than doubled, and by 1831 had trebled (see table in population section). These incomers were principally weavers. For further details, see Andrew August ''Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work, and Poverty in Late-Victorian London'' pp 35-6 (Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1999) These problems were exacerbated with the construction of St Katharine Docks (1827) and the central London railway termini (1840–1875) that caused the Slum clearance in the United Kingdom, clearance of former slums and rookery (slum), rookeries, with many of the displaced people moving into the area. Over the course of a century, the East End became synonymous with poverty, overcrowding, disease and criminality.''The East End'' Alan Palmer, (John Murray, London 1989) The East End developed rapidly during the 19th century. Originally it was an area characterised by villages clustered around the City walls or along the main roads, surrounded by farmland, with marshes and small communities by the River, serving the needs of shipping and the Royal Navy. Until the arrival of formal docks, shipping was required to land goods in the Pool of London, but industries related to construction, repair, and victualling of ships flourished in the area from Tudor era, Tudor times. The area attracted large numbers of rural people looking for employment. Successive waves of foreign immigration began with Huguenot refugees creating a new extramural suburb in Spitalfields in the 17th century.''Bethnal Green: Settlement and Building to 1836'', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 11: Stepney, Bethnal Green (1998), pp. 91–5
Date accessed: 17 April 2007
They were followed by Irish people, Irish weavers,''Irish in Britain'' John A. Jackson, p. 137–9, 150 (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1964) Ashkenazi Jews''The Jews'', A History of the County of Middlesex: Volume 1: Physique, Archaeology, Domesday, Ecclesiastical Organization, The Jews, Religious Houses, Education of Working Classes to 1870, Private Education from Sixteenth Century (1969), pp. 149–51
Date accessed: 17 April 2007
and, in the 20th century, British Bangladeshi, Bangladeshis.''The Spatial Form of Bangladeshi Community in London's East End'' Iza Aftab
(UCL) (particularly background of Bangladeshi immigration to the East End). Date accessed: 17 April 2007
Many of these immigrants worked in the clothing industry. The abundance of semi- and unskilled labour led to low wages and poor conditions throughout the East End. This brought the attentions of social reformers during the mid-18th century and led to the formation of Trade union, unions and workers associations at the end of the century. The radicalism of the East End contributed to the formation of the Labour Party (UK), Labour Party and demands for the Suffragette, enfranchisement of women. Official attempts to address the overcrowded housing began at the beginning of the 20th century under the London County Council. World War II devastated much of the East End, with its docks, railways and industry forming a continual target, leading to dispersal of the population to new suburbs, and new housing being built in the 1950s. During the war, in the Boroughs making up Tower Hamlets a total of 2,221 civilians were killed and 7,472 were injured, with 46,482 houses destroyed and 47,574 damaged. The closure of the last of the East End docks in the Port of London in 1980 created further challenges and led to attempts at regeneration and the formation of the London Docklands Development Corporation. The Canary Wharf development, improved infrastructure, and the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park''Olympic Park: Legacy''
(London 2012) accessed 20 September 2007
mean that the East End is undergoing further change, but some of its districts continue to contain some of the worst poverty in Britain.Chris Hammett ''Unequal City: London in the Global Arena'' (2003) Routledge


Coat of Arms

The coat of arms of the modern Borough of Tower Hamlets was granted by the College of Arms in 1965 and comprises a number of elements representing the trade and heritage of the area, particularly the link to the maritime trades and the strong links to the former Stepney#Manor and Ancient Parish, Manor and Ancient Parish of Stepney, an area which included much or all of the area of the current borough. These are connected, with St Dunstan's, Stepney, St Dunstan's church in Stepney known as the ''Church of the High Seas''. The Manor and Parish did not have a coat of arms but the (smaller) subsequent Metropolitan Borough of Stepney did, and extensive use has been made of elements of that. The Shield features: * Ship, representing the maritime trades. * Sprig of morus (plant), mulberry and a weaver's shuttle, representing the silk and other weaving activities once so important to the borough. * Blacksmiths fire tongs, the emblem of Dunstan, St Dunstan, the patron saint of Stepney, who had close ties to the area. Dunstan famously grabbed the devil by the nose with his tongs when he tried to tempt Dunstan. The crest features: * A silver representation of the White Tower (Tower of London), (originally whitewashed) White Tower of the
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separat ...
, to which the original Tower division, Tower Hamlets (or Tower division) was intimately linked. * Crossed gold anchors, again representing the areas position in the Port of London. Supporters: * Seahorse, representing the maritime trades. * Talbot (dog), Talbot dog, representing the Isle of Dogs. Motto: From great things to greater, an anglicised version of the Latin motto on the arms of the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney. The council's logo is used as an alternative to the coat of arms. It features a simplified White Tower, above a stylised representation of the Thames in the area. This was a development of the previous logo of the White Tower, in mulberry (claret) and presented in a three-tower form, as if seen from certain quarters which obscured the furthest corner tower - and a geographically accurate representation of the local part of the Thames. This older version is still seen on many street signs.


Politics


Parliament

For the 2017 United Kingdom general election, 2017 general election, the borough was split into two List of United Kingdom Parliament constituencies, constituencies: * Bethnal Green and Bow (UK Parliament constituency), Bethnal Green & Bow, represented by Rushanara Ali (Labour) * Poplar and Limehouse (UK Parliament constituency), Poplar & Limehouse, represented by Apsana Begum (Labour) Until the United Kingdom left the European Union, the borough was a part of the London (European Parliament constituency), London constituency for elections to the European Parliament. Labour has dominated national elections in Tower Hamlets, although other left-wing parties have won seats including the Respect Party, Respect Unity coalition in 2005 in Bethnal Green & Bow.


London Assembly

The borough lies within the City and East (London Assembly constituency), City and East constituency, List of London Assembly constituencies, one of fourteen constituencies which make up the London Assembly, and is represented by John Biggs (politician), John Biggs of the Labour Party.


London Borough Council

The Labour Party (UK), Labour Party has dominated politics in Tower Hamlets since the borough was first created in 1965 except for a period from 1986 to 1994 when the SDP–Liberal Alliance and then the Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrats controlled the council. The British National Party won its first council seat in 1993, when Derek Beackon was elected as a Millwall councillor. In May 2010, a referendum led to the creation of a Directly elected mayor of Tower Hamlets, directly elected executive Mayor for the Borough. At the ensuing 2010 Tower Hamlets mayoral election, election in October 2010, Lutfur Rahman (politician), Lutfur Rahman was elected Mayor of Tower Hamlets, Mayor as an independent candidate, becoming the UK's first Muslim executive mayor. Rahman had been selected as the Labour candidate for Mayor, and was a former Leader of the council. However, allegations of electoral malpractice were made against him and his supporters, and he was suspended from the Labour Party before nominations closed. He was re-elected as Mayor in May 2014. At the 2010 Tower Hamlets Council election, May 2010 election, the composition of the council was 41 Labour Party (UK), Labour, 8 Conservative Party (UK), Conservative, 1 Respect Party, Respect and 1 Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrat councillor. Since then, Respect Party, Respect gained a seat from Labour at a by-election, and in three separate groups a total of 8 Labour Councillors and one Conservative defected to Lutfur Rahman's independent group. This shifting of political allegiances is normal for Tower Hamlets. Between the 2006 and 2010 elections, five Respect councillors defected to Labour; one Respect and one Labour councillor defected to the Conservatives; one Liberal Democrat defected to Labour; and one Labour councillor was gained through a by-election at the expense of the Liberal Democrats. In July 2013, the Tower Hamlets (Electoral Changes) Order 2013 was passed, reducing the size of the council and creating new electoral wards made of single, two- and 3-member divisions. In September 2013, Lutfur Rahman's independent group was officially renamed Tower Hamlets First. At the 2014 Tower Hamlets Council election, May 2014 election, the group made significant gains by winning 18 of the 45 seats, which reduced the previously Labour-held council to No Overall Control. Labour remained the largest group, with 22 councillors, a nett loss of 14, while the Conservatives had five seats, down by six. Both the Liberal Democrats and Respect Party were left with no seats after this election. In November 2014, the Department for Communities and Local Government announced that it would appoint commissioners to take over some of the council's functions, following an inspection report by PricewaterhouseCoopers that raised several concerns over the allocation of grants. The action was supported by the Department's shadow secretary, Hilary Benn. On 23 April 2015, the courts removed Mayor Rahman from office for electoral fraud and ordered a new election to be held. Six days later, the Electoral Commission officially withdrew Rahman's Tower Hamlets First from the electoral register, after deciding that the party did not operate a responsible financial scheme, nor ran in accordance with its initial documentation provided at registration. The decision did not in itself disband the Tower Hamlets First political group in the council, but the members splintered into the Tower Hamlets Independent Group, the People's Alliance of Tower Hamlets, and a number of Independent councillors. On 11 June 2015, an election was held to replace Rahman, and the Labour Party (UK), Labour candidate John Biggs (politician), John Biggs was elected as mayor, while a Labour win at a by-election enabled the party to regain overall control of the council. As of March 2017, the composition of the council was: 22 Labour, nine Independent Group, five People's Alliance of Tower Hamlets (PATH), five Conservative Party (UK), Conservatives, three ungrouped Independents, and one Liberal Democrats (UK), Liberal Democrat. By May 2018, ten councillors had joined a political group called Aspire (political party), Aspire. At the 2018 Tower Hamlets London Borough Council election, Labour held the position of mayor and also gained twenty council seats overall, giving it control of the council. It now had 42 councillors, taking all but one of the seats won by Tower Hamlets First in 2014, and also taking seats from the Conservatives. Rabina Khan, formerly of Tower Hamlets First, but by then leader of the rival PATH, came second in the Mayoral election and was the only former Tower Hamlets First councillor to hold a seat. ;Decentralization Since 2014, the council has embraced a policy of decentralisation by establishing neighbourhood forums. In 2014, the East Shoreditch Neighbourhood Planning Forum was set up which was followed in 2016 with the designation of a Limehouse Community Forum, an Isle of Dogs Neighbourhood Planning Forum, and a Spitalfields Neighbourhood Planning Forum.


Local landmarks


Historical landmarks

* Brick Lane * Cable Street - site of the Battle of Cable Street * East Smithfield * Fish Island, London, Fish Island * Hawksmoor's Christ Church, Spitalfields * Site of two historic Royal Mints *
Tower of London The Tower of London, officially Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separat ...
* Tower Bridge * Victoria Park, East London, Victoria Park * Roman Road, London, Roman Road * Columbia Road Flower Market, Columbia Road * Poplar Baths


Modern landmarks

The Canary Wharf complex within Docklands on the Isle of Dogs forms a group of some of the tallest buildings in Europe. One Canada Square was the first to be constructed and is the second tallest in London. Nearby are the HSBC Tower, London, HSBC Tower, Citigroup Centre, London, Citigroup Centres and One Churchill Place, headquarters of Barclays Bank. Within the same complex are the Heron Quays offices. Part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, developed for the London 2012 Olympics, lies within the borders of Tower Hamlets. The Embassy of China in London will move into the former Royal Mint building.


Climate

The data below were taken between 1971 and 2000 at the weather station in Greenwich, around south of the town hall, at Mulberry Place:


Demographics

By 1891, Tower Hamlets – roughly the Stepney (parish), civil parish of Stepney – was already one of the most populated areas in London. Throughout the nineteenth century, the local population increased by an average of 20% every ten years. The building of the docks intensified land use and caused the last marshy areas in the south of the parish to be drained for housing and industry. In the north of the borough, employment was principally in weaving, small household industries like boot and furniture making and new industrial enterprises like Bryant and May. The availability of cheap labour drew in many employers. To the south of the parish, employment was in the docks and related industries – such as Ship chandler, chandlery and rope making. By the middle of the century, the district of Tower Hamlets was characterised by overcrowding and poverty. The construction of the railways caused many more displaced people to settle in Tower Hamlets, and a massive influx of Eastern European Jewish people, Jews at the end of the nineteenth century added to the population growth. This influx peaked at the end of the century and population growth entered a long decline through to the 1960s, as they moved away eastwards to newer suburbs of London in Essex. The area's population had neared 600,000 around the end of the 19th century, but fell to a low of less than 140,000 by the early 1980s. The metropolitan boroughs suffered very badly during World War II, during which considerable numbers of houses were destroyed or damaged beyond use due to The Blitz, heavy aerial bombing. This coincided with a decline in work in the docks, and the closure of many traditional industries. The Patrick Abercrombie, Abercrombie Plan for London (1944) began an exodus from London towards the New towns in the United Kingdom, new towns. This decline began to reverse with the establishment of the London Docklands Development Corporation bringing new industries and housing to the brownfield sites along the river. Also contributing was new immigration from Asia beginning in the 1970s. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, 2001 UK Census the population of the borough is approximately 196,106. According to the Office for National Statistics, ONS estimate, the population is 237,900, as of 2010.Resident Population Estimates, All Persons - Tower Hamlets
ONS.
Crime in the borough increased by 3.5% from 2009 to 2010, according to figures from the Metropolitan Police, having decreased by 24% between 2003/04 and 2007/08. Tower Hamlets has one of the smallest White British populations of any local authority in the United Kingdom. No ethnic group forms a majority of the population; a plurality of residents are white (45%), of which only 69% (from a total of 31% of the entire population) are indigenous White British. Asians form 41% of the population, of which 32% are British Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi; which is the largest ethnic minority group in the borough.Ethnicity in Tower Hamlets
TowerHamlets.gov.uk.
A small proportion are of Black African and Caribbean descent (7%), with Somalis in the United Kingdom, Somalis representing the second-largest minority ethnic group. Those of mixed ethnic backgrounds form 4%, while other ethnic groups form 2%. The indigenous proportion was recorded as 31.2% in the 2011 UK Census, a decrease from 42.9% in 2001. In 2018, Tower Hamlets had the lowest life expectancy and the highest rate of Cardiovascular disease, heart disease of all London boroughs, along with London Borough of Newham, Newham.


Ethnicity


Religious sites

As Tower Hamlets is considered one of the world's most racially diverse zones, it holds various place of worship, places of worship. According to the 2011 census, 34.5% of the population was Islam, Muslim, 27.1% Christianity, Christian, 1.7% Hinduism, Hindu, 1.1% Buddhism, Buddhist, 1.1% followed another religions (including Judaism, Sikhism and Jedi), 19.1% were not affiliated to a religion and 15.4% did not state their religious views. There are 21 active churches, affiliated with the Church of England, which include Christ Church, Spitalfields, Christ Church of Spitalfields, St Paul's Church, Shadwell, St Paul's Church of Shadwell and St Dunstan's, Stepney, St Dunstan's of Stepney and also churches of many other Christian denominations. There are more than 40 mosques and Islamic centres in Tower Hamlets. The most famous is the East London Mosque, one of the first mosques in Britain allowed to broadcast the adhan and one of the biggest Islamic centres in Europe. The Maryam Centre, a part of the mosque, is the biggest Islamic centre for women in Europe. Opened in 2013, it features a main prayer hall, ameliorated funeral services, education facilities, a fitness centre and support services. The East London Mosque has been visited by several notable people, including Prince Charles, Boris Johnson, many foreign government officials and world-renowned imams and Muslim scholars.Prince joins Ramadan ceremony
BBC website
Other notable mosques are Brick Lane Mosque, Darul Ummah Masjid, Esha Atul Islam Mosque, Markazi Masjid, Stepney Shahjalal Mosque and Poplar Central Mosque. Other notable religious buildings include the Fieldgate Street Great Synagogue, the Congregation of Jacob Synagogue, the London Buddhist Centre, the Hindu Pragati Sangha Temple, and the Gurdwara Sikh Sangat.


Economy

File:Whitechapel market.JPG, left, The market area in Whitechapel The borough hosts the world headquarters of many global financial businesses, employing some of the highest paid workers in London, but also has a high rates of long-term illness and premature death and the 2nd highest unemployment rate in London. Canary Wharf is home to the world or European headquarters of numerous major banks and professional services firms including Barclays, Citigroup, Clifford Chance, Credit Suisse, Infosys, Fitch Ratings, HSBC, J.P. Morgan & Co, J.P. Morgan, KPMG, MetLife, Morgan Stanley, Royal Bank of Canada, RBC, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom, Skadden, State Street Corporation, State Street and Thomson Reuters. Savills, a top-end estate agency recommends that 'extreme luxury' and ultra-modern residential properties are to be found at Canary Riverside, West India Quay, Pan Peninsula and Neo Bankside. The End Child Poverty coalition published that Tower Hamlets has the highest proportion of children in poverty of any local authority in the UK at 49% (and as high as 54.5% in the Bethnal Green South ward). Surveys and interviews conducted by the Child Poverty Action group for the council found that the Universal Credit system was deeply unpopular with low-income families in the borough and that most claimants who have used the system found it difficult to understand and experienced frequent payment errors.


Education

The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is the local education authority for state schools within the borough. In January 2008, there were 19,890 primary-school pupils and 15,262 secondary-school pupils attending state schools there. Independent school (United Kingdom), Independent-school pupils account for 2.4 per cent of schoolchildren in the borough. In 2010, 51.8 per cent of pupils achieved 5 A*–C GCSEs including Mathematics and English – the highest results in the borough's history – compared to the national average of 53.4 per cent. Seventy-four per cent achieved 5 A*–C GCSEs for all subjects (the same as the English average); the figure in 1997 was 26 per cent. The percentage of pupils on free school meals in the borough is the highest in England and Wales. In 2007 the council rejected proposals to build a Goldman Sachs-sponsored Academy (English school), academy. Schools in the borough have high levels of racial segregation. ''The Times'' reported in 2006 that 47 per cent of secondary schools were exclusively non-white, and that 33 per cent had a white majority. About 60 per cent of pupils entering primary and secondary school are Bangladeshi. 78% of primary-school pupils speak English as a foreign or second language, English as a second language. The council runs several Idea Stores in the borough, which combine traditional library and computer services with other resources, and are designed to attract more diverse members. The flagship Whitechapel Idea Store, Whitechapel store was designed by David Adjaye and cost £16 million to build.


Universities

* Queen Mary University of London, a constituent college of the University of London, which includes Barts and The London, Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry * London Metropolitan University * UCL School of Management, located in One Canada Square, Canary Wharf


Further education colleges

* Tower Hamlets College, which in 2017 merged with Hackney College, Hackney Community College and Redbridge College to form New City College, the second largest college in London with over 20,000 students.


Schools and Sixth form colleges

* Bethnal Green Academy * Bishop Challoner Catholic Collegiate School * Bow School * Central Foundation Girls' School * George Green's School * Lansbury Lawrence School * Langdon Park School * Morpeth School * Mulberry School for Girls * Oaklands School * St Paul's Way Trust School * Stepney All Saints School * Stepney Green Maths, Computing & Science College * Swanlea School, Business and Enterprise College * Jamiatul Ummah School and Sixth Form * London East Academy (East London Mosque) * Ibrahim College * London Enterprise Academy * Wapping High School * Mazahirul uloom London


Volunteering

* Volunteer Centre Tower Hamlets helps residents find volunteering work and provides support to organisations involving students volunteers.


Sports

Mile End Stadium within Mile End Park hosts an Athletics (sport), athletics stadium and facilities for association football, football and basketball. Two football clubs, Tower Hamlets F.C. (formerly Bethnal Green United) and Sporting Bengal United F.C., are based there, playing in the Essex Senior Football League. John Orwell Sports Centre in Wapping is the base of Wapping Hockey Club. In 2014, the club secured over £300,000 of investment to designate the centre a hockey priority facility. A leisure centre including a swimming pool at Mile End Stadium was completed in 2006. Other pools are located at St George in the East (parish), St Georges, Limehouse and York Hall, in Bethnal Green. York Hall is also a regular venue for boxing tournaments, and in May 2007 a public spa was opened in the building's renovated Turkish baths. KO Muay Thai Gym and Apolaki Krav Maga & Dirty Boxing Academy. in Bethnal Green are the main sources for martial arts and combat sports training in the area. The unusual Green Bridge, opened in 2000, links sections of Mile End Park that would otherwise be divided by Mile End Road. The bridge contains gardens, water features and trees around the path.


Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park

Tower Hamlets was one of five host boroughs for the 2012 Summer Olympics; the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park was constructed in the Lea Valley. As such, the borough's involvement in the Olympics includes: * A small part of the Olympic Park is in Bow, London, Bow, a district of the borough, which makes the borough a host borough. * The energy centre (King's Yard Energy Centre) of the Olympic Park is in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, and gives energy to all the venues, none of which are located in Tower Hamlets. * The world square and the London 2012 mega-store is also in the borough. The world square is for spectators, who can buy food or drink; the world's biggest McDonald's is in the world square in Tower Hamlets. * The London 2012 mega-store provides official gifts and souvenirs. High Street, which is the main road to the Olympic park from west and central London, combines Whitechapel Road, Mile End Road and Bow Road. * Victoria Park, London, Victoria Park, in Tower Hamlets, is an important part of the Olympics because spectators without tickets can watch the games on big screens (London live 2012); that park is less than a mile away from the Olympic park. The main spectator cycle park is located in Victoria park. One of the entrances to the Olympic park is in Tower Hamlets, and is called the Victoria gate. * A few schools in Tower Hamlets have taken part in the opening and closing ceremonies of the Olympic and Paralympic games as well as all the other host boroughs. The section of the Olympic Park in Tower Hamlets will be named "Sweetwater", one of the 5 new neighbourhoods after the games. Sweetwater will cover Tower Hamlets' part of the Olympic Park near Old Ford. * The Olympic marathon was planned to run through the borough but later ran through the City and Westminster. However, the U-turn was located in the borough near The Tower of London. * Danny Boyle, the artistic director of the London 2012 opening ceremony, lives in Mile End. * A large number of Tower Hamlets' residents became Olympic volunteers; Tower Hamlets ranks second, after neighbouring borough Newham, for the number of volunteers from the borough.


Leisure


Parks in Tower Hamlets

There are over one hundred parks and open spaces in Tower Hamlets ranging from the large Victoria Park, London, Victoria Park, to numerous small gardens and squares. The second largest, Mile End Park, separated from Victoria Park by a canal, includes ''The Green Bridge'' that carries the park across the busy Mile End Road. One of the smallest at 1.19 ha is the decorative Grove Hall Park off Fairfield Road, Bow, which was once the site of a lunatic asylum. Other parks include Altab Ali Park, Mudchute, Mudchute Park and Grove Hall Park.


Museums

* Island History Trust * Museum of London Docklands * Ragged School Museum * V&A Museum of Childhood * Whitechapel Art Gallery


Transport


Road

As with most of the transport network in Tower Hamlets, several roads radiate across the Borough from the City of London. East–west routes include: * the A11 road (England), A11, which runs from Aldgate to the A12 near Stratford, London, Stratford, passing through Whitechapel, Mile End, and Bow, London, Bow. * the A13 road (England), A13 (''Commercial Road/East India Dock Road''), which runs from Aldgate to Poplar, London, Poplar. East of Poplar, the route continues towards Barking, London, Barking, Tilbury, and Southend-on-Sea, Southend. * the A1203 (''The Highway''), which runs from Tower Hill, through Wapping, to Limehouse and Canary Wharf. There are several north–south routes in the Borough, including: * the A12 road (England), A12, which begins at the A13 in Poplar and runs along the eastern edge of the Borough. The route carries traffic towards the M11 motorway, M11 (for London Stansted Airport, Stansted Airport ), Romford, and destinations in Essex, including Chelmsford and Harwich International Port. The route ultimately runs to Lowestoft in Suffolk. * the London Inner Ring Road from Old Street to Tower Bridge. There are three
River Thames The River Thames ( ), known alternatively in parts as the River Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of E ...
road crossings in the Borough. From west-east, these are: * Tower Bridge (Tower Hill to Southwark and Bermondsey) * Rotherhithe Tunnel (the A13 at Limehouse to Canada Water) * Blackwall Tunnel (the A12 and A13 at Poplar to Greenwich)


Rail

The principal rail services commence in the City at Fenchurch Street station, Fenchurch Street, with one stop at Limehouse railway station, Limehouse; and Liverpool Street station, Liverpool Street, with stops at Bethnal Green railway station, Bethnal Green and Cambridge Heath railway station, Cambridge Heath. The East London Line passes from north to south through Tower Hamlets with stations at Whitechapel, Shadwell and Wapping. One entrance to Shoreditch High Street railway station, Shoreditch High Street station is inside the Borough. And the North London Line passes the very north in Tower Hamlets with one entrance to Hackney Wick railway station, Hackney Wick inside the Borough. Two Crossrail stations are currently under construction and are expected to start services in summer 2021. ;Metro The Docklands Light Railway was built to serve the docklands areas of the borough, with a principal terminus at Bank–Monument station, Bank and Tower Gateway DLR station, Tower Gateway. An interchange at Poplar DLR station, Poplar allows trains to proceed north to Stratford DLR station, Stratford, south via Canary Wharf DLR station, Canary Wharf towards Lewisham DLR station, Lewisham, and east either via the London City Airport to Woolwich Arsenal station, Woolwich Arsenal or via ExCeL London to Beckton. Three London Underground services cross the district, serving a total of 8 stations: the District line, District and Hammersmith and City lines share track between Aldgate East tube station, Aldgate East and Barking tube station, Barking. The Central line (London Underground), Central line has stations at Bethnal Green tube station, Bethnal Green and Mile End tube station, Mile End - where there is an interchange to the District line. A third central line station, at Shoreditch, has been proposed as the Central line runs within close proximity of Shoreditch High Street station. If built, it will be situated between the existing stations at Bethnal Green and Liverpool St. The Jubilee line has one stop at Canary Wharf tube station, Canary Wharf.


List of stations

*Aldgate East station *All Saints DLR station *Bethnal Green railway station *Bethnal Green tube station *Blackwall DLR station *Bow Church station *Bow Road station *Bromley-by-Bow station *Cambridge Heath railway station *Canary Wharf DLR station *Canary Wharf tube station *Crossharbour DLR station *Devons Road DLR station *East India DLR station *Hackney Wick railway station *Heron Quays DLR station *Island Gardens DLR station *Langdon Park DLR station *Limehouse station (Rail and DLR) *Mile End tube station, Mile End station *Mudchute DLR station *Poplar DLR station *Shadwell railway station *Shadwell DLR station *Shoreditch High Street railway station *South Quay DLR station *Stepney Green tube station *Tower Gateway DLR station *Tower Hill tube station *Wapping railway station *West India Quay DLR station *Westferry DLR station *Whitechapel tube station *Whitechapel railway station In March 2011, the main forms of transport that residents used to travel to work were: underground, light rail, 24.0% of all residents aged 16–74; on foot, 7.5%; bus, minibus or coach, 7.5%; driving a car or van, 6.9%; bicycle, 4.1%; train, 3.8%; work mainly at or from home, 2.3%. Tower Hamlets Borough Council operates a walking bus service for school students on agreed routes with some running every school day while and others once or twice a week depending on the number of adult volunteers involved.


Freedom of the Borough

The following people and military units have received the Freedom of the City, Freedom of the Borough of Tower Hamlets.


Individuals

* Commander (Royal Navy), Commander John Ludgate: 25 May 2018.


Military Units

* HMS Crane, Royal Navy, RN: 1942. * Tower Hamlets Engineers, 114 (1st London) Army Engineer Regiment (Army Reserve (United Kingdom), TA): 27 April 1961.https://www.steppingforwardlondon.org/civic-honours-granted-by-the-london-boroughs.html


See also

* List of public art in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets * Tower Hamlets London Borough Council * Mayor of Tower Hamlets


References

Citations Sources


Sources

*Cornwell, Jocelyn (1984)
''Hard-Earned Lives: Accounts of Health and Illness from East London''
Tavistock Publications. *Dancygier, Rafaela M. (2010)
''Immigration and Conflict in Europe''
Cambridge University Press. *Hill, Dave
"Tower Hamlets: politics, poverty and faith"
''The Guardian'', 19 September 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2011.


External links


Tower Hamlets Council

LBTH ''find your councillor''

LBTH Ward data report (2005)
Information on Tower Hamlets at the ward level {{DEFAULTSORT:London Borough Of Tower Hamlets London Borough of Tower Hamlets, London boroughs, Tower Hamlets Local authorities adjoining the River Thames, Tower Hamlets 1965 establishments in the United Kingdom Populated places established in 1965