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Poland
Poland
was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th–14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). During the latter period, a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th–18th centuries). The birth of Poland
Poland
as an independent nation coincides with the ascension of Duke Mieszko I[4] and adoption of Christianity
Christianity
under the authority of Rome in the year 966. He was succeeded by his son, Bolesław I the Brave, who greatly expanded the boundaries of the Polish state and ruled as the first king in 1025. The following centuries gave rise to the mighty Piast dynasty, consisting of both kings such as Mieszko II Lambert, Przemysł II
Przemysł II
or Władysław I the Elbow-high and dukes like Bolesław III Wrymouth. The dynasty ceased to exist with the death of Casimir III the Great
Casimir III the Great
in 1370. In the same year, the Capetian House of Anjou
Capetian House of Anjou
became the ruling house with Louis I as king of both Poland
Poland
and Hungary. His daughter, Jadwiga, later married Jogaila, the pagan Grand Duke of Lithuania, who in 1386 was baptized and crowned as Władysław II Jagiełło, thus creating the Jagiellonian dynasty
Jagiellonian dynasty
and a personal union between Poland
Poland
and Lithuania. During the reign of Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV Jagiellon
and Sigismund I the Old, culture flourished and cities developed. This era of progress, also known as the Polish Renaissance, continued until the Union of Lublin under Sigismund II Augustus, which unofficially marked the end of the Polish Golden Age. After the death of last Jagiellonian king, the united Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
became an elective monarchy with mostly foreigners elected as monarchs such as Henry III of France, who witnessed the introduction of Golden Liberty
Golden Liberty
and Stephen Báthory, a great military commander who strengthened the nation. The meaningful rule of the Vasa dynasty initially expanded the Commonwealth, developing the arts and crafts, as well as trade and commerce. King Sigismund III Vasa, a talented but somewhat despotic ruler, involved the country in many wars, which subsequently resulted in the successful capture of Moscow
Moscow
and loss of Livonia
Livonia
to Sweden. His son, Władysław IV
Władysław IV
Vasa, fiercely defended the Commonwealth's borders and continued the policy of his father until death, unlike John II Casimir whose tragic rule forced his abdication. The election of John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
to the Polish throne was a great success. His brilliant military tactics led to the victory at Vienna in 1683 and partial recapture of land from the Ottoman Empire. However, the years that followed weren't as successful; the long and ineffective rule of the Wettin dynasty
Wettin dynasty
( Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong
and Augustus III) placed the Commonwealth under the influence of Saxony and the Russian Empire. Additional feud with rebelled nobility (szlachta) and most notably Stanisław I Leszczyński
Stanisław I Leszczyński
and France diminished the influence of Poland- Lithuania
Lithuania
in the region. This led to the partitions that occurred under King Stanisław II Augustus, yet another enlightened, but ineffective monarch. The last sovereign was Frederick Augustus I as Duke of Warsaw, who throughout his political career attempted at rehabilitating the Polish state. After Poland
Poland
declared independence in 1918, the monarchy was abolished and a parliamentary republican authority was established.

Contents

1 Poland
Poland
in the Early Middle Ages

1.1 Legendary rulers 1.2 Semi-legendary rulers of the western Polans (Greater Poland) 1.3 Piast Dynasty
Piast Dynasty
(Dukes of the Polans)

2 Kingdom of Poland, 966–1569

2.1 Piast dukes and kings 2.2 Fragmentation of the Kingdom of Poland, 1138–1314

2.2.1 Piast high dukes 2.2.2 Reunification attempts in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
1232–1305

2.2.2.1 Piast kings 2.2.2.2 Přemyslid
Přemyslid
kings

2.3 Reunited Kingdom of Poland, 1314–1569

2.3.1 Piast kings 2.3.2 Anjou kings 2.3.3 Jagiellonian kings

3 Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569–1795 4 Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815 5 Pretenders to the Polish throne

5.1 Not recognized royal elections

6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Poland
Poland
in the Early Middle Ages[edit] See: Poland
Poland
in the Early Middle Ages Legendary rulers[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Lech I 6th century 6th century 6th century Legendary founder of the Polish nation Lechites
Lechites
(Tribe)

Krakus
Krakus
I

Krak

8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary founder of Kraków Lechites
Lechites
(Tribe)

Krakus
Krakus
II

Krak II

8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary son and successor of Krakus Lechites
Lechites
(Tribe)

Lech II 8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary son of Krakus
Krakus
and successor of Krakus
Krakus
II Lechites
Lechites
(Tribe)

Wanda

Wąda

8th century 8th century 8th century Legendary daughter of Krakus Lechites
Lechites
(Tribe)

Semi-legendary rulers of the western Polans (Greater Poland)[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Leszko I

Leszek I Duke

7th / 8th centuries 7th / 8th centuries 7th[5] / 8th centuries A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans
Goplans
and Polans Goplans
Goplans
and Polans (Tribes)

Leszko II

Leszek II Duke

8th century 8th century 8th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans
Goplans
and Polans Popielids

Leszko III

Leszek III Duke

8th century 8th century 8th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans
Goplans
and Polans Popielids

Popiel I

Duke

8th century 8th century 8th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans
Goplans
and Polans Popielids

Popiel II

Duke

9th century 9th century 9th century A semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans
Goplans
and Polans Popielids

Piast Dynasty
Piast Dynasty
(Dukes of the Polans)[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Piast the Wheelwright

Polish: Piast Kołodziej Latin: Past Ckosisconis, Pazt filius Chosisconisu Duke

9th century 9th century 9th century A legendary ruler of the Polans Son of Chościsko, father of Siemowit Founder of the Piast dynasty Piast

Siemowit

Ziemowit Duke

9th century 9th century 9th century Son of Piast the Wheelwright
Piast the Wheelwright
and Rzepicha Piast

Lestek

Leszek, Lestko Duke

9th / 10th centuries 9th / 10th centuries 9th / 10th centuries Son of Siemowit Piast

Siemomysł

Ziemomysł Duke

10th century 10th century 10th century Son of Lestek Piast

Kingdom of Poland, 966–1569[edit] Piast dukes and kings[edit] See also: History of Poland
Poland
during the Piast dynasty

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Mieszko I
Mieszko I
of Poland

Duke

ca. 940 – 25 May 992 ca. 960 992 Son of Siemomysł First Christian Polish monarch Misico, dux Wandalorum Piast

Bolesław I the Brave

Bolesław I the Great Polish: Bolesław I Chrobry (Wielki)

King

967 – 17 June 1025 Duke: 992 King: 18 April 1025 Duke: 18 April 1025 King: 17 June 1025 Son of Mieszko I
Mieszko I
and Dobrawa of Bohemia First to be crowned king Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum Piast

Mieszko II Lambert

King

ca. 990 – 10/11 May 1034 1025 1031 Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda of Lusatia Piast

Bezprym

Duke

ca. 986–1032 1031 1032 Son of Bolesław I and Judith of Hungary Piast

Otto Bolesławowic

Duke

1000–1033 1032 1032 Son of Bolesław I and Emnilda Piast

Dytryk

Theoderick Duke

after 992 – after 1032 1032 1032 /1033 Grandson of Mieszko I
Mieszko I
and Oda of Haldensleben Piast

Mieszko II Lambert

Duke

ca. 990 – 10/11 May 1034 1032 1034 Restored Piast

Bolesław the Forgotten

Polish: Bolesław Zapomniany Duke

before 1016 – 1038 or 1039 1034 1038 /1039 Semi-legendary, existence disputed Piast

Casimir I the Restorer

Polish: Kazimierz I Odnowiciel Duke

(1016-06-25)25 June 1016 – 28 November 1058(1058-11-28) (aged 42) 1039 1058 Son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia Piast

Bolesław II the Generous

Polish: Bolesław II Szczodry

King

ca. 1041 or 1042 – 2 or 3 April 1081 or 1082 Duke: 1058 King: 1076 Duke: 1076 King: 1079 Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev Piast

Władysław I Herman

Duke

ca. 1044 – 4 June 1102 1079 1102 Son of Kazimierz I and Maria Dobroniega Piast

Zbigniew

Zbygniew Duke

ca. 1073 – 8 July 1113 1102 1107 Son of Władysław I and Przecława of Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed) First jointly with Władysław I 1098-1102 Piast

Bolesław III Wrymouth

Polish: Bolesław III Krzywousty Duke

(1086-08-20)20 August 1086 – 28 October 1138(1138-10-28) (aged 52) 1107 1138 Son of Władysław I and Judith of Bohemia First jointly with Władysław 1098-1102 Introduced senioral principle Piast

Fragmentation of the Kingdom of Poland, 1138–1314[edit] See also: Fragmentation of the realm and Testament of Bolesław III Wrymouth Piast high dukes[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Władysław II the Exile

Polish: Władysław II Wygnaniec High Duke Supreme Prince

1105 – 30 May 1159 1138 1146 Son of Bolesław III and Zbyslava of Kiev Also Duke of Silesia Exiled by his brothers Piast

Bolesław IV the Curly

Polish: Bolesław Kędzierzawy High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1125 – 5 January 1173 1146 1173 Son of Bolesław III and Salomea of Berg Also Duke of Masovia Piast

Mieszko III the Old

Polish: Mieszko III Stary High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1173 1177 Son of Bolesław III and Salomea Also Duke of Greater Poland Piast

Casimir II the Just

Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1138 – 5 May 1194 1177 1190 Son of Bolesław III and Salomea Also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz Piast

Mieszko III the Old

Polish: Mieszko III Stary High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1190 1190 Restored Piast

Casimir II the Just

Polish: Kazimierz II Sprawiedliwy High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1138 – 5 May 1194 1190 1194 Restored Piast

Leszek I the White

Polish: Leszek Biały High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1194 1198 Son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo Also Duke of Sandomierz Piast

Mieszko III the Old

Polish: Mieszko III Stary High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1198 1199 Restored Piast

Leszek I the White

Polish: Leszek Biały High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1199 1199 Restored Piast

Mieszko III the Old

Polish: Mieszko III Stary High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1127 – 13 March 1202 1199 1202 Restored Piast

Władysław III Spindleshanks

Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 1231 1202 1202 Son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev Also Duke of Greater Poland Piast

Leszek I the White

Polish: Leszek Biały High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1202 1210 Restored Piast

Mieszko IV Tanglefoot

Polish: Mieszko I
Mieszko I
Plątonogi High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1130 – 16 May 1211 1210 1211 Son of Władysław II and Agnes of Babenberg Also Duke of Silesia Piast

Leszek I the White

Polish: Leszek Biały High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1211 1225 Restored Piast

Henryk I the Bearded

Polish: Henryk I Brodaty High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1165 – 19 March 1238 1225 1225 Grandson of Władysław II, son of Bolesław I the Tall
Bolesław I the Tall
and Krystyna Also Duke of Silesia Piast

Leszek I the White

Polish: Leszek Biały High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1186 – 24 November 1227 1225 1227 Restored Assassinated Piast

Władysław III Spindleshanks

Polish: Władysław III Laskonogi High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1161/66 – 3 November 1231 1227 1229 Restored Piast

Konrad I of Masovia

Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247 1229 1232 Son of Kazimierz II and Helen of Znojmo Also Duke of Masovia Piast

Henryk I the Bearded

Polish: Henryk I Brodaty High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1165 – 19 March 1238 1232 1238 Restored Piast

Henryk II the Pious

Polish: Henryk II Pobożny High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1196 – 9 April 1241 1238 1241 Son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs
Hedwig of Andechs
(Saint Hedwig of Silesia) Slso Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland Fell at Battle of Legnica Piast

Bolesław II the Horned

Bolesław II Rogatka High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1220–1225 1241 1241 Son of Henry II and Anne of Bohemia Also Duke of Silesia Piast

Konrad I of Masovia

Polish: Konrad I Mazowiecki High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1187/88 – 31 August 1247 1241 1243 Restored Piast

Bolesław V the Chaste

Polish: Bolesław Wstydliwy High Duke Supreme Prince

21 June 1226 – 7 December 1279 1243 1279 Son of Leszek the White
Leszek the White
and Grzymislawa of Luck Piast

Leszek II the Black

Polish: Leszek Czarny High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1241 – 30 September 1288 1279 1288 Paternal grandson of Konrad I of Masovia Maternal grandson of Henry II Son of Casimir I of Kuyavia
Casimir I of Kuyavia
and Constance of Wrocław Piast

Bolesław II of Masovia

Boleslaw II of Płock High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1251 – 20 April 1313 1288 1288 Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia Duke of Masovia Piast

Henryk IV Probus

Polish: Henryk IV Prawy High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 1290 1288 1289 Paternal grandson of Henryk II Maternal grandson of Konrad I Son of Henry III the White
Henry III the White
and Judyta of Masovia Duke of Lower Silesia Piast

Bolesław II of Masovia

Boleslaw II of Płock High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1251 – 20 April 1313 1289 1289 Restored Piast

Władysław I the Elbow-high

Polish: Władysław I Łokietek High Duke Supreme Prince

1261 – 2 March 1333 1289 1289 Grandson of Konrad I of Masovia Son of Kazimierz I of Kujawia and Euphrosyne of Opole Piast

Henryk IV Probus

Polish: Henryk IV Prawy High Duke Supreme Prince

ca. 1257/58 – 23 June 1290 1289 1290 Restored Piast

Reunification attempts in the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
1232–1305[edit] See also: Reunification attempts by Przemysł II
Przemysł II
and Wenceslaus II Piast kings[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Przemysł II

Premyslas, Premislaus

King

(1257-10-14)14 October 1257 – 8 February 1296(1296-02-08) (aged 38) High Duke: 1290 King: 1295 High Duke: 1291 King: 1296 Grandson of Henryk II Son of Przemysł I
Przemysł I
and Elisabeth of Wrocław Also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland
Poland
and Pomerania Piast

Přemyslid
Přemyslid
kings[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Wenceslaus II of Bohemia

Polish: Wacław II Czeski

King

(1271-09-27)27 September 1271 – 21 June 1305(1305-06-21) (aged 33) High Duke: 1291 King: 1300 High Duke: 1300 King: 1305 Son of Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II of Bohemia
and Kunigunda of Slavonia Married Przemysł II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland Also King of Bohemia Přemyslid

Wenceslaus III of Bohemia

Polish: Wacław III Czeski

King[6]

(1289-10-06)6 October 1289 – 4 August 1306(1306-08-04) (aged 16) 1305 1306 Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg Uncrowned Assassinated Přemyslid

Reunited Kingdom of Poland, 1314–1569[edit] See also: Reunited Kingdom of Poland Piast kings[edit]

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Władysław I the Elbow-high

Polish: Władysław I Łokietek

King

1261 – 2 March 1333 1320 1333 Restored Re-united the Kingdom of Poland Piast

Casimir III the Great

Polish: Kazimierz III Wielki

King

(1310-04-30)30 April 1310 – 5 November 1370(1370-11-05) (aged 60) 1333 1370 Son of Władysław I the Elbow-high
Władysław I the Elbow-high
and Jadwiga of Kalisz Regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs Piast

Anjou kings[edit] See also: Louis I and Jadwiga of the Anjou dynasty (1370–1399)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Louis I of Hungary

Polish: Ludwik Węgierski

King

(1326-03-05)5 March 1326 – 10 September 1382(1382-09-10) (aged 56) 1370 1382 Son of Charles I of Hungary
Hungary
and Elizabeth of Poland Nephew of Casimir III Elected king and crowned on 17 November Also King of Hungary Anjou

Jadwiga of Poland

Polish: Jadwiga Andegaweńska

King[7]

1373/4 – 17 July 1399 16 October 1384 17 July 1399 Daughter of Louis I and Elizabeth of Bosnia Crowned "king", 1384 Reigned jointly with her husband Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
from 1386 Anjou

Jagiellonian kings[edit] See also: History of Poland
Poland
during the Jagiellonian dynasty

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Władysław II Jagiełło

King

ca. 1351/1362 – (1434-06-01)1 June 1434 4 March 1386 1 June 1434 Son of Algirdas
Algirdas
of Lithuania
Lithuania
and Uliana of Tver Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1377-1434 Reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga till 1399 The longest-reigning King of Poland Jagiellonian

Władysław III of Poland

Władysław III of Varna, Władysław Warneńczyk

King

(1424-10-31)31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444(1444-11-10) (aged 20) 25 July 1434 10 November 1444 Son of Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
and Sophia of Halshany Also king of Hungary, as Ulászló I Fell at Battle of Varna, in Bulgaria, hence called "of Varna" Jagiellonian

Casimir IV Jagiellon

Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk

King

(1427-11-30)30 November 1427 - 7 June 1492(1492-06-07) (aged 64) 25 June 1447 7 June 1492 Son of Władysław II and Sophia of Halshany Also Grand Duke of Lithuania, 1440–92 His successful reign ended in the final destruction of the Teutonic Knights Jagiellonian

John I Albert

Jan I Olbracht

King

(1459-12-27)27 December 1459 – 17 June 1501(1501-06-17) (aged 41) 23 September 1492 16 June 1501 Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria Jagiellonian

Alexander I Jagiellon

Aleksander I Jagiellończyk

King

(1461-08-05)5 August 1461 – 19 August 1506(1506-08-19) (aged 45) 12 December 1501 19 August 1506 Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria Also Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
1492-1506 Jagiellonian

Sigismund I the Old

Zygmunt I Stary

King

(1467-01-01)1 January 1467 – 1 April 1548(1548-04-01) (aged 81) 8 December 1506 1 April 1548 Son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria Also Grand Duke of Lithuania Forced Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
in 1525 Annexed Duchy of Masovia
Duchy of Masovia
in 1526 Entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Jagiellonian

Sigismund II Augustus

Zygmunt II August

King

(1520-08-01)1 August 1520 – 7 July 1572(1572-07-07) (aged 51) 1 April 1548 7 July 1572 Son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza Also Grand Duke of Lithuania Replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569 Jagiellonian

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, 1569–1795[edit] See also: Rzeczpospolita, History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1648), History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1648–1764), and History of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1764–95)

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Henry de Valois

Henryk Walezy

King

(1551-09-19)19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589(1589-08-02) (aged 37) 21 February 1574 12 May 1575 Son of Henry II of France
France
and Catherine de' Medici Abandoned the Polish throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France Valois

Anna

Anna Jagiellonka

King[8]

(1523-10-18)18 October 1523 – 9 September 1596(1596-09-09) (aged 72) 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 Daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza Reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory Jagiellonian

Stephen Báthory

Stefan Batory

King

(1533-09-27)27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586(1586-12-12) (aged 53) 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 Son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi Prince of Transylvania Reigned together with his wife Anna Báthory

Sigismund III

Zygmunt III Waza

King

20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632(1632-04-30) (aged 65) 18 September 1587 19 April 1632 Grandson of Sigismund I Son of John III of Sweden
Sweden
and Catherine Jagiellon Also King of Sweden
Sweden
1592-1599, titular King 1599–1632 During his reign Polish troops captured Moscow Moved capital from Kraków
Kraków
to Warsaw Vasa

Władysław IV

Władysław IV
Władysław IV
Waza

King

9 June 1595 – 20 May 1648(1648-05-20) (aged 52) 8 November 1632 20 May 1648 Son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria Titular Tsar of Russia
Tsar of Russia
1610–1634, titular King of Sweden
Sweden
1632–1648 Vasa

John II Casimir

Jan II Kazimierz

King

(1609-03-22)22 March 1609 – 16 December 1672(1672-12-16) (aged 63) 20 November 1648 16 September 1668 Son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria Titular King of Sweden
Sweden
1648-1660 Abdicated Vasa

Michael I

Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki

King

(1640-05-31)May 31, 1640 – November 10, 1673(1673-11-10) (aged 33) 19 June 1669 10 November 1673 Son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska Wiśniowiecki

John III

Jan III Sobieski

King

(1629-08-17)17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696(1696-06-17) (aged 66) 21 May 1674 17 June 1696 Son of Jakub Sobieski
Jakub Sobieski
and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz Most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683 Sobieski

Augustus II the Strong

August II Mocny

King

(1670-05-12)12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733(1733-02-01) (aged 62) 15 September 1697 16 February 1704 (deposed) 24 September 1706 (abdicates) Son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark Elector of Saxony
Saxony
as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733 Wettin

Stanisław I

Stanisław I Leszczyński

King

(1677-10-20)20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766(1766-02-23) (aged 88) 4 October 1705 8 August 1709 Son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska Yielded to Augustus II Leszczyński

Augustus II the Strong

August II Mocny

King

(1670-05-12)12 May 1670 – 1 February 1733(1733-02-01) (aged 62) 8 August 1709 1 February 1733 Restored Wettin

Stanisław I

Stanisław I Leszczyński

King

(1677-10-20)20 October 1677 – 23 February 1766(1766-02-23) (aged 88) 12 September 1733 30 June 1734 (deposed) 27 January 1736 (abdicates) Restored Defeated in War of the Polish Succession Became Duke of Lorraine
Duke of Lorraine
until his death Leszczyński

Augustus III

August III Sas

King

17 October 1696 – 5 October 1763(1763-10-05) (aged 66) 17 January 1734 (in opposition) 30 June 1734 (effectively) 5 October 1763 Son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth Wettin

Stanisław II Augustus

Stanisław August Poniatowski

King

(1732-01-17)17 January 1732 – 12 February 1798(1798-02-12) (aged 66) 25 November 1764 7 January 1795 Son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska Forced to abdicate when the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(the Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist Poniatowski

Duchy of Warsaw, 1807–1815[edit] See also: Duchy of Warsaw

Name Lifespan Reign start Reign end Notes Family Image

Frederick Augustus I

Fryderyk August I Duke

(1750-12-23)23 December 1750 – (1827-05-05)5 May 1827 9 June 1807 22 May 1815 Son of Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony
Saxony
and Duchess Maria Antonia of Bavaria Duke of Warsaw Wettin

Pretenders to the Polish throne[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Poland

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Prehistory and protohistory

Stone Age Bronze and Iron Age Antiquity Polish tribes

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Christianization

Piast period 10th century – 1385

Jagiellonian period 1385–1572

Early Modern

Early elective monarchy 1572–1648

Deluge and decline 1648–1764

Three partitions 1764–95

Modern

Partitioned Poland 1795–1918

World War I 1914–18

Second Republic 1918–39

World War II 1939–45

Communist Poland 1945–89

Contemporary

Third Republic 1989–present

Poland
Poland
portal

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Vratislaus II of Bohemia
Vratislaus II of Bohemia
(1085–1092) Henry of Bohemia
Henry of Bohemia
(1306) Rudolf I of Bohemia
Rudolf I of Bohemia
(1306–1307) Henry of Bohemia
Henry of Bohemia
(1307–1310) John of Bohemia
John of Bohemia
(1310–1335)

Not recognized royal elections[edit] See also: Royal elections in Poland

Maxmilian II Habsburg (1575–1576), See: Free election, 1576 Maxmilian III Habsburg (1587–1589), See: Free election, 1587 François Louis de Bourbon (1697), See: Free election, 1697

See also[edit]

Kings of Poland
Poland
family tree Royal coronations in Poland Princely Houses of Poland Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Pomerania Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Silesia List of rulers of Partitioned Poland List of Galician rulers List of heads of state of Poland List of Prime Ministers of Poland List of Poles List of Polish consorts

References[edit]

^ Since 1574 ^ It was not allowed to use abbreviations and acronyms ^ In the 17th century and later Poland
Poland
was usually known as the Most Serene Republic of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Najjaśniejsza Rzeczpospolita Polska, Latin: Serenissima Res Publica Poloniae). ^ http://www.ampolinstitute.org/pdf/Polish-Kings.pdf ^ dated around 700 by Marcin Bielski ^ Uncrowned - also considered titular King of Poland ^ Jadwiga was crowned King of Poland
Poland
— Hedvig Rex Poloniæ, not Hedvig Regina Poloniæ. Polish law had no provision for a female ruler (queen regnant), but did not specify that the monarch had to be male. The masculine gender of her title was also meant to emphasize that she was monarch in her own right, not a queen consort. ^ Anna was crowned King of Poland

Bibliography[edit]

Duczmal M., Jagiellonowie. Leksykon biograficzny, Kraków
Kraków
1996. Dybkowska A., Żaryn J., Żaryn M., Polskie dzieje. Od czasów najdawniejszych po współczesność, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1995. ISBN 83-01-11870-9 Gierowski J.A., Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
w dobie złotej wolności (1648–1763), Kraków
Kraków
2001. ISBN 83-85719-56-3 Grodziski S., Polska w czasach przełomu (1764–1815), Kraków
Kraków
2001. ISBN 83-85719-45-8 Grodziski S., Porównawcza historia ustrojów państwowych, Kraków 1998. ISBN 83-7052-840-6 Grzybowski S., Dzieje Polski i Litwy (1506–1648), Kraków
Kraków
2000. ISBN 83-85719-48-2 Morby J.E., Dynastie świata. Przewodnik chronologiczny i genealogiczny, Kraków
Kraków
1995, s. 261-263. ISBN 83-7006-263-6 Wyrozumski J., Dzieje Polski piastowskiej (VIII w.-1370), Kraków 1999. ISBN 83-85719-38-5 Zientara B., Henryk Brodaty i jego czasy, wyd. 2, Warszawa 1997.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kings and dukes of Poland.

Górczyk, Wojciech, "Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" Histmag.org June 14, 2009

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Monarchs of Poland

Piast dynasty

Siemowit Lestek Siemomysł Mieszko I Bolesław I the Brave Bezprym Mieszko II Lambert (Bolesław the Forgotten) Casimir I the Restorer Bolesław II the Generous Władysław I Herman Zbigniew Bolesław III Wrymouth

Fragmentation period

Supreme Princes

Władysław II the Exile Bolesław IV the Curly Mieszko III the Old Casimir II the Just Leszek the White Władysław III Spindleshanks Władysław Odonic Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Konrad I Henry the Bearded Henry II the Pious Bolesław V the Chaste Leszek II the Black Henryk IV Probus Przemysł II

See also

Dukes of Silesia Dukes of Greater Poland Dukes of Little Poland Dukes of Masovia Dukes of Cuyavia Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca Dukes of Gdańsk Pomerania Dukes of Pomerania

Přemyslid
Přemyslid
dynasty

Wenceslaus II Wenceslaus III

Restored Piast dynasty

Władysław I the Elbow-high Casimir III the Great

Capet-Anjou dynasty

Louis I the Hungarian Jadwiga

Jagiellonian dynasty

Władysław II Jagiełło Władysław III of Varna Casimir IV John I Albert Alexander Sigismund I the Old Sigismund II Augustus

Elective monarchy

Henry of Valois Anna Jagiellon Stephen Báthory Sigismund III Vasa Władysław IV
Władysław IV
Vasa John II Casimir
John II Casimir
Vasa Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki John III Sobieski August II the Strong Stanisław I August III the Saxon Stanisław August Poniatowski

Italics indicates monarchs of questioned historicity or entirely legendary.

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