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Kashmiri () or Koshur (, /kəːʃur/) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages, spoken by around 7 million Kashmiris, primarily in the Indian administered union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. In 2020 the Parliament of India passed a bill to make Kashmiri an official language of Jammu and Kashmir along with Dogri, Hindi, English and Urdu. Kashmiri is also among the 22 scheduled languages of India. Kashmiri has split ergativity and the unusual verb-second word order.


Geographic distribution and status


There are about 6.8 million speakers of Kashmiri and related dialects in Jammu and Kashmir and amongst the Kashmiri diaspora in other states of India. The precise figures from the 2011 census are 6,554,36 for Kashmiri as a "mother tongue" and 6,797,587 for Kashmiri as a "language" (which includes closely related smaller dialects/languages). Most Kashmiri speakers are located in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmiri is also spoken in Pakistan, primarily in the territory of Azad Kashmir, where the speakers are mostly concentrated in the Neelam and Leepa valleys and in the district of Haveli. Their numbers are not known exactly, but published figures have ranged from 130,000 (according to a 2012 estimate) to 350,000 (as of the 2017 census). The Kashmiri language is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. It was a part of the ''eighth Schedule'' in the former constitution of the Jammu and Kashmir. Along with other regional languages mentioned in the ''Sixth Schedule'', as well as Hindi and Urdu, the Kashmiri language was to be developed in the state. In 2020, Kashmiri became an official language in the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir for the first time. Most Kashmiri speakers use Urdu or English as a second language. Since November 2008, the Kashmiri language has been made a compulsory subject in all government schools in the Valley up to secondary level. Kashmiri is closely related to Poguli and Kishtwari, which are spoken in the mountains to the south of the Kashmir Valley and have sometimes been counted as dialects of Kashmiri.

Phonology

Kashmiri has the following vowel phonemes:

Vowels

:

Consonants



Archaisms

Kashmiri, as also the other Dardic languages, shows important divergences from the Indo-Aryan mainstream. One is the partial maintenance of the three sibilant consonants ''s ṣ ś'' of the Old Indo-Aryan period. For another example, the prefixing form of the number 'two', which is found in Sanskrit as ''dvi-'', has developed into ''ba-/bi-'' in most other Indo-Aryan languages, but ''du-'' in Kashmiri (preserving the original dental stop ''d''). ''Seventy-two'' is ''dusatath'' in Kashmiri, ''bahattar'' in Hindi-Urdu and Punjabi, and ''dvisaptati'' in Sanskrit. Certain features in Kashmiri even appear to stem from Indo-Aryan even predating the Vedic period. For instance, there was an /s/ > /h/ consonant shift in some words that had already occurred with Vedic Sanskrit (this tendency is even stronger in the Iranian branch of Indo-Iranian), yet is lacking in Kashmiri equivalents. The word ''rahit'' in Vedic Sanskrit and modern Hindi-Urdu (meaning 'excluding' or 'without') corresponds to ''rost'' in Kashmiri. Similarly, ''sahit'' (meaning 'including' or 'with') corresponds to ''sost'' in Kashmiri.

Writing system

There are three orthographical systems used to write the Kashmiri language : the Perso-Arabic script, the Devanagari script and the Sharada script. The Roman script is also sometimes informally used to write Kashmiri, especially online. The Kashmiri language is traditionally written in the Sharada script after the 8th Century A.D. This script however, is not in common use today, except for religious ceremonies of the Kashmiri Pandits. Today it is written in Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts (with some modifications). Among languages written in the Perso-Arabic script, Kashmiri is one of the scripts that regularly indicates all vowel sounds. The Perso-Arabic script is recognised as the official script of Kashmiri language by the Jammu and Kashmir government and the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages. Nowadays, Kashmiri Perso-Arabic script has come to be associated with Kashmiri Muslims, while the Kashmiri Devanagari script has come to be associated with the Kashmiri Hindu community.

Perso-Arabic script



Consonants



Vowels



Devanagari



Consonants



Vowels

There have been a few versions of the devanagari script for Kashmiri. The 2002 version of the proposal is shown below. This version has readers & more content available on the Internet, even though this is an older proposal. This version makes use of the vowels ॲ/ऑ & vowel signs कॅ/कॉ for the schwa-like vowel & elongated schwa-like vowel that also exist in other Devanagari-based scripts such as Marathi & Hindi but are used for the sound of other vowels. Tabulated below is the latest (2009) version of the proposal to spell the Kashmiri vowels with Devanagari. The primary change in this version is the changed stand alone characters ॳ / ॴ & vowel signs / for the schwa-like vowel & elongated schwa-like vowel and a new stand alone vowel & vowel sign for the open-mid back rounded vowel which can be used instead of the consonant व standing-in for this vowel.

Sharada script



Consonants



Vowels

''Vowel mark''

Grammar

Kashmiri is a fusional language with verb-second (V2) word order. Several of Kashmiri's grammatical features distinguish it from other Indo-Aryan languages.

Nouns

Kashmiri nouns are inflected according to gender, number and case. There are no articles, nor is there any grammatical distinction for definiteness, although there is some optional adverbial marking for indefinite or "generic" noun qualities.

Gender

The Kashmiri gender system is divided into masculine and feminine. Feminine forms are typically generated by the addition of a suffix (or in most cases, a morphophonemic change, or both) to a masculine noun. A relatively small group of feminine nouns have unique suppletion forms that are totally different from the corresponding masculine forms. The following table illustrates the range of possible gender forms: :: Some nouns borrowed from other languages, such as Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, Urdu or English, follow a slightly different gender system. Notably, many words borrowed from Urdu have different genders in Kashmiri.

Case

There are five cases in Kashmiri: nominative, dative, ergative, ablative and vocative. Case is expressed via suffixation of the noun. Kashmiri utilizes an ergative-absolutive case structure when the verb is in simple past tense. Thus, in these sentences, the subject of a transitive verb is marked in the ergative case and the object in nominative, which is identical to how the subject of an intransitive verb is marked. However, in sentences constructed in any other tense, or in past tense sentences with intransitive verbs, a nominative-dative paradigm is adopted, with objects (whether direct or indirect) generally marked in dative case. Other case distinctions, such as locative, instrumental, genitive, comitative and allative, are marked by postpositions rather than suffixation.

Noun morphology

The following table illustrates Kashmiri noun declension according to gender, number and case. ::

Verbs

Kashmiri verbs are declined according to tense and person, and to a lesser extent, gender. Tense, along with certain distinctions of aspect, is formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem (minus the infinitive ending - /un/), and in many cases by the addition of various modal auxiliaries. Postpositions fulfill numerous adverbial and semantic roles.

Tense

Present tense in Kashmiri is an auxiliary construction formed by a combination of the copula and the imperfective suffix -/aːn/ added to the verb stem. The various copula forms agree with their subject according to gender and number, and are provided below with the verb /jun/ (to come): :: Past tense in Kashmiri is significantly more complex than the other tenses, and is subdivided into three past tense distinctions. The simple (sometimes called proximate) past refers to completed past actions. Remote past refers to actions that lack this in-built perfective aspect. Indefinite past refers to actions performed a long time ago, and is often used in historical narrative or storytelling contexts. As described above, Kashmiri is a split-ergative language; in all three of these past tense forms, the subjects of transitive verbs are marked in the ergative case and direct objects in the nominative. Intransitive subjects are marked in the nominative. Nominative arguments, whether subjects or objects, dictate gender, number and person marking on the verb. Verbs of the simple past tense are formed via the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, which usually undergoes certain uniform morphophonemic changes. First and third person verbs of this type do not take suffixes and agree with the nominative object in gender and number, but there are second person verb endings. The entire simple past tense paradigm of transitive verbs is illustrated below using the verb /parun/ ("to read"): ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Simple Past (Transitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||
|| | | |- |2nd Person (Non-honorific) | | | |{{IPA|arʲatʰ{{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پَرؠتھ |- |2nd Person (Honorific) |{{IPA|orwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پۆروٕ |{{IPA|əriwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پٔرِوٕ |{{IPA|ərwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پٔروٕ |{{IPA|ariwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پَرِوٕ |- |3rd Person||{{IPA|or} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پۆر |{{IPA|ərʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پٔرؠ |{{IPA|ər} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پٔر |{{IPA|ari} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|پَرِ A group of irregular intransitive verbs (''special intransitives''), take a different set of endings in addition to the morphophonemic changes that affect most past tense verbs.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|pp=91-92 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Simple Past (Special Intransitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|s} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اُس | -{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ؠ | -{{IPA|s} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَس | -{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اِ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|ʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کھ | -{{IPA|ɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وٕ | -{{IPA|ʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کھ | -{{IPA|ɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وٕ |- |3rd Person||-Ø||-Ø||-{{IPA|͡ʃʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|چھ | -{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اِ Intransitive verbs in the simple past are conjugated the same as intransitives in the indefinite past tense form.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=93 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Simple Past (Intransitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|as} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یَس | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːjas} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یَس | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|aːkʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یاکھ | -{{IPA|eːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِوٕ | -{{IPA|eːjakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یَکھ | -{{IPA|eːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِوٕ |- |3rd Person||-{{IPA|oːw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یوو | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ In contrast to the simple past, verb stems are unchanged in the indefinite and remote past, although the addition of the tense suffixes does cause some morphophonetic change.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=94 Transitive verbs are declined according to the following paradigm:{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|pp=94-95 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Indefinite Past (Transitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st/3rd Person||-{{IPA|oːw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یوو | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یِہ | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یِہ | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|oːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یوتھ | -{{IPA|ːjatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یَتھ | -{{IPA|ːjatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یَتھ | -{{IPA|ːjatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یَتھ ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Remote Past (Transitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st/3rd Person||-{{IPA|ːjoːw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یوو | -{{IPA|ːjaːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یایِہ | -{{IPA|ːjaːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یایِہ | -{{IPA|ːjaːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یایِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|ːjoːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یوتھ | -{{IPA|ːjeːjatʰ {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یے یَتھ | -{{IPA|ːjeːjatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یے یَتھ | -{{IPA|ːjeːjatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یے یَتھ As in the simple past, "special intransitive" verbs take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past:{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|pp=96-97 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Indefinite Past (Special Intransitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|ːs} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اس | -{{IPA|ːjas} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایَس | -{{IPA|ːjas} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایَس | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|ʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کھ | -{{IPA|ʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کھ | -{{IPA|ːjakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایَکھ | -{{IPA|ːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایِوٕ |- |3rd Person||-{{IPA|w} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَو | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایِہ | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایِہ | -{{IPA|ːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایِہ ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Remote Past (Special Intransitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|ːjaːs} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایاس | -{{IPA|ːjaːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یایِہ | -{{IPA|ːjeːjas} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یے یَس | -{{IPA|ːjeːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یے یِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|ːkʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اکھ | -{{IPA|ːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یِوٕ | -{{IPA|ːjakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایَکھ | -{{IPA|ːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ایِوٕ |- |3rd Person||-{{IPA|ːjoːw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یوو | -{{IPA|ːjeːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یے یِہ | -{{IPA|ːjaːjɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یایٕہ | -{{IPA|ːjaːjɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ے یایٕہ Regular intransitive verbs also take a different set of endings in the indefinite and remote past, subject to some morphophonetic variation:{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|pp=96-99 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Indefinite Past (Intransitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|as} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یَس | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːjas} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یَس | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|aːkʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یاکھ | -{{IPA|eːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِوٕ | -{{IPA|eːjakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یَکھ | -{{IPA|eːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِوٕ |- |3rd Person||-{{IPA|oːw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یوو | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Remote Past (Intransitive) | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|eːjaːs} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یاس | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːjaːs} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یاس | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|eːjakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یَکھ | -{{IPA|eːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِوٕ | -{{IPA|eːjakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یَکھ | -{{IPA|eːjiwɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِوٕ |- |3rd Person||-{{IPA|eːjoːw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یوو | -{{IPA|eːji} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یِہ | -{{IPA|eːjaːjɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یایٕہ | -{{IPA|eːjɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یے یٕہ Future tense intransitive verbs are formed by the addition of suffixes to the verb stem:{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|pp=100-101 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Future (Intransitive) | ||Singular||Plural |- |1st Person||-{{IPA|ɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|مہٕ | -{{IPA|aw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|مَو |- |2nd Person||-{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ | -{{IPA|iw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِو |- |3rd Person||-{{IPA|i} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِہ | -{{IPA|n} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَن The future tense of transitive verbs, however, is formed by adding suffixes that agree with both the subject and direct object according to number, in a complex fashion:{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=103 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Future (Transitive) | ||Singular Object||Plural Object |- |1st Person Sing.||-{{IPA|n} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَن | -{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ |- |1st Person Pl.||-{{IPA|hoːn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إہون | -{{IPA|hoːkʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إہوکھ |- |2nd Person Sing.||-{{IPA|hǝn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إۂن | -{{IPA|hǝkʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إۂکھ |- |2nd Person Pl.||-{{IPA|huːn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إہوٗن | -{{IPA|huːkʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إہوٗکھ |- |3rd Person Sing.||-{{IPA|as} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یَس | -{{IPA|akʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یَکھ |- |3rd Person Pl.||-{{IPA|nas} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إنَس | -{{IPA|nakʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|إنَکھ

Aspect

There are two main aspectual distinctions in Kashmiri, perfective and imperfective. Both employ a participle formed by the addition of a suffix to the verb stem, as well as the fully conjugated auxiliary /aːsun/ ("to be")—which agrees according to gender, number and person with the object (for transitive verbs) or the subject (for intransitive verbs).{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=105 Like the auxiliary, the participle suffix used with the perfective aspect (expressing completed or concluded action) agrees in gender and number with the object (for transitive verbs) or subject (for intransitives) as illustrated below:{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=105 ::{| class="wikitable" |- | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- | ||-{{IPA|ut} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|مُت | -{{IPA|ɨtʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|مٕتؠ | -{{IPA|ɨt͡s} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|مٕژ | -{{IPA|at͡sɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|مَژٕ The imperfective (expressing habitual or progressive action) is simpler, taking the participle suffix -/aːn/ in all forms, with only the auxiliary showing agreement.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=107 A type of iterative aspect can be expressed by reduplicating the imperfective participle.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=108

Pronouns

Pronouns are declined according to person, gender, number and case, although only third person pronouns are overtly gendered. Also in third person, a distinction is made between three degrees of proximity, called proximate, remote I and remote II.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=53 ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Nominative | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st||{{IPA|ɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|بہٕ |{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|أسؠ |{{IPA|ɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|بہٕ |{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|أسؠ |- |2nd||{{IPA|͡sɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژٕ |{{IPA|ohʲ} or {{IPA|uhʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۆہؠ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تُہؠ |{{IPA|͡sɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژٕ |{{IPA|ohʲ} or {{IPA|uhʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۆہؠ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تُہؠ |- |3rd prox.||{{IPA|i} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یہِ |{{IPA|im} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِم |{{IPA|i} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یہِ |{{IPA|imɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمہٕ |- |3rd R I||{{IPA|u} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُہ |{{IPA|um} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُم |{{IPA|ɔ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہۄ |{{IPA|umɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمہٕ |- |3rd R II||{{IPA|u} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سُہ |{{IPA|im} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِم |/sɔ/ {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سۄ |{{IPA|imɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمہٕ ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Ergative | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st||{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|مےٚ |{{IPA|si} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَسہِ |{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|مےٚ |{{IPA|si} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَسہِ |- |2nd||{{IPA|͡se} {{Lang|ks|ژےٚ |{{IPA|ɔhi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۄہِہ |{{IPA|͡se} {{Lang|ks|ژےٚ |{{IPA|ɔhi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۄہِہ |- |3rd prox.||{{IPA|emʲ} {{Lang|ks|یێمؠ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمَو |{{IPA|emi} {{Lang|ks|یێمِہ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمَو |- |3rd R I||{{IPA|umʲ} {{Lang|ks|ہُمؠ |{{IPA|umaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمَو |{{IPA|umi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمہِ |{{IPA|umaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمَو |- |3rd R II||{{IPA|ǝmʲ} {{Lang|ks|تٔمؠ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمَو |{{IPA|ami} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تَمہِ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمَو ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Dative | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st||{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|مےٚ |{{IPA|si} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَسہِ |{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|مےٚ |{{IPA|si} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَسہِ |- |2nd||{{IPA|͡se} {{Lang|ks|ژےٚ |{{IPA|ɔhi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۄہہِ |{{IPA|͡se} {{Lang|ks|ژےٚ |{{IPA|ɔhi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۄہہِ |- |3rd prox.||{{IPA|emis} {{Lang|ks|یێمِس |{{IPA|iman} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمَن |{{IPA|emis} {{Lang|ks|یێمِس |{{IPA|iman} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمَن |- |3rd R I||{{IPA|umis} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمِس |{{IPA|uman} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمَن |{{IPA|umis} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمِس |{{IPA|uman} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمَن |- |3rd R II||{{IPA|ǝmis} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تٔمِس |{{IPA|iman} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمَن |{{IPA|ǝmis} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تٔمِس |{{IPA|iman} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمَن ::{| class="wikitable" |+ Ablative | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st||{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|مےٚ |{{IPA|si} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَسہِ |{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|مےٚ |{{IPA|si} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَسہِ |- |2nd||{{IPA|͡se} {{Lang|ks|ژےٚ |{{IPA|ɔhi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۄہہِ |{{IPA|͡se} {{Lang|ks|ژےٚ |{{IPA|ɔhi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تۄہہِ |- |3rd prox.||{{IPA|emi} {{Lang|ks|یێمہِ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمَو |{{IPA|emi} {{Lang|ks|یێمہِ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|یِمَو |- |3rd R I||{{IPA|umi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمہِ |{{IPA|umaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمَو |{{IPA|umi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمہِ |{{IPA|umaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہُمَو |- |3rd R II||{{IPA|ǝmi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تٔمہِ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمَو |{{IPA|ǝmi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تٔمہِ |{{IPA|imaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|تِمَو There is also a dedicated genitive pronoun set, in contrast to the way that the genitive is constructed adverbially elsewhere. As with future tense, these forms agree with both the subject and direct object in person and number.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=52 ::{| class="wikitable" |- | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |1st Sing.||{{IPA|joːn} {{Lang|ks|میٛون |{{IPA|jəːnʲ} {{Lang|ks|میٛٲنؠ |{{IPA|jəːnʲ} {{Lang|ks|میٛٲنؠ |{{IPA|jaːni} {{Lang|ks|میٛانہِ |- |1st Pl.||{{IPA|oːn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سون |{{IPA|əːnʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سٲنؠ |{{IPA|əːnʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سٲنؠ |{{IPA|aːni} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سانہِ |- |2nd Sing.||{{IPA|͡ʃoːn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|چون |{{IPA|͡ʃəːnʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|چٲنؠ |{{IPA|͡ʃəːnʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|چٲنؠ |{{IPA|͡ʃaːni} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|چانہِ |- |2nd Pl.||{{IPA|uhund} {{Lang|ks|تُہُنٛد |{{IPA|uhɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|تُہٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|uhɨnz} {{Lang|ks|تُہٕنٛز |{{IPA|uhnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|تُہنٛزٕ |- |3rd Sing. Prox.||{{IPA|emʲ sund} {{Lang|ks|یێمؠ سُنٛد |{{IPA|emʲ sɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|یێمؠ سٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|emʲ sɨnz} {{Lang|ks|یێمؠ سٕنٛز |{{IPA|emʲ sɨnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|یێمؠ سٕنٛزٕ |- |3rd Pl. Prox.||{{IPA|ihund} {{Lang|ks|یِہُنٛد |{{IPA|ihɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|یِہٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|ihɨnz} {{Lang|ks|یِہٕنٛز |{{IPA|ihnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|یِہنٛزٕ |- |3rd Sing. R I||{{IPA|umʲ sund} {{Lang|ks|ہُمؠ سُنٛد |{{IPA|umʲ sɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|ہُمؠ سٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|umʲ sɨnz} {{Lang|ks|ہُمؠ سٕنٛز |{{IPA|umʲ sɨnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|ہُمؠ سٕنٛزٕ |- |3rd Pl. R I||{{IPA|uhund} {{Lang|ks|ہُہُنٛد |{{IPA|uhɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|ہُہٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|uhɨnz} {{Lang|ks|ہُہٕنٛز |{{IPA|uhnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|ہُہنٛزٕ |- |3rd Sing. R II||{{IPA|ǝmʲ sund} {{Lang|ks|تٔمؠ سُنٛد |{{IPA|ǝmʲ sɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|تٔمؠ سٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|ǝmʲ sɨnz} {{Lang|ks|تٔمؠ سٕنٛز |{{IPA|ǝmʲ sɨnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|تٔمۍ سٕنٛزٕ |- |3rd Pl. R II||{{IPA|ihɨnd} {{Lang|ks|تِہٕنٛد |{{IPA|ihɨndʲ} {{Lang|ks|تِہٕنٛدؠ |{{IPA|ihɨnz} {{Lang|ks|تِہٕنٛز |{{IPA|ihnzɨ} {{Lang|ks|تِہنٛزٕ |-

Adjectives

There are two kinds of adjectives in Kashmiri, those that agree with their referent noun (according to case, gender and number) and those that are not declined at all. Most adjectives are declined, and generally take the same endings and gender-specific stem changes as nouns.{{sfn|Wade|1888|p=19 The declinable adjective endings are provided in the table below, using the adjective /wɔzul/ ("red"):{{sfn|Wade|1888|p=20{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=59 ::{| class="wikitable" |- | ||Masc. Sing.||Masc. Pl.||Fem. Sing.||Fem. Pl. |- |Nom.||{{IPA|ɔzul} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزُل |{{IPA|ɔzɨlʲ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزٕلؠ |{{IPA|ɔzɨd͡ʒ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزٕج |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجہِ |- |Erg.||{{IPA|ɔzlɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزلہٕ |{{IPA|ɔzlʲaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزلؠو |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجہِ |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجَو |- |Dat.||{{IPA|ɔzlis} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزلِس |{{IPA|ɔzlʲan} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزلؠن |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجہِ |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒan} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجَن |- |Abl.||{{IPA|ɔzlɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزلہٕ |{{IPA|ɔzlʲaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزلؠو |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒi} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجہِ |{{IPA|ɔzd͡ʒaw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وۄزجَو Among those adjectives not declined are adjectives that end in -lad or -a, adjectives borrowed from other languages, and a few isolated irregulars.{{sfn|Wade|1888|p=20 The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives are formed with the words ''tsor'' ("more") and ''sitha'' ("most"), respectively.{{sfn|Wade|1888|p=21

Numerals

Within the Kashmir language, numerals are separated into cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=64 These numeral forms, as well as their aggregative (both, all the five, etc.), multiplicative (two times, four times, etc.), and emphatic forms (only one, only three, etc.) are provided by the table below.{{sfn|Koul|Wali|2006|p=64 ::{| class="wikitable" |- | ||Cardinal||Ordinal||Aggregative||Multiplicative||Emphatic |- |Suffix|| ||-{{IPA|um} for masculine -{{IPA|m} for feminine |-aj/nowiki>||-{{IPA|un} or -{{IPA|on} for masculine -{{IPA|ɨn} for feminine | -/nowiki> |- |0. |{{IPA|ifar {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|صِفَر | | | | |- |1.||{{IPA|} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ |{{IPA|kjum} or {{IPA|kim} {{Lang|ks|أکیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|أکِم | || {{IPA|ɡun} or {{IPA|ɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اۆگُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اۆگٕن |{{IPA|kuj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکُے |- |2.||{{IPA|ɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|زٕ |{{IPA|ojumor {{IPA|ojim} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۆیُم or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۆیِم |{{IPA|ɔʃvaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۄشوَے |{{IPA|oɡun} or {{IPA|oɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۆگُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۆگٕن |{{IPA|ɨj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|زٕے |- |3.||{{IPA|re} {{Lang|ks|ترٛےٚ |{{IPA|rejum} or {{IPA|rejim} {{Lang|ks|ترٛیٚیُم or {{Lang|ks|ترٛیٚیِم |{{IPA|reʃvaj} {{Lang|ks|ترٛیٚشوَے |{{IPA|roɡun} or {{IPA|roɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ترٛۆگُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ترٛۆگٕن |{{IPA|rej} {{Lang|ks|ترٛێے |- |4.||{{IPA|͡soːr} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژور |{{IPA|͡suːrjum} or {{IPA|͡suːrim} {{Lang|ks|ژوٗریُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژوٗرِم |{{IPA|͡sɔʃvaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۄشوَے |{{IPA|͡soɡun} or {{IPA|͡soɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۆگُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۆگٕن |{{IPA|͡soːraj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژورَے |- |5.||{{IPA|ãːt͡sʰ} or {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sʰ} {{Lang|ks|پانٛژھ or {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژھ |{{IPA|ɨ:t͡sjum} or {{IPA|ɨ:t͡sim} {{Lang|ks|پٟنٛژیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پٟنژِم |{{IPA|ãːt͡sɨvaj} {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕوَے |{{IPA|ãːt͡sɨɡun} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕگُن or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕگٕن |{{IPA|ãːt͡saj} {{Lang|ks|پانٛژَے |- |6. |{{IPA|e} {{Lang|ks|شےٚ |{{IPA|ejum} or {{IPA|ejim} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیُم or {{Lang|ks|شیٚیِم |{{IPA|enɨvaj} {{Lang|ks|شیٚنہٕ وَے |{{IPA|uɡunor {{IPA|uɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|شُگُن or {{Lang|ks|شُگٕن |{{IPA|ej} {{Lang|ks|شیٚے |- |7. |{{IPA|atʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتھ |{{IPA|ətjum} or {{IPA|ətim} {{Lang|ks|سٔتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سٔتِم |{{IPA|atɨvaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ وَے |{{IPA|atɨɡun} or {{IPA|atɨɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ گُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ گٕن |{{IPA|ataj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتَے |- |8. |{{IPA|ːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ٲٹھ |{{IPA|ːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|ːʈʰjum} {{Lang|ks|اٟٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اوٗٹھیُٛم {{IPA|ɨːʈʰim] or {{IPA|ːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|اٟٹھِم or {{Lang|ks|اوٗٹھِم |{{IPA|ːʈʰɨvaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ٲٹھٕ وَے |{{IPA|ːʈʰɨɡun} or {{IPA|ːʈʰɨɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ٲٹھٕ گُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ٲٹھٕ گٕن |{{IPA|ːʈʰaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ٲٹھَے |- |9. |{{IPA|aw} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَو |{{IPA|əwjum} or {{IPA|əwim} {{Lang|ks|نٔویُٛم or {{Lang|ks|نٔوِم |{{IPA|awɨwaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَوٕوَے |{{IPA|awɨɡun} or {{IPA|awɨɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَوٕگُن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَوٕگٕن |{{IPA|awaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَوَے |- |- |10. |{{IPA|əh} or {{IPA|aːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|داہ |{{IPA|əhjum} or {{IPA|əhim} {{Lang|ks|دٔہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دٔہِم |{{IPA|əhɨwaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہہٕ وَے |{{IPA|əhɨɡon} or {{IPA|əhɨɡɨn} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہہٕ گۆن or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہہٕ گٕن |{{IPA|əhaj} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہَے |- |11. |{{IPA|ah} or {{IPA|aːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کَہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کاہ |{{IPA|əhjum} or {{IPA|əhim} {{Lang|ks|کٔہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کٔہِم | | | |- |12. |{{IPA|ah} or {{IPA|aːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|بَہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|باہ |{{IPA|əhjum} or {{IPA|əhim} {{Lang|ks|بٔہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|بٔہِم | | | |- |13. |{{IPA|ruwaːh} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛواہ |{{IPA|ruwəːhjum} or {{IPA|ruwəːhim} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛوٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترُٛوٲہِم | | | |- |14. |{{IPA|͡sɔdaːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۄداہ |{{IPA|͡sɔdəːhjum} or {{IPA|͡sɔdəːhim} {{Lang|ks|ژۄدٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژۄدٲہِم | | | |- |15. |{{IPA|andaːh} {{Lang|ks|پَنٛداہ |{{IPA|andəːhjum} or {{IPA|andəːhim} {{Lang|ks|پَنٛدٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پَنٛدٲہِم | | | |- |16. |{{IPA|uraːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شُراہ |{{IPA|urəːhjum} or {{IPA|urəːhim} {{Lang|ks|شُرٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شُرٲہِم | | | |- |17. |{{IPA|adaːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَداہ |{{IPA|adəːhjum} or {{IPA|adəːhim} {{Lang|ks|سَدٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَدٲہِم | | | |- |18. |{{IPA|rɨdaːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕداہ |{{IPA|rɨdəːhjum} or {{IPA|rɨdəːhim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕدٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕدٲہِم | | | |- |19. |{{IPA|unɨwuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کُنہٕ وُہ |{{IPA|unɨwuhjum} or {{IPA|unɨwuhim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ وُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ وُہِم | | | |- |20. |{{IPA|uh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|وُہ |{{IPA|uhjum} or {{IPA|uhim} {{Lang|ks|وُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|وُہِم | | | |- |21. |{{IPA|kɨwuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ وُہ |{{IPA|kɨwuhjum} or {{IPA|kɨwuhim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ وُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ وُہِم | | | |- |22. |{{IPA|ɨtoːwuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|زٕتووُہ |{{IPA|ɨtoːwuhjum} or {{IPA|ɨtoːwuhim} {{Lang|ks|زٕتووُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|زٕتووُہِم | | | |- |23. |{{IPA|rowuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ترٛۆوُہ |{{IPA|rowuhjum} or {{IPA|rowuhim} {{Lang|ks|ترٛۆوُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٛۆوُہِم | | | |- |24. |{{IPA|͡sowuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۆوُہ |{{IPA|͡sowuhjum} or {{IPA|͡sowuhim} {{Lang|ks|ژۆوُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژۆوُہِم | | | |- |25. |{{IPA|ɨnt͡sɨh} {{Lang|ks|پٕنٛژٕہ |{{IPA|ɨnt͡sɨhjum} or {{IPA|ɨnt͡sɨhim} {{Lang|ks|پٕنٛژٕہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پٕنٛژٕہِم | | | |- |26. |{{IPA|atɨwuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شَتہٕ وُہ |{{IPA|atɨwuhjum} or {{IPA|atɨwuhim} {{Lang|ks|شَتہٕ وُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شَتہٕ وُہِم | | | |- |27. |{{IPA|atoːwuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتووُہ |{{IPA|atoːwuhjumor {{IPA|atoːwuhim} {{Lang|ks|سَتووُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتووُہِم | | | |- |28. |{{IPA|ʈʰoːwuh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَٹھووُہ |{{IPA|ʈʰoːwuhjum} or {{IPA|ʈʰoːwuhim} {{Lang|ks|اَٹھووُہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَٹھووُہِم | | | |- |29. |{{IPA|unɨtrɨh} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|unɨtrɨhjum} or {{IPA|unɨtrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |30. |{{IPA|rɨh} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|rɨhjum} or {{IPA|rɨhim} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |31. |{{IPA|kɨtrɨh} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|kɨtrɨhjum} or {{IPA|kɨtrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |32. |{{IPA|ɔjitrɨh} {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|ɔjitrɨhjum} or {{IPA|ɔjitrɨhjim} {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |33. |{{IPA|ejitrɨh} {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|ejitrɨhjum} or {{IPA|ejitrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |34. |{{IPA|͡sɔjitrɨh} {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|͡sɔjitrɨhjum} or {{IPA|͡sɔjitrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |35. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨh} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtrɨh} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtrɨhjum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtrɨhim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |36. |{{IPA|ejitrɨh} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|ejitrɨhjum} or {{IPA|ejitrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |37. |{{IPA|atɨtrɨh} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ترٕٛہ |{{IPA|atɨtrɨhjum} or {{IPA|atɨtrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ترٕٛہِم | | | |- |38. |{{IPA|rɨtrɨh} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕترٕٛہ |{{IPA|rɨtrɨhjum} or {{IPA|rɨtrɨhim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕترٕٛہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕترٕٛہِم | | | |- |39. |{{IPA|unɨtəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|unɨtəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ تٲجی |{{IPA|unɨtəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|unɨtəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |40. |{{IPA|͡satd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|͡satd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژَتجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژَتجی |{{IPA|͡satd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|͡satd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|ژَتجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژَتجِہِم | | | |- |41. |{{IPA|kɨtəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|kɨtəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ تٲجی |{{IPA|kɨtəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|kɨtəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |42. |{{IPA|ɔjitəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|ɔjitəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۄیہِ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۄیہِ تٲجی |{{IPA|ɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|ɔjitəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |43. |{{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ تٲجی |{{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|تیٚیہِ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |44. |{{IPA|͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۄیہِ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۄیہِ تٲجی |{{IPA|͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|͡sɔjitəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |45. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ تٲجی or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ تٲجی |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ تٲجِہیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨtəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ تٲجِہِم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |46. |{{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ تٲجی |{{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|ejitəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |47. |{{IPA|atɨtəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|atɨtəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ تٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ تٲجی |{{IPA|atɨtəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|atɨtəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ تٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ تٲجِہِم | | | |- |48. |{{IPA|rɨtəːd͡ʒih} or {{IPA|rɨtəːd͡ʒiː} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕتٲجِہہ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕتٲجی |{{IPA|rɨtəːd͡ʒihjum} or {{IPA|rɨtəːd͡ʒihim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕتٲجِہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕتٲجِہِم | | | |- |49. |{{IPA|unɨwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کُنہٕ وَنزاہ |{{IPA|unɨwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|unɨwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ وَنزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ وَنزٲہِم | | | |- |50. |{{IPA|ant͡saːh} {{Lang|ks|پَنٛژاہ |{{IPA|ant͡səːhjum} or {{IPA|ant͡səːhim} {{Lang|ks|پَنٛژٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پَنٛژٲہِم | | | |- |51. |{{IPA|kɨwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ وَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|kɨwanzəːhjumor {{IPA|kɨwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |52. |{{IPA|uwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|دُوَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|uwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|uwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|دُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دُوَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |53. |{{IPA|ruwanzaːh} or {{IPA|rɨwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛوَنٛزاہ or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛوَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|ruwanzəːhjumor {{IPA|ruwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترُٛوَنٛزٲہِم {{IPA|rɨwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|rɨwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛوَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |54. |{{IPA|͡suwanzaːh{{Lang|ks|ژُوَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|͡suwanzəːhjumor {{IPA|͡suwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|ژُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژُوَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |55. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨwanzaːh} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزاہ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ وَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨwanzəːhjum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨwanzəːhim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہِم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ وَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |56. |{{IPA|uwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|شُوَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|uwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|uwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|شُوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شُوَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |57. |{{IPA|atɨwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ وَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|atɨwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|atɨwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ وَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |58. |{{IPA|rɨwanzaːh} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕوَنٛزاہ |{{IPA|rɨwanzəːhjum} or {{IPA|rɨwanzəːhim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕوَنٛزٲہیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕوَنٛزٲہِم | | | |- |59. |{{IPA|unɨhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کُنہٕ ہٲٹھ |{{IPA|unɨhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|unɨhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ ہٲٹھِم | | | |- |60. |{{IPA|eːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شیٹھ |{{IPA|eːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|eːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|شیٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شیٹھِم | | | |- |61. |{{IPA|kɨhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ ہٲٹھ |{{IPA|kɨhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|kɨhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ ہٲٹھِم | | | |- |62. |{{IPA|uhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دُ ہٲٹھ |{{IPA|uhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|uhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|دُ ہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دُ ہٲٹھِم | | | |- |63. |{{IPA|ruhəːʈʰ} or {{IPA|rɨhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛہٲٹھ or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہٲٹھ |{{IPA|ruhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|ruhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترُٛہٲٹھِم {{IPA|rɨhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|rɨhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہٲٹھِم | | | |- |64. |{{IPA|͡suhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژُہٲٹھ |{{IPA|͡suhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|͡suhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|ژُہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژُہٲٹھِم | | | |- |65. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰjum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ہٲٹھِم | | | |- |66. |{{IPA|uhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شُہٲٹھ |{{IPA|uhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|uhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|شُہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شُہٲٹھِم | | | |- |67. |{{IPA|atɨhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ ہٲٹھ |{{IPA|atɨhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|atɨhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ہٲٹھِم | | | |- |68. |{{IPA|rɨhəːʈʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕہٲٹھ |{{IPA|rɨhəːʈʰjum} or {{IPA|rɨhəːʈʰim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕہٲٹھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕہٲٹھِم | | | |- |69. |{{IPA|unɨsatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کُنہٕ سَتَتھ |{{IPA|unɨsatatyum} or {{IPA|unɨsatatim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ سَتَتِم | | | |- |70. |{{IPA|atatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتَتھ |{{IPA|atatjum} or {{IPA|atatim} {{Lang|ks|سَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتَتِم | | | |- |71. |{{IPA|kɨsatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ سَتَتھ |{{IPA|kɨsatatjum} or {{IPA|kɨsatatim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ سَتَتِم | | | |- |72. |{{IPA|usatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دُسَتَتھ |{{IPA|usatatjum} or {{IPA|usatatim} {{Lang|ks|دُسَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دُسَتَتِم | | | |- |73. |{{IPA|rusatatʰ} or {{IPA|rɨsatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛسَتَتھ or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛسَتَتھ |{{IPA|rusatatjum} or {{IPA|rusatatim} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛسَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترُٛسَتَتِم {{IPA|rɨsatatjum} or {{IPA|rɨsatatim} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛسَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛسَتَتِم | | | |- |74. |{{IPA|͡susatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژُسَتَتھ |{{IPA|͡susatatjum} or {{IPA|͡susatatim} {{Lang|ks|ژُسَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژُسَتَتِم | | | |- |75. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨsatatʰ} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨsatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتھ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ سَتَتھ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨsatatjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨsatatjum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ سَتَتیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨsatatim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨsatatim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ سَتَتِم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ سَتَتِم | | | |- |76. |{{IPA|usatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شُسَتَتھ |{{IPA|usatatjum} or {{IPA|usatatim} {{Lang|ks|شُسَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شُسَتَتِم | | | |- |77. |{{IPA|atɨsatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ سَتَتھ |{{IPA|atɨsatatjum} or {{IPA|atɨsatatim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ سَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ سَتَتِم | | | |- |78. |{{IPA|rɨsatatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕسَتَتھ |{{IPA|rɨsatatjum} or {{IPA|rɨsatatim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕسَتَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕسَتَتِم | | | |- |79. |{{IPA|unɨʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کُنہٕ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|unɨʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|unɨʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ شيٖتِم | | | |- |80. |{{IPA|iːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شيٖتھ |{{IPA|iːtjum} or {{IPA|iːtjim} {{Lang|ks|شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شيٖتِم | | | |- |81. |{{IPA|kɨʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|kɨʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|kɨʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ شيٖتِم | | | |- |82. |{{IPA|ɔjiʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دۄیہِ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|ɔjiʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|ɔjiʃiːtjum} {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دۄیہِ شيٖتِم | | | |- |83. |{{IPA|rejiʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|rejiʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|rejiʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٛیٚیہِ شيٖتِم | | | |- |84. |{{IPA|͡sɔjiʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژۄیہِ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|͡sɔjiʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|͡sɔjiʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژۄیہِ شيٖتِم | | | |- |85. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتھ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨʃiːtjum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ شيٖتیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨʃiːtim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ شيٖتِم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ شيٖتِم | | | |- |86. |{{IPA|ejiʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|ejiʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|ejiʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شیٚیہِ شيٖتِم | | | |- |87. |{{IPA|atɨʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ شيٖتھ |{{IPA|atɨʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|atɨʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ شيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ شيٖتِم | | | |- |88. |{{IPA|rɨʃiːtʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕشيٖتھ |{{IPA|rɨʃiːtjum} or {{IPA|rɨʃiːtim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕشيٖتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕشيٖتِم | | | |- |89. |{{IPA|unɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کُنہٕ نَمَتھ |{{IPA|unɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|unɨnamatim} {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کُنہٕ نَمَتِم | | | |- |90. |{{IPA|amatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَمَتھ |{{IPA|amatjum} or {{IPA|amatim} {{Lang|ks|نَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|نَمَتِم | | | |- |91. |{{IPA|kɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکہٕ نَمَتھ |{{IPA|kɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|kɨnamatim} {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکہٕ نَمَتِم | | | |- |92. |{{IPA|unamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دُنَمَتھ |{{IPA|unamatjum} or {{IPA|unamatim} {{Lang|ks|دُنَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دُنَمَتِم | | | |- |93. |{{IPA|runamatʰ} or {{IPA|rɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛنَمَتھ or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛنَمَتھ |{{IPA|runamatjum} or {{IPA|runamatim} {{Lang|ks|ترُٛنَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترُٛنَمَتِم {{IPA|rɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|rɨnamatim} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛنَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛنَمَتِم | | | |- |94. |{{IPA|͡sunamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژُنَمَتھ |{{IPA|͡sunamatjum} or {{IPA|͡sunamatim} {{Lang|ks|ژُنَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژُنَمَتِم | | | |- |95. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨnamatʰ} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتھ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ نَمَتھ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨnamatjum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ نَمَتیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨnamatim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨnamatim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ نَمَتِم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ نَمَتِم | | | |- |96. |{{IPA|unamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|شُنَمَتھ |{{IPA|unamatjum} or {{IPA|unamatim} {{Lang|ks|شُنَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شُنَمَتِم | | | |- |97. |{{IPA|atɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتہٕ نَمَتھ |{{IPA|atɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|atɨnamatim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ نَمَتِم | | | |- |98. |{{IPA|rɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرٕنَمَتھ |{{IPA|rɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|rɨnamatjim} {{Lang|ks|اَرٕنَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرٕنَمَتِم | | | |- |99. |{{IPA|amɨnamatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَمہٕ نَمَتھ |{{IPA|amɨnamatjum} or {{IPA|amɨnamatim} {{Lang|ks|نَمہٕ نَمَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|نَمہٕ نَمَتِم | | | |- |100. |{{IPA|atʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ہَتھ |{{IPA|atyum} or {{IPA|atim} {{Lang|ks|ہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ہَتِم | | | |- |101. |{{IPA|kʰ hatʰ tɨ akʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ اَکھ |{{IPA|kʰ hatʰ tɨ ǝkjum} or {{IPA|kʰ hatʰ tɨ ǝkim} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ أکیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ أکِم | | | |- |102. |{{IPA|kʰ hatʰ tɨ zɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ زٕ |{{IPA|kʰ hatʰ tɨ dojum} or {{IPA|kʰ hatʰ tɨ dojim} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ دۆیُم or {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ہَتھ تہٕ دۆیِم | | | |- |200. |{{IPA|ɨ hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|زٕ ہَتھ |{{IPA|u hatyum} or {{IPA|uhatim} {{Lang|ks|دُہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|دُہَتِم | | | |- |300. |{{IPA|re hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|ترٛےٚ ہَتھ |{{IPA|rɨ hatyum} or {{IPA|rɨ hatim} {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ترٕٛہَتِم | | | |- |400. |{{IPA|͡soːr hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ژور ہَتھ |{{IPA|͡su hatyum} or {{IPA|͡su hatim} {{Lang|ks|ژُہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ژُہَتِم | | | |- |500. |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sʰ hatʰ} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sʰ hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژھ ہَتھ or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژھ ہَتھ |{{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨ hatyum} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨ hatyum} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم {{IPA|ə̃ːt͡sɨ hatim} or {{IPA|ãːt͡sɨ hatim} {{Lang|ks|پٲنٛژٕ ہَتِم or {{Lang|ks|پانٛژٕ ہَتِم | | | |- |600. |{{IPA|e hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|شےٚ ہَتھ |{{IPA|e hatyum} or {{IPA|e hatim} {{Lang|ks|شےٚ ہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|شےٚ ہَتِم | | | |- |700. |{{IPA|atʰ hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|سَتھ ہَتھ |{{IPA|atɨ hatyum} or {{IPA|atɨ hatim} {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سَتہٕ ہَتِم | | | |- |800. |{{IPA|ːʈʰ ʃatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ٲٹھ شَتھ |{{IPA|ːʈʰ ʃatjum} or {{IPA|ːʈʰ ʃatim} {{Lang|ks|ٲٹھ شَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|ٲٹھ شَتِم | | | |- |900. |{{IPA|aw ʃatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نَو شَتھ |{{IPA|aw ʃatjum} or {{IPA|aw ʃatim} {{Lang|ks|نَو شَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|نَو شَتِم | | | |- |1000. |{{IPA|aːs} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|ساس |{{IPA|əːsjum} or {{IPA|əːsim} {{Lang|ks|سٲسیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|سٲسِم | | | |- |1001. |{{IPA|kʰ saːs akʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ ساس اَکھ |{{IPA|kʰ saːs ǝkjum} or {{IPA|kʰ saːs ǝkim} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس أکیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس أکِم | | | |- |1002. |{{IPA|kʰ saːs zɨ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ ساس زٕ |{{IPA|kʰ saːs dojum} or {{IPA|kʰ saːs dojim} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس دۆیُم or {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس دۆیِم | | | |- |1100. |{{IPA|kʰ saːs hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَکھ ساس ہَتھ or {{IPA|ah ʃatʰ} or {{IPA|aːh ʃatʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کَہہ شَتھ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کاہ شَتھ |{{IPA|kʰ saːs hatjum} or {{IPA|kʰ saːs hatim} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس ہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس ہَتِم or {{IPA|ah ʃatjum} or {{IPA|aːh ʃatjum} {{Lang|ks|کَہہ شَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کاہ شَتیُٛم {{IPA|ah ʃatim} or {{IPA|aːh ʃatim} {{Lang|ks|کَہہ شَتِم or {{Lang|ks|کاہ شَتِم | | | |- |1500. |{{IPA|kʰ saːs pãːt͡sʰ hatʰ} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس پانٛژھ ہَتھ or {{IPA|andaːh ʃatʰ} {{Lang|ks|پَنٛداہ شَتھ |{{IPA|kʰ saːs pãːt͡sɨ hatjum} or {{IPA|kʰ saːs pãːt͡sɨ hatim} {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس پانٛژٕ ہَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَکھ ساس پانٛژٕ ہَتِم or {{IPA|andaːh ʃatjum} or {{IPA|andaːh ʃatim} {{Lang|ks|پَنٛداہ شَتیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|پَنٛداہ شَتِم | | | |- |10,000. |{{IPA|əh saːs} or {{IPA|aːh saːs} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہ ساس or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|داہ ساس |{{IPA|əh səːsjum} or {{IPA|aːh səːsjum} {{Lang|ks|دٔہ سٲسیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|داہ سٲسیُٛم {{IPA|əh səːsim} or {{IPA|aːh səːsim} {{Lang|ks|دٔہ سٲسِم or {{Lang|ks|داہ سٲسِم | | | |- |Hundred thousand |{{IPA|at͡ʃʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|لَچھ |{{IPA|at͡ʃʰjum} or {{IPA|at͡ʃʰim} {{Lang|ks|لَچھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|لَچھِم | | | |- |Million |{{IPA|əh lat͡ʃʰ} or {{IPA|aːh lat͡ʃʰ} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|دٔہ لَچھ or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|داہ لَچھ |{{IPA|əh lat͡ʃʰjum} or {{IPA|aːh lat͡ʃʰjum} {{Lang|ks|دٔہ لَچھیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|داہ لَچھیُٛم {{IPA|əh lat͡ʃʰim} or {{IPA|aːh lat͡ʃʰim} {{Lang|ks|دٔہ لَچھِم or {{Lang|ks|داہ لَچھِم | | | |- |Ten million |{{IPA|ɔroːr} or {{IPA|aroːr} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کۄرور or {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کَرور |{{IPA|ɔroːrjum} or {{IPA|aroːrjum} {{Lang|ks|کۄروریُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کَروریُٛم {{IPA|ɔroːrim} or {{IPA|aroːrim} {{Lang|ks|کۄرورِم or {{Lang|ks|کَرورِم | | | |- |Billion |{{IPA|rab} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اَرَب |{{IPA|rabjum} or {{IPA|rabim} {{Lang|ks|اَرَبیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|اَرَبِم | | | |- |Hundred billion |{{IPA|ʰarab} {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|کھَرَب |{{IPA|ʰarabjum} or {{IPA|ʰarabim} {{Lang|ks|کھَرَبیُٛم or {{Lang|ks|کھَرَبِم | | | The ordinal number "1st" which is {{IPA|kjum} {{Lang|ks|أکیُٛم for its masculine genre and {{IPA|kim} {{Lang|ks|أکِم for its feminine genre is also known as {{IPA|ɔɖnjuk} {{Lang|ks|گۄڈنیُٛک and {{IPA|ɔɖnit͡ʃ} {{Lang|ks|گۄڈنِچ respectively.

Vocabulary

Kashmiri is an Indo-Aryan language and was heavily influenced by Sanskrit, especially early on. After the arrival of Islamic administrative rule in India, Kashmiri acquired many Persian loanwords.{{cite book |last1=Gorekar |first1=Niẓāmuddīn Es |title=Indo-Islamic Relations |date=2002 |publisher=KnowledgeCity Books |page=67 |language=en |quote=The Kashmiri language was in the beginning greatly influenced by the Sanskrit language, but with the coming of the Muslims and monarchs like Zainu'l-Abedin it began to accept the influence of Persian which was the language of the rulers. In modern times, Kashmiri vocabulary has been imported from Hindustani and Punjabi.

Preservation of old Indo-Aryan vocabulary

Kashmiri retains several features of Old Indo-Aryan that have been lost in other modern Indo-Aryan languages such as Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi and Sindhi.{{Citation | title=The Literary Heritage of Kashmir | author=K.L. Kalla | year=1985 | publisher=Mittal Publications | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mzozRa9wJ9kC | quote=''... Kashmiri alone of all the modern Indian languages preserves the dvi (Kashmiri du) of Sanskrit, in numbers such as dusatath (Sanskrit dvisaptati), dunamat (Sanskrit dvanavatih) ... the latter (Yodvai) is archaic and is to be come across mainly in the Vedas ...'' Some vocabulary features that Kashmiri preserves clearly date from the Vedic Sanskrit era and had already been lost even in Classical Sanskrit. This includes the word-form ''yodvai'' (meaning ''if''), which is mainly found in Vedic Sanskrit texts. Classical Sanskrit and modern Indo-Aryan use instead the word ''yadi''.

First person pronoun

Both the Indo-Aryan and Iranian branches of the Indo-Iranian family have demonstrated a strong tendency to eliminate the distinctive first person pronoun ("I") used in the nominative (subject) case. The Indo-European root for this is reconstructed as *eǵHom, which is preserved in Sanskrit as ''aham'' and in Avestan Persian as ''azam''. This contrasts with the ''m-'' form ("me", "my") that is used for the accusative, genitive, dative, ablative cases. Sanskrit and Avestan both used forms such as ''ma(-m)''. However, in languages such as Modern Persian, Baluchi, Hindi and Punjabi, the distinct nominative form has been entirely lost and replaced with ''m-'' in words such as ''ma-n'' and ''mai''. However, Kashmiri belongs to a relatively small set that preserves the distinction. 'I' is ''bɨ/bi/bo'' in various Kashmiri dialects, distinct from the other ''me'' terms. 'Mine' is ''myon'' in Kashmiri. Other Indo-Aryan languages that preserve this feature include Dogri (''aun'' vs ''me-''), Gujarati (''hu-n'' vs ''ma-ri''), Konkani (''hā̃v'' vs ''mhazo''), and Braj (''hau-M'' vs ''mai-M''). The Iranian Pashto preserves it too (''za'' vs. ''maa'').{{Citation | title=In hot pursuit of language in prehistory: essays in the four fields of anthropology | author=John D. Bengtson, Harold Crane Fleming | year=2008 | publisher=John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008 | isbn=978-90-272-3252-6 | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xxcdjUGfx40C | quote=''... However, Gujarati as well as a Dardic language like Kashmiri still preserve the root alternation between subject and non-subject forms (but they replaced the derivative of the Sanskrit subject form ahám by new forms) ...''

Variations

There are minor differences between the Kashmiri spoken by Hindus and Muslims.{{Citation | title=Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world | author=Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie | date=6 April 2010 | publisher=Elsevier, 2008 | isbn=978-0-08-087774-7 | url=https://books.google.com/books?id=F2SRqDzB50wC | quote=''... Kashmiri occupies a special position in the Dardic group, being probably the only dardic language that has a written literature dating back to the early 13th century ...'' For 'fire', a traditional Hindu uses the word {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|اۆگُن {{IPA|ɡun} while a Muslim more often uses the Arabic word {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq|نار {{IPA|aːr}.{{cite book |title= Kundalini: The Evolutionary Energy in Man |last= Krishna |first= Gopi |author-link= Gopi Krishna (yogi) |year= 1967 |publisher= Shambhala |location= Boston |isbn= 978-1-57062-280-9 |page= 212 |url= https://www.scribd.com/doc/7577310/KUNDALINI-the-evolutionary-energy-in-man


Sample text





Perso-Arabic script


Art. 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: {{Lang|ks|{{uninastaliq| سٲری اِنسان چھِ آزاد زامٕتؠ۔ وؠقار تہٕ حۆقوٗق چھِ ہِوی۔ تِمَن چھُ سوچ سَمَج عَطا کَرنہٕ آمُت تہٕ تِمَن پَزِ بٲے بَرادٔری ہٕنٛدِس جَذباتَس تَحَت اکھ أکِس اکار بَکار یُن ۔ {{IPA|[səːriː insaːn t͡ʃʰi aːzaːd zaːmɨtʲ . wʲakaːr tɨ hokuːk t͡ʃʰi hiwiː . timan t͡ʃʰu soːt͡ʃ samad͡ʒ ataː karnɨ aːmut tɨ timan pazi bəːj baraːdəriː hɨndis d͡ʒazbaːtas tahat akʰ əkis akaːr bakaːr jun] "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."


Sharada script


Verses by Lalleshwari:{{Cite web|title=Lal Vakh in Sharada script|url=https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lalvakh.png|url-status=live {{Script|Shrd| 𑆏𑆩𑆶𑆅 𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆪 𑆃𑆗𑆶𑆫 𑆥𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆱𑆶𑆪𑆲𑆳 𑆩𑆳𑆬𑆴 𑆫𑆾𑆛𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆮𑆶𑆤𑇀𑆢𑆱𑇀 𑆩𑆁𑆘 𑆱𑆶𑆅 𑆩𑆳𑆬𑆴 𑆑𑆤𑆴 𑆥𑇀𑆪𑆜 𑆓𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆠 𑆖𑆾𑆫𑆶𑆩𑇀 𑆃𑆱𑆱𑇀 𑆱𑆳𑆱 𑆠 𑆱𑆥𑆤𑇀𑆪𑆱 𑆱𑆾𑆤𑇆 {{IPA|ːmuj akuj at͡ʃʰur porum, suj maːli roʈum wɔndas manz, suj maːli kani pʲaʈʰ gorum tɨ t͡sorum, əːsɨs saːs tɨ sapnis sɔn.} "I kept reciting the unique divine word "Om" and kept it safe in my heart through my resolute dedication and love. I was simply ash and by its divine grace got metamorphosed into gold." {{Script|Shrd|𑆃𑆑𑆶𑆪 𑆏𑆀𑆑𑆳𑆫 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆤𑆳𑆨𑆴 𑆣𑆫𑆼 𑆑𑆶𑆩𑇀𑆮𑆪 𑆧𑇀𑆫𑆲𑇀𑆩𑆳𑆟𑇀𑆝𑆱 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆓𑆫𑆴 𑆃𑆒 𑆩𑆶𑆪 𑆩𑆁𑆠𑇀𑆫 𑆪𑆶𑆱 𑆖𑇀𑆪𑆠𑆱 𑆑𑆫𑆼 𑆠𑆱 𑆱𑆳𑆱 𑆩𑆁𑆠𑇀𑆫 𑆑𑇀𑆪𑆳 𑆑𑆫𑆼𑇆 {{IPA|kuj omkaːr jus naːbi dareː, kumbeː brahmaːnɖas sum gareː, akʰ suj mantʰɨr t͡sʲatas kareː, tas saːs mantʰɨr kjaː kareː.} One who recites the divine word "Omkār" by devotion is capable to build a bridge between his own and the cosmic consciousness. By staying committed to this sacred word, one doesn't require any other mantra out of thousands others.


See also


{{Portal|Poetry * Kashmir Valley * Kashmiri Wikipedia * List of Kashmiri poets * List of topics on the land and the people of “Jammu and Kashmir” * Shina language * States of India by Kashmiri speakers

References

{{Reflist|30em

Bibliography

{{Refbegin * {{cite book |last1=Chopra |first1=R. M |title=The rise, growth, and decline of Indo-Persian literature |year=2013 |publisher=Iran Culture House |location=New Delhi |edition=2nd |oclc=909254259 |chapter=Indo-Persian Literature in Kashmir |language=en * {{cite book |last1=Koul |first1=Omkar N |last2=Wali |first2=Kashi |title=Modern Kashmiri Grammar |year=2006 |publisher=Dunwoody Press |location=Springfield |isbn=1-931546-07-X |url=http://www.koausa.org/iils/pdf/ModernKashmiriGrammar.pdf |language=en * {{cite book |last=Wade |first=TR |year=1888 |title=A Grammar of the Kashmiri Language |publisher=SPCK {{Refend


External links


{{InterWiki|code=ks {{Wikivoyage|Kashmiri phrasebook|Kashmiri|a phrasebook *{{Cite book|last=Bhat|first=Roop Krishen|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.0270/mode/2up|title=Kashir Kitab level 1 : (state level school reader in Kashmiri for non-Kashmiri speaking students)|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=1982 *{{Cite book|last=Bhat|first=Roop Krishen|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.0907/mode/2up|title=Urdu Kashmiri Reader|publisher=JK Press|year=1988 *{{Cite book|last=Ganjoo|first=Triloki Nath|url=https://archive.org/details/kashurhindireadertrilokinathganjoopostgraddeptofkashmiriuniversityofkashmirsrinagar/mode/1up|title=Kạ̄shur-Hindi Reader|publisher=Kạ̄shur Department, University of Kashmir|year=1979 *{{Cite book|last=Grierson|first=George Abraham|url=https://dsalsrv04.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/grierson/|title=A dictionary of the Kashmiri language|publisher=Asiatic Society of Bengal|year=1932|location=Calcutta *{{Cite book|last=Handoo|first=Jawaharlal|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.2232|title=Hindi-Kashmiri Common Words|last2=Handoo|first2=Lalita|publisher=Central Institute of Indian languages|year=1975 *{{Cite book|last=Handoo|first=Jawaharlal|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.1685/mode/1up|title=Kashmiri Phonetic Reader|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=1973 *{{Cite web|title=A pronouncing dictionary of Kashmiri language|url=https://dsalsrv04.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/hassan/|last=Hassan|first=Sheeba|website=Digital Dictionaries of South Asia *{{Cite book|url=https://archive.org/details/HindiKashmiriVartalaapaPustikaCentralHindiDirectorate|title=Hindi-Kashmiri Conversational Guide|publisher=Central Hindi Directorate, Government of India|year=1990 *{{Cite book|url=http://www.chdpublication.mhrd.gov.in/ebook/b82/html5forpc.html?page=0&fbclid=IwAR0Tf3Mz3UVKON4u83WZg7D7xQXMrhVmfEiypcWHXuwGkWRfDVYfKvitba8|title=Hindi-Kashmiri-English Trilingual Dictionary|publisher=Central Hindi Directorate, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ( Government of India )|year=1988|volume=1 *{{Cite book|url=http://www.chdpublication.mhrd.gov.in/ebook/b20/html5forpc.html?page=0&fbclid=IwAR1W_jDPl_NHKVvAhasqpCf8uj1NHro7HCO-I8Ler-MAhhTFmW_yi_H-eZY|title=Hindi-Kashmiri-English Trilingual Dictionary|publisher=Central Hindi Directorate, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ( Government of India )|year=1988|volume=2 *{{Cite book|url=http://www.chdpublication.mhrd.gov.in/ebook/b21/html5forpc.html?page=0&fbclid=IwAR2fPSVeXv1UqdzPVJ6noV8eTXB3MWC_Su7bm2JQFKdb0PsK1kfc6FYY7nQ|title=Hindi-Kashmiri-English Trilingual Dictionary|publisher=Central Hindi Directorate, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development ( Government of India )|year=1988|volume=3 *{{Cite book|last=Hinton|first=James Knowles|url=https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.41962/page/n3/mode/2up|title=A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs & Sayings: Explained and Illustrated From the Rich and Interesting Folklore of the Valley|publisher=Education Society's Press|year=1885|location=Bombay * Hook, Peter E.. 1976. Is Kashmiri an SVO language? Indian Linguistics 37: 133–142. *{{Cite web|title=Indo Wordnet : A wordnet of Indian languages|url=https://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in/indowordnet/ *{{Cite book|last=Kamil|first=Amin|url=https://archive.org/details/achcharzankashmiriainkamil_202003|title=Achar Zan|publisher=Walidarul Kitabat|year=1966
Kashmiri Language Textbook for Class1Kashmiri Language Textbook for Class 2Kashmiri Language Textbook for Class 3Kashmiri Language Textbook for Class 6Kashmiri Language Textbook for Class 8Kashmiri Language Textbook for Class 10
An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri *{{Cite book|last=Koul|first=Ashok K|title=Lexical Borrowings in Kashmiri|publisher=Indian Institute of Language Studies|year=2008|isbn=9788186323298|location=Delhi *{{Cite book|last=Koul|first=Omkar Nath|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.2240|title=An Intensive Course in Kashmiri|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=1985|isbn=9780781801768 *{{Cite book|last=Koul|first=Omkar Nath|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.2241/mode/2up|title=An intermediate course in Kashmiri Language|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=1995|isbn=8173420270 *{{Cite book|last=Koul|first=Omkar Nath|url=http://koshur.org/pdf/proverbs.pdf|title=A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs|publisher=Indian Institute of Language Studies|year=1992|isbn=9788186323212|location=Delhi *{{Cite book|last=Koul|first=Omkar Nath|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.0070/mode/2up|title=kəːʃir dəpitʲ dikʃənəriː ( A dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs )|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=2000 *{{Cite book|last=Koul|first=Omkar Nath|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.2244|title=Nursery Rhymes in Kashmiri|last2=Kumari|first2=B Syamala|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=1996 *{{Cite book|last1=Koul|first1=Omkar N|url=https://www.academia.edu/7725620|title=English – Kashmiri Administrative Terminology|last2=Bhat|first2=Roop Krishen|last3=Betab|first3=Brij Nath|publisher=Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology|year=2010|location=New Delhi *{{Cite book|last1=Koul|first1=Omkar N|url=https://archive.org/details/kasmirienglishdictionaryomkarkauln.rainas.n.roopkrishenbhatuniversityofmysore_202003_790_b|title=Kashmiri-English Dictionary for Second Language Learners|last2=Raina|first2=S.N.|last3=Bhat|first3=Roop Krishen|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=2000 *{{Cite book|url=http://www.csttpublication.mhrd.gov.in/ebook/Library_and_Information_Science_English-Hindi-Kashmiri/html5forpc.html?page=0&fbclid=IwAR16gZHxNoSt7f_zrzKoEbKXV_nyafIMkvKwfkd7aLpwDyJI6i_c7uTdpl0|title=Library and Information Science Glossary (English-Hindi-Kashmiri)|publisher=Commission for Scientific and Technical Terminology, Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India|year=2018
"Neab", Kashmiri Language Literary Magazine
*{{Cite book|last=Raina|first=Soom Nath|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.2242/mode/2up|title=An advance course in Kashmiri|publisher=Central institute of Indian languages|year=2011
"Sangarmal", Kashmiri Language Newspaper
*{{Cite book|last=Shauq|first=Shafi|title=kəːʃar lugaːt ( A dictionary of the Kashmiri Language)|publisher=Ali Mohammad and Sons|year=2017|location=Srinagar
"Soan Meeraas", Kashmiri Language Newspaper
*{{Cite book|last=Subbiah|first=Pon|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.language.1968/mode/2up|title=Tests of Language Proficiency : Kashmiri|publisher=Central Institute of Indian Languages|year=2000 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.510168/mode/2up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=1 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.510170/mode/2up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=2 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.ernet.241981/mode/1up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=3 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.ernet.241982/mode/1up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=4 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/dli.ernet.241983/mode/2up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=5 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.241984/mode/2up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=6 *{{Cite book|last1=Toshakhani|first1=S. K.|url=https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.510171/mode/2up|title=kəːʃir dɪkʃənəri|last2=Koul|first2=Lal|last3=Hajni|first3=Mohiuddin|last4=Pushp|first4=P. N.|last5=Mohiuddin|first5=Akhtar|publisher=Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages|year=1968–1980|volume=7 {{Languages of India {{Languages of Pakistan {{Dardic languages {{Authority control {{DEFAULTSORT:Kashmiri Language Category:Dardic languages Category:Languages of Azad Kashmir Category:Official languages of India Category:Languages of Jammu and Kashmir Category:Languages written in Devanagari Category:Verb-second languages Category:Kashmir Category:Languages attested from the 13th century Category:Ancient languages