Early historyThe county was established in 1182, later than many other counties. During Roman times the area was part of the Brigantes tribal area in the military zone of Roman Britain. The towns of , Lancaster, Ribchester, Burrow, Elslack and Castleshaw grew around Roman forts. In the centuries after the Roman withdrawal in 410AD the northern parts of the county probably formed part of the Britons (historical), Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a successor entity to the Brigantes tribe. During the mid-8th century, the area was incorporated into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which became a part of England in the 10th century. In the ''Domesday Book'', land between the River Ribble, Ribble and Mersey were known as "Hundreds of Cheshire, Inter Ripam et Mersam"Sylvester (1980). p. 14. and included in the returns for Cheshire. Although some historians consider this to mean south Lancashire was then part of Cheshire,Booth, P. cited in George, D., ''Lancashire'', (1991) it is by no means certain.Harris and Thacker (1987). write on page 252: Certainly there were links between Cheshire and south Lancashire before 1000, when Wulfric Spot held lands in both territories. Wulfric's estates remained grouped together after his death, when they were left to his brother Aelfhelm. And indeed, there still seems to have been some kind of connexion in 1086, when south Lancashire was surveyed together with Cheshire by the Domesday commissioners. Nevertheless, the two territories do seem to have been distinguished from one another in some way and it is not certain that the shire-moot and the reeves referred to in the south Lancashire section of Domesday were the Cheshire ones.Crosby, A. (1996). writes on page 31: The Domesday Survey (1086) included south Lancashire with Cheshire for convenience, but the Mersey, the name of which means 'boundary river' is known to have divided the kingdoms of Northumbria and Mercia and there is no doubt that this was the real boundary. It is also claimed that the territory to the north formed part of the West Riding of Yorkshire. It bordered on Cumberland, England, Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire, and Cheshire. The county was divided into the hundred (division), hundreds of Amounderness, Blackburn (hundred), Blackburn, Leyland (hundred), Leyland, Lonsdale (hundred), Lonsdale, Salford (hundred), Salford and West Derby (hundred), West Derby.Vision of Britain
Modern historyLancashire is smaller than its historical extent following a major reform of local government.Berrington, E., ''Change in British Politics'', (1984) In 1889, the administrative counties of England, administrative county of Lancashire was created, covering the Lancashire County Palatine, historic county except for the county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Blackburn, County Borough of Bolton, Bolton, Bootle, Burnley, County Borough of Bury, Bury, , , County Borough of Oldham, Oldham, Preston, County Borough of Rochdale, Rochdale, County Borough of Salford, Salford, St Helens, Merseyside, St. Helens and County Borough of Wigan, Wigan. The area served by the Lord-Lieutenant (termed now a ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county) covered the entirety of the administrative county and the county boroughs, and was expanded whenever boroughs annexed areas in neighbouring counties such as Wythenshawe in Manchester south of the River Mersey and historically in Cheshire, and southern Warrington. It did not cover the western part of Todmorden, where the ancient border between Lancashire and Yorkshire passes through the middle of the town. During the 20th century, the county became increasingly urbanised, particularly the southern part. To the existing county boroughs of Barrow-in-Furness, Blackburn, County Borough of Bolton, Bolton, Bootle, Burnley, County Borough of Bury, Bury, , , County Borough of Oldham, Oldham, Preston, County Borough of Rochdale, Rochdale, County Borough of Salford, Salford, St Helens, Merseyside, St. Helens and County Borough of Wigan, Wigan were added County Borough of Warrington, Warrington (1900), Blackpool (1904) and Southport (1905). The county boroughs also had many boundary extensions. The borders around the Manchester area were particularly complicated, with narrow protrusions of the administrative county between the county boroughs – Lees, Greater Manchester, Lees Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland), urban district formed a detached part of the administrative county, between Oldham county borough and the West Riding of Yorkshire.Lord Redcliffe-Maud and Bruce Wood. English Local Government Reformed. (1974) By the census of 1971, the population of Lancashire and its county boroughs had reached 5,129,416, making it the most populous geographic county in the UK. The administrative county was also the most populous of its type outside London, with a population of 2,280,359 in 1961. On 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, the southern part of the administrative county was transferred to the two newly established Metropolitan county, metropolitan counties of Merseyside and .Jones, B. et al., ''Politics UK'', (2004) The new county of Cumbria incorporated the Furness, Furness exclave. from the same date. The boroughs of , Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Knowsley, Metropolitan Borough of St Helens, St. Helens and Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, Sefton were included in Merseyside. In the successor boroughs were Metropolitan Borough of Bury, Bury, Metropolitan Borough of Bolton, Bolton, , Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Oldham (part), Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale, Rochdale, City of Salford, Salford, Tameside (part), Trafford (part) and Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Wigan. Warrington and Widnes, south of the new Merseyside/Greater Manchester border, were transferred to the administrative county of Cheshire. The Urban district (Great Britain and Ireland), urban districts of Barnoldswick and Earby, Bowland Rural District and the parishes of Bracewell and Brogden and Salterforth from Skipton Rural District in the West Riding of Yorkshire became part of the administrative county of Lancashire. One parish, Simonswood, was transferred from the borough of Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley, Knowsley in Merseyside to the district of West Lancashire in 1994. In 1998 Blackpool and Blackburn with Darwen became independent Unitary authorities of England, unitary authorities, removing them from the administrative county but not from the ceremonial county. In the same year Warrington became a unitary authority and was no longer part of the administrative county of Cheshire, but remains part of the Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county.
Divisions and environsLancashire, the shire county controlled by the county council is divided into local government districts, Burnley (borough), Burnley, Chorley (borough), Chorley, Fylde (borough), Fylde, Hyndburn, City of Lancaster, Lancaster, Borough of Pendle, Pendle, City of Preston, Lancashire, Preston, Ribble Valley, Borough of Rossendale, Rossendale, South Ribble, West Lancashire, and Borough of Wyre, Wyre.Vision of Britain
Geology, landscape and ecologyThe highest point of the modern county council area is Gragareth, near Whernside, which reaches a height of 627 m (2,057 ft). Green Hill (Lancashire), Green Hill near Gragareth has also been cited as the Peak bagging, "county" top. of the modern council area. However, the highest point in the historic County Palatine is Coniston Old Man in the at 803 m (2,634 ft), which is regarded as the County Top by those who feel the Local Government Act 1972 (enacted 1974) did not abolish the historic county borders of Lancashire. Lancashire rivers drain westwards from the Pennines into the Irish Sea. Rivers in Lancashire include the Ribble, River Wyre, Wyre and River Lune, Lune. Their tributaries are the River Calder, Lancashire, Calder, River Darwen, Darwen, River Douglas, Lancashire, Douglas, River Hodder, Hodder, and River Yarrow (Lancashire), Yarrow. The River Irwell, Irwell has its source in Lancashire. To the west of the county are the West Lancashire Coastal Plain and the Fylde coastal plain north of the Ribble and Alt Estuaries, Ribble Estuary. Further north is Morecambe Bay. Apart from the coastal resorts, these areas are largely rural with the land devoted to vegetable crops. In the northwest corner of the county, straddling the border with Cumbria, is the Arnside and Silverdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB), characterised by its limestone pavements and home to the Leighton Moss nature reserve. To the east of the county are upland areas leading to the Pennines. North of the Ribble is Beacon Fell Country Park and the Forest of Bowland, another AONB. Much of the lowland in this area is devoted to dairy farming and cheesemaking, whereas the higher ground is more suitable for sheep, and the highest ground is uncultivated moorland. The valleys of the River Ribble and its tributary the Calder form a large gap to the west of the Pennines, overlooked by Pendle Hill. Most of the larger Lancashire towns are in these valleys South of the Ribble are the West Pennine Moors and the Forest of Rossendale where former cotton mill towns are in deep valleys. The Lancashire Coalfield, largely in modern-day , extended into Merseyside and to Ormskirk, Chorley, Burnley and Colne in Lancashire.
Green beltLancashire contains Green belt (United Kingdom), green belt interspersed throughout the county, covering much of the southern districts and towns throughout the Ribble Valley, West Lancashire and The Fylde coastal plains to prevent convergence with the nearby Liverpool Urban Area, Merseyside and Greater Manchester Urban Area, Greater Manchester conurbations. Further pockets control the expansion of Lancaster, and surround the Blackpool urban area, as part of the western edge of the North West Green Belt. It was first drawn up from the 1950s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt, the portion by Burnley also abutting the Forest of Pendle Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
County CouncilLancashire County Council is based in County Hall, Preston, County Hall in Preston. Built as a home for the county administration, the Quarter Sessions and Lancashire Constabulary, it opened on 14 September 1882. Lancashire local elections, Local elections for 84 councillors from 84 divisions are held every four years. The Conservative Party (UK), Conservative Party currently form a majority on Lancashire County Council.
Duchy of LancasterThe Duchy of Lancaster is one of two Duchies in England, royal duchies in England. It has landholdings throughout the region and elsewhere, operating as a property company, but also exercising the right of the Crown in the County Palatine of Lancaster. While the administrative boundaries changed in the 1970s, the county palatine boundaries remain the same as the Historic Counties of England, historic boundaries. As a result, the High Sheriffs for Lancashire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside are appointed "within the Duchy and County Palatine of Lancaster". The High Sheriff is an ancient county officer, but is now a largely ceremonial post. High Shrievalties are the oldest secular titles under the Crown, in England and Wales. The High Sheriff is the representative of the monarch and is the "Keeper of The Queen's Peace" in the county, executing judgements of the High Court. The Duchy administers ''bona vacantia'' within the County Palatine, receiving the property of persons who die intestate and where the legal ownership cannot be ascertained. There is no separate Duke of Lancaster; the title merged into the Crown with the ascension of Henry V of England, Henry V. Rather, the Duchy is administered by the Queen in Right of the Duchy of Lancaster. A separate court system for the county palatine was abolished by Courts Act 1971. A particular form of The Loyal Toast, 'The Queen, Duke of Lancaster' is in regular use in the county palatine. Lancaster serves as the county town of the county palatine.
EconomyLancashire in the 19th century was a major centre of economic activity, and hence one of wealth. Activities included coal mining, textile production, particularly cotton, and fishing. Preston Docks, an industrial port are now disused for commercial purposes. Lancashire was historically the location of the port of while Barrow-in-Furness is famous for shipbuilding. As of 2013, the largest private sector industry is the defence industry with BAE Systems Military Air Solutions division based in Warton, Fylde, Warton on the Fylde coast. The division operates a manufacturing site in Samlesbury. Other defence firms include BAE Systems Global Combat Systems in Chorley, Ultra Electronics in Fulwood, Lancashire, Fulwood and Rolls-Royce plc in Barnoldswick. The nuclear power industry has a plant at Springfields, Salwick operated by Westinghouse Electric Company, Westinghouse and Heysham nuclear power station is operated by British Energy. Other major manufacturing firms include Leyland Trucks, a subsidiary of Paccar building the DAF Trucks, DAF truck range. Other companies with a major presence in Lancashire include: * Airline Network, an internet travel company with headquarters in Preston. * Baxi, a heating equipment manufacturer has a large manufacturing site in Bamber Bridge. * Crown Paints, a major paint manufacturer based in Darwen. * Enterprise plc, one of the UK's leading support services based in Leyland. * Hanson plc, a building supplies company operates the Accrington brick works. * Hollands Pies, a major manufacturer of baked goods based in Baxenden near Accrington. * National Savings and Investments, the state-owned savings bank, which offers Premium Bonds and other savings products, has an office in Blackpool. * Thwaites Brewery, a regional brewery founded in 1807 by Daniel Thwaites in Blackburn. * Xchanging, a company providing business process outsourcing services, with operations in Fulwood. * Fisherman's Friend, a confection company, famous for making strong mints and lozenges. The Foulnaze cockle (bivalve), cockle fishery is in Lytham. It has only opened the coastal cockle beds three times in twenty years; August 2013 was the last of these openings.
Enterprise zoneThe creation of Lancashire Enterprise Zone was announced in 2011. It was launched in April 2012, based at the airfields owned by BAE Systems in Warton and Samlesbury. Warton Aerodrome covers and Samlesbury Aerodrome is 74 hectares. Development is coordinated by Lancashire Enterprise Partnership, Lancashire County Council and BAE Systems. The first businesses to move into the zone did so in March 2015, at Warton. In March 2015 the government announced a new enterprise zone would be created at Blackpool Airport, using some airport and adjoining land. Operations at the airport will not be affected.
Economic outputThis is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the non-metropolitan county of Lancashire at basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling.
EducationLancashire has a mostly comprehensive system with four state grammar schools. Not including sixth form colleges, there are 77 state schools (not including Burnley's new schools) and 24 independent schools. The Clitheroe area has secondary modern schools. Sixth form provision is limited at most schools in most districts, with only Fylde and Lancaster districts having mostly sixth forms at schools. The rest depend on FE colleges and sixth form colleges, where they exist. South Ribble has the largest school population and Fylde the smallest (only three schools). Burnley's schools have had a new broom and have essentially been knocked down and started again in 2006. There are many Church of England and Catholic faith schools in Lancashire. Lancashire is home to four universities: Lancaster University, the University of Central Lancashire, Edge Hill University and the Lancaster campus of the University of Cumbria. Seven colleges offer higher education courses.
RoadThe Lancashire economy relies strongly on the M6 motorway which runs from north to south, past Lancaster and Preston. The M55 motorway, M55 connects Preston to Blackpool and is 11.5 miles (18.3 km) long. The M65 motorway from Colne, connects Burnley, Accrington, Blackburn to Preston. The M61 motorway, M61 from Preston via Chorley and the M66 motorway, M66 starting inside the county boundary near Edenfield, provide links between Lancashire and Manchester] and the trans-Pennine M62 motorway, M62. The M58 motorway, M58 crosses the southernmost part of the county from the M6 near Wigan to Liverpool via Skelmersdale. Other major roads include the east–west A59 road, A59 between Liverpool in Merseyside and Skipton in North Yorkshire via Ormskirk, Preston and Clitheroe, and the connecting A565 road, A565 to Southport; the A56 road, A56 from Ramsbottom to Padiham via Haslingden and from Colne to Skipton; the A585 road, A585 from Kirkham, Lancashire, Kirkham to Fleetwood; the A666 road, A666 from the A59 north of Blackburn to Bolton via Darwen; and the A683 from Heysham to Kirkby Lonsdale via Lancaster.
RailThe West Coast Main Line provides direct rail links with London, Glasgow and other major cities, with stations at and . East-west connections are carried via the East Lancashire Line between Blackpool North railway station, Blackpool and via , Preston, , and Burnley Central railway station, Burnley. The Ribble Valley Line runs from to via and Blackburn. There are connecting lines from Preston to and Bolton, and from Lancaster to , Heysham Port railway station, Heysham and .
AirBlackpool Airport are no longer operating domestic or international flights, but it is still the home of flying schools, private operators and North West Air Ambulance. Manchester Airport is the main airport in the region. Liverpool John Lennon Airport is nearby, while the closest airport to the Pendle Borough is Leeds Bradford International Airport, Leeds Bradford. There is an operational airfield at Warton Aerodrome, Warton near Preston where there is a major assembly and test facility for BAE Systems.
FerryHeysham offers ferry services to Ireland and the Isle of Man. As part of its industrial past, Lancashire gave rise to an extensive network of canals, which extend into neighbouring counties. These include the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, Lancaster Canal, Sankey Canal, Bridgewater Canal, Rochdale Canal, Ashton Canal and Manchester Ship Canal.
BusSeveral bus companies run bus, bus services in the Lancashire area serving the main towns and villages in the county with some services running to neighbouring areas, Cumbria, , Merseyside and West Yorkshire. Some of these include: * Stagecoach Merseyside & South Lancashire * Stagecoach Cumbria & North Lancashire * Stagecoach Manchester * Go North West * Preston Bus * Diamond North West and many more.
DemographyThe major settlements in the ceremonial county are concentrated on the Fylde coast (the Blackpool Urban Area), and a belt of towns running west–east along the M65 motorway, M65: Preston, Blackburn, Accrington, Burnley, Nelson, Lancashire, Nelson and Colne. South of Preston are the towns of Leyland, Lancashire, Leyland and Chorley; the three formed part of the Central Lancashire New Town designated in 1970. The north of the county is predominantly rural and sparsely populated, except for the towns of Lancaster and Morecambe which form a large conurbation of almost 100,000 people. Lancashire is home to a significant British Asian, Asian population, numbering over 70,000 and 6% of the county's population, and concentrated largely in the former cotton mill towns in the south east.
SettlementsThe table below has divided the settlements into their local authority district. Each district has a centre of administration; for some of these correlate with a district's largest town, while others are named after the geographical area.
Areas:† ''– part of the West Riding of Yorkshire until 1974'' :''This table does not form an extensive list of the settlements in the ceremonial county. More settlements can be found at :Towns in Lancashire, :Villages in Lancashire, and :Civil parishes in Lancashire.''
Historic areasSome settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of West Yorkshire, Cheshire, Merseyside, and Cumbria:Vision of Britain
SymbolsThe Red Rose of Lancaster is the county flower found on the county's heraldic badge and flag. The rose was a symbol of the House of Lancaster, immortalised in the verse "In the battle for England's head/House of York, York was white, Lancaster red" (referring to the 15th-century Wars of the Roses). The traditional Lancashire flag, a red rose on a white field, was not officially registered. When an attempt was made to register it with the Flag Institute it was found that it was officially registered by Montrose, Angus, Montrose in Scotland, several hundred years earlier with the Lyon Office. Flag of Lancashire, Lancashire's official flag is registered as a red rose on a gold field.
CricketLancashire County Cricket Club has been one of the most successful county cricket teams, particularly in the one-day cricket, one-day game. It is home to England cricket team members James Anderson (cricketer), James Anderson and Jos Buttler. The County Ground, Old Trafford, Trafford has been the home cricket ground of LCCC since 1864. Local cricket leagues include the Lancashire League (cricket), Lancashire League, the Central Lancashire League and the North Lancashire and Cumbria League. Since 2000, the designated England and Wales Cricket Board, ECB ECB Premier Leagues, Premier League for Lancashire has been the Liverpool and District Cricket Competition.
FootballFootball in Lancashire is governed by the Lancashire County Football Association which like most county football associations has boundaries which are aligned roughly with the Historic Counties of England, historic counties. The Manchester Football Association and Liverpool County Football Association operate in and Merseyside. Lancashire clubs were prominent in the formation of the English Football League, Football League in 1888, with the league being officially named at a meeting in Manchester. Of the twelve founder members of the league, six were from Lancashire: Accrington F.C., Accrington, Blackburn Rovers F.C., Blackburn Rovers, Bolton Wanderers F.C., Bolton Wanderers, Burnley F.C., Burnley, Everton F.C., Everton, and Preston North End F.C., Preston North End. The Football League now operates out of Preston. The National Football Museum was founded at Deepdale, Preston in 2001, but moved to Manchester in 2012. Seven professional full-time teams were based in Lancashire, at the start of the 2018–2019 season: * Premier League: Burnley F.C., Burnley * Football League Championship, Championship: Blackburn Rovers F.C., Blackburn Rovers and Preston North End F.C., Preston North End * Football League One, League One: Accrington Stanley F.C., Accrington Stanley, Blackpool F.C, Blackpool and Fleetwood Town F.C., Fleetwood Town * Football League Two, League Two: Morecambe F.C., Morecambe The county's most prominent football rivalries are the East Lancashire derby between Blackburn Rovers and Burnley, and the West Lancashire derby between Blackpool and Preston North End. A further nine professional full-time teams lie within the historical borders of Lancashire but outside of the current ceremonial county. These include the Premier League clubs Everton F.C., Everton, Liverpool F.C., Liverpool, Manchester City F.C., Manchester City and Manchester United F.C., Manchester United.
Rugby LeagueAlong with Yorkshire and Cumberland, Lancashire is recognised as the heartland of Rugby League. The county has produced many successful top flight clubs such as St Helens R.F.C., St. Helens, Wigan Warriors, Wigan, Warrington Wolves, Warrington, Oldham RLFC, Oldham, Salford Red Devils, Salford and Widnes Vikings, Widnes. The county was once the focal point for many of the sport's professional competitions including the Rugby league county leagues, Lancashire League competition which ran from 1895 to 1970, and the Rugby league county cups, Lancashire County Cup which ran until 1993. Rugby League has also seen a representative fixture between Rugby League War of the Roses, Lancashire and Yorkshire contested 89 times since its inception in 1895. In recent times there were several rugby league teams that are based within the ceremonial county which include Blackpool Panthers, East Lancashire Lions, Blackpool Sea Eagles, Bamber Bridge RLFC, Leyland Warriors, Chorley Panthers, Blackpool Stanley, Blackpool Scorpions and Adlington Rangers.
ArcheryThere are many archery clubs located within Lancashire. In 2004 Lancashire took the winning title at the Inter-counties championships from Yorkshire who had held it for 7 years.
WrestlingLancashire has a long history of catch wrestling, wrestling, developing its own style called Lancashire wrestling, with many clubs that over the years have produced many renowned wrestlers. Some of these have crossed over into the mainstream world of professional wrestling, including Shak Khan, Billy Riley, Davey Boy Smith, Darren Matthews, William Regal, Wade Barrett and the Tom Billington, Dynamite Kid.
Folk musicLancashire has a long and highly productive tradition of music making. In the early modern era the county shared in the national tradition of balladry, including perhaps the finest border ballad, "The Ballad of Chevy Chase", thought to have been composed by the Lancashire-born minstrel Richard Sheale. The county was also a common location for folk songs, including "The Lancashire Miller", "Warrington Ale" and "The soldier's farewell to Manchester", while Liverpool, as a major seaport, was the subject of many sea shanties, including "The Leaving of Liverpool" and "Maggie May (traditional song), Maggie May", beside several local Wassailing songs.D. Gregory, '"The Songs of the People for Me'': The Victorian Rediscovery of Lancashire Vernacular Song', ''Canadian Folk Music/Musique folklorique canadienne'', 40 (2006), pp. 12–21. In the Industrial Revolution changing social and economic patterns helped create new traditions and styles of folk song, often linked to migration and patterns of work. These included processional dances, often associated with rushbearing or the Wakes Week festivities, and types of step dance, most famously clog dancing.''Lancashire Folk'', http://www.lancashirefolk.co.uk/Morris_Information.htm , retrieved 16 February 2009.G. Boyes, ''The Imagined Village (book), The Imagined Village: Culture, Ideology, and the English Folk Revival'' (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), 0-71902-914-7, p. 214. A local pioneer of folk song collection in the first half of the 19th century was Shakespearean scholar James Orchard Halliwell, but it was not until the second folk revival in the 20th century that the full range of song from the county, including industrial folk song, began to gain attention. The county produced one of the major figures of the revival in Ewan MacColl, but also a local champion in Harry Boardman, who from 1965 onwards probably did more than anyone to popularise and record the folk song of the county. Perhaps the most influential folk artists to emerge from the region in the late 20th century were Liverpool folk group The Spinners (UK band), The Spinners, and from Manchester folk troubadour Roy Harper (singer), Roy Harper and musician, comedian and broadcaster Mike Harding. The region is home to numerous folk clubs, many of them catering to Irish folk music, Irish and Scottish folk music. Regular folk festivals include the Fylde Folk Festival at Fleetwood.
Classical musicLancashire had a lively culture of choral and classical music, with very large numbers of local church choirs from the 17th century, leading to the foundation of local choral societies from the mid-18th century, often particularly focused on performances of the music of Handel and his contemporaries. It also played a major part in the development of Brass band (British style), brass bands which emerged in the county, particularly in the textile and coalfield areas, in the 19th century. The first open competition for brass bands was held at Manchester in 1853, and continued annually until the 1980s. The vibrant brass band culture of the area made an important contribution to the foundation and staffing of the The Hallé, Hallé Orchestra from 1857, the oldest extant professional orchestra in the United Kingdom. The same local musical tradition produced eminent figures such as Sir William Walton (1902–88), son of an Oldham choirmaster and music teacher, Sir Thomas Beecham (1879–1961), born in St. Helens, who began his career by conducting local orchestras and Alan Rawsthorne (1905–71) born in Haslingden. The conductor David Atherton, co-founder of the London Sinfonietta, was born in Blackpool in 1944. Lancashire also produced more populist figures, such as early musical theatre composer Leslie Stuart (1863–1928), born in Southport, who began his musical career as organist of Salford Cathedral. More recent Lancashire-born composers include Hugh Wood (1932– Parbold), Sir Peter Maxwell Davies (1934–2016, Salford), Sir Harrison Birtwistle (1934–, Accrington), Gordon Crosse (1937–, Bury),John McCabe (composer), John McCabe (1939–2015, Huyton), Roger Smalley (1943–2015, Swinton), Nigel Osborne (1948–, Manchester), Steve Martland (1954–2013, Liverpool), Simon Holt (1958–, Bolton) and Philip Cashian (1963–, Manchester). The Royal Manchester College of Music was founded in 1893 to provide a northern counterpart to the London musical colleges. It merged with the Northern College of Music (formed in 1920) to form the Royal Northern College of Music in 1972.
Popular music, both during its time in Lancashire and after being moved to the new county of Merseyside, has produced a number of successful musicians. This includes pop stars such as Frankie Vaughan and Lita Roza, as well as rock stars such as Billy Fury, who is considered to be one of the most successful British rock, British rock and roll stars of all time.P. Frame, ''Pete Frame's Rockin' Around Britain: Rock'n'Roll Landmarks of the UK and Ireland'' (London: Music Sales Group, 1999), , pp. 72–6. Many Lancashire towns had vibrant skiffle scenes in the late 1950s, out of which a culture of Beat (music), beat groups emerged by the early 1960s, particularly around Liverpool and . It has been estimated that there were at least 350 bands—including the Beatles—active in and around Liverpool during this era, playing ballrooms, concert halls, and clubs. A number of Liverpool performers followed the Beatles into the charts, including Gerry & the Pacemakers, The Searchers (band), the Searchers, and Cilla Black. The first musicians to break through in the UK who were not from Liverpool or managed by Beatles manager Brian Epstein were Manchester's Freddie and the Dreamers, with Herman's Hermits and the Hollies also hailing from Manchester. The Beatles led a movement by various beat groups from the region which culminated in the British Invasion of the US, which in turn made a major contribution to the development of modern rock music.V. Bogdanov, C. Woodstra and S. T. Erlewine, ''All Music Guide to Rock: the Definitive Guide to Rock, Pop, and Soul'' (Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books, 3rd edn., 2002), , pp. 1316–7. After the decline of beat groups in the late 1960s, the centre of rock culture shifted to London, and there were relatively few Lancashire bands who achieved national prominence until the growth of a disco scene and the punk rock revolution in the mid-and-late 1970s.
CuisineLancashire is the origin of the Lancashire hotpot, a casserole dish traditionally made with Lamb and mutton, lamb. Other traditional foods from the area include: * Black peas, also known as parched peas: popular in Darwen, Bolton and Preston. * Bury black pudding has long been associated with the county. The most notable brand, Chadwick's Original Bury Black Puddings, are still sold on Bury Market, and are manufactured in Rossendale Valley, Rossendale. * Butter cake: slice of bread and butter. * Butter pie: a savoury pie containing potatoes, onion and butter. Usually associated with Preston. * Clapbread: a thin Staffordshire oatcake, oatcake made from unleavened dough cooked on a griddle. * Chorley cakes: from the town of Chorley. * Eccles cakes are small, round cakes filled with currants and made from flaky pastry with butter, originally made in Eccles. * Faggot (food), Faggot: savoury duck * Fag pie: pie made from chopped dried figs, sugar and lard. Associated with Blackburn and Burnley, where it was the highlight of ''Fag Pie Sunday'' (Lent, Mid-Lent Sunday). * Fish and chips: the first fish and chip shop in northern England opened in Mossley, near Oldham, around 1863. * Frog-i'-th'-'ole pudding: now known as "toad in the hole" * Frumenty: sweet porridge. Once a popular dish at Lancashire festivals, such as Christmas and Easter Monday. * Goosnargh cakes: small flat shortbread biscuits with coriander or caraway seeds pressed into the biscuit before baking. Traditionally baked on feast days like Shrove Tuesday. * Jannock: cake or small loaf of oatmeal. Allegedly introduced to Lancashire (possibly Bolton) by Weaver (occupation), weavers of Flemish people, Flemish origin. * Lancashire cheese has been made in the county for several centuries. Beacon Fell Traditional Lancashire Cheese has been awarded EU Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status. * Lancashire Flat Cake: A lemon flavoured sponge cake, traditionally made with a couple too many eggs, best eaten after being chilled. * Lancashire oatcake, resembling a large oval pancake, eaten either moist or dried * "Stew and hard": a beef and cowheel stew with dried Lancashire oatcake * Nettle porridge: a common starvation diet in Lancashire in the early 19th century. Made from boiled stinging nettles and sometimes a handful of meal. * Ormskirk gingerbread: local delicacy that was sold throughout South Lancashire. * Parkin (cake), Parkin: a ginger cake with oatmeal. * Pobs or pobbies: bread and milk. * Potato hotpot: a variation of the Lancashire Hotpot without meat that is also known as ''fatherless pie''. * Ran Dan: barley bread. A last resort for the poor at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. * Rag pudding: traditional suet pudding filled with minced meat, originating in Oldham. * Sad cake: a traditional cake that may be a variation of the more widely known Chorley cake that was once common around Burnley. * Throdkins: a traditional breakfast food of the Fylde. * Uncle Joe's Mint Balls: traditional Mints (candy), mints produced by William Santus & Co. Ltd. in Wigan.
Places of interestThe following are places of interest in the ceremonial county: Haigh Hall https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HH_icon.svg
Filmography''Whistle Down the Wind (film), Whistle Down the Wind'' (1961) was directed by Bryan Forbes, set at the foot of Worsaw Hill and in Burnley, and starred local Lancashire schoolchildren. The tunnel scene was shot on the old Bacup-Rochdale railway line, location 53°41'29.65"N, 2°11'25.18"W, off the A6066 (New Line) where the line passes beneath Stack Lane. The tunnel is still there, in use as an industrial unit but the railway has long since been removed. ''Funny Bones'' (1995) was set mostly in Blackpool, after opening scenes in Las Vegas.
See also* Custos Rotulorum of Lancashire - Keepers of the Rolls * Healthcare in Lancashire * High Sheriff of Lancashire * Grade I listed buildings in Lancashire * Grade II* listed buildings in Lancashire * Lancashire (UK Parliament constituency) - Historical list of MPs for Lancashire constituency * Lancashire dialect * Lancashire Police * Lancashire Police and Crime Commissioner * List of collieries in Lancashire since 1854 * List of mining disasters in Lancashire * Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire * Scheduled monuments in Lancashire
Bibliography* Crosby, A. (1996). ''A History of Cheshire.'' (The Darwen County History Series.) Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. . * Harris, B. E., and Thacker, A. T. (1987). ''The Victoria History of the County of Chester. (Volume 1: Physique, Prehistory, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, and Domesday).'' Oxford: Oxford University Press. . * Morgan, P. (1978). ''Domesday Book Cheshire: Including Lancashire, Cumbria, and North Wales''. Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. . * Phillips A. D. M., and Phillips, C. B. (2002), ''A New Historical Atlas of Cheshire''. Chester, UK: Cheshire County Council and Cheshire Community Council Publications Trust. . * Sylvester, D. (1980). ''A History of Cheshire''. (The Darwen County History Series). (2nd Edition.) London and Chichester, Sussex: Phillimore & Co. Ltd. .
Further reading* Farrer and Brownbill, ''The Victoria County History, Victoria history of the county of Lancaster'