KwaZulu was a semi-independent bantustan
in South Africa
, intended by the apartheid
government as a homeland for the Zulu people
. The capital was moved from Nongoma
It was led until its abolition in 1994 by Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi
and head of Inkatha
, who implemented the limited self-governing powers decided by the South African government as part of apartheid
, but rejected the nominal independence which four other homelands accepted, complaining about the fragmented nature of the state, and the inability of the apartheid government to consolidate a viable and contiguous territory for KwaZulu, in the face of stiff resistance from whites.
F. W. de Klerk
later commented in an interview that he believed that Buthelezi would have accepted independence had his homeland been given the port of Richards Bay
, a proposal that failed due to the white population's resistance to the idea.
An attempt to transfer parts of the homeland, along with parts of the Swazi homeland KaNgwane
, to the neighbouring country of Swaziland
(now Eswatini) in 1982 was never realized. This would have given land-locked Swaziland access to the sea. The deal was negotiated by the governments of South Africa and Swaziland, but was met by popular opposition in the territory meant to be transferred. The territory had been claimed by King Sobhuza
of Swaziland as part of the Swazi monarchs' traditional realm, and the South African government hoped to use the homeland as a buffer zone against guerrilla infiltration from Mozambique
. South Africa responded to the failure of the transfer by temporarily suspending the autonomy of KaNgwane, then restoring it in December 1982 and granting it nominal self-rule
''The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa''
California: University of California Press. 1989. pp. 310-316.
KwaZulu was merged with the surrounding South African province of Natal
to form the new province of KwaZulu-Natal
The name ''kwaZulu'' translates roughly as ''Place of Zulus
'', or more formally ''Zululand''.
In March 1996, two years after South Africa's transition to majority rule, the trial of ''The State v. Peter Msane & Others'' was held due to the accusation against thirteen retired white generals, including Magnus Malan
(who served as defence minister at the height of emergency rule in the mid-1980s) and seven Zulus, partisans of Buthelezi's Inkatha Freedom Party of complicity in a massacre of thirteen people, ten years earlier, in a rural village in the KwaZulu homeland known as KwaMakhutha
The trial was an attempt by Nelson Mandela
's new government to bring to justice those at the top of apartheid's security forces. They were alleged to have purposefully fanned violence among blacks by arming and training one faction as a proxy force, in the tradition of divide and rule
However, all of the defendants were acquitted.
Districts in 1991
Districts of the province and population at the 1991 census.
* Kwa Mapumulu
(main town Tugela Ferry
*Chief Ministers of KwaZulu
Category:1994 disestablishments in South Africa
Category:Bantustans in South Africa
Category:Geography of KwaZulu-Natal
Category:States and territories established in 1981
Category:1981 establishments in South Africa
Category:States and territories disestablished in 1994
Category:Former polities of the Cold War