The Info List - Islamic Republic

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Hizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political parties


Militant Islamism
based in

MENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

Key texts

Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)

Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)

Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)

Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)

Heads of state

Ali Khamenei Omar al-Bashir Muammar Gaddafi Ruhollah Khomeini Mohamed Morsi Mohammad Omar House of Saud House of Thani Zia-ul-Haq

Key ideologues

Muhammad Abduh Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī Qazi Hussain Ahmad Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani Muhammad Asad Hassan al-Banna Necmettin Erbakan Rached Ghannouchi Safwat Hegazi Muhammad Iqbal Ali Khamenei Ruhollah Khomeini Abul A'la Maududi Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani Yusuf al-Qaradawi Sayyid Qutb Tariq Ramadan Ata Abu Rashta Rashid Rida Navvab Safavi Ali Shariati Haji Shariatullah Hassan Al-Turabi Ahmed Yassin

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and other religions Islamophobia Reform movements Modernity (Modernism)

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An Islamic republic
Islamic republic
is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania. Pakistan
first adopted the title under the constitution of 1956. Mauritania
adopted it on 28 November 1958. Iran
adopted it after the 1979 Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
that overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty. Afghanistan
adopted it in 2004 after the fall of the Taliban. Despite the similar name the countries differ greatly in their governments and laws. The term "Islamic republic" has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. To some Muslim religious leaders in the Middle East
Middle East
and Africa who advocate it, an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
is a state under a particular Islamic form of government. They see it as a compromise between a purely Islamic caliphate and secular nationalism and republicanism. In their conception of the Islamic republic, the penal code of the state is required to be compatible with some or all laws of Sharia, and the state may not be a monarchy, as many Middle Eastern states are presently.[citation needed] Iran
officially uses the name "Islamic Republic" in all governance names referring to the country, e.g. Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran
Army, Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran
Broadcasting etc., as opposed to for example its equivalents in Afghanistan, which are called Afghan National Army and Radio Television Afghanistan. Also, Iran, unlike the others, uses it as part of official acronyms, i.e. 'IRI' for " Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran".


1 List of Islamic republics

1.1 Current

1.1.1 Iran Commentary Opinions

1.1.2 Afghanistan 1.1.3 Pakistan 1.1.4 Mauritania

1.2 Former

1.2.1 Comoros 1.2.2 East Turkestan 1.2.3 The Gambia 1.2.4 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

2 See also 3 References 4 External links

List of Islamic republics[edit]

State Date of name adoption

  Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Afghanistan 7 December 2004

  Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran 1 April 1979[1]

  Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Mauritania 28 November 1960

  Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Pakistan 23 March 1956

Current[edit] Iran[edit] See also: Politics of Iran Two months after the victory of the Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
in 1979, the new government held the Iranian Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
referendum on 10 and 11 Farvadin (30 and 31 March) to change the Pahlavi dynasty
Pahlavi dynasty
into an Islamic Republic. On 12 Farvadin, it was announced that 98.2 percent of the Iranian voters wanted to establish the "Islamic Republic".[2][3] Before the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
referendum, some political groups suggested various names for the ideology of the Iranian revolution, such as the Republic (without Islam) or the democratic republic. But Ruhollah Khomeini, the founder of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran, asked people to vote for the name "Islamic Republic", not a word more and not a word less.[3][4] According to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran, the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
is a system based on beliefs in:[5]

the One God
(as stated in the phrase "There is no other god except God "), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands; divine revelation and its fundamental role in setting forth the laws; the return to God
in the Hereafter, and the constructive role of this belief in the course of man's ascent towards God; the justice of God
in creation and legislation; continuous leadership and perpetual guidance, and its fundamental role in ensuring the uninterrupted process of the revolution of Islam; the exalted dignity and value of man, and his freedom coupled with responsibility before God; in which equity, justice, political, economic, social and cultural independence, and national solidarity are secured by recourse to:

continuous leadership of the holy persons, possessing necessary qualifications, exercised on the basis of the Quran
and the Sunnah, upon all of whom be peace; sciences and arts and the most advanced results of human experience, together with the effort to advance them further; negation of all forms of oppression, both the infliction of and the submission to it, and of dominance, both its imposition and its acceptance.

Commentary[edit] According to a commentary on Constitution, just as the establishment of Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
system is based on the beliefs of people namely governing of right, justice and Quran. However, its continuation lasted with the same principles and there is an important role for the beliefs of Iranian people. Also, those beliefs are of complete and determinate roles in all affairs. Those beliefs considered as guidelines for governors and statesmen. There is an important role for beliefs such as the principle of unity of God
and believing in it.[6] There are, in spite of that, other principles are to the submission in front of Allah
and his order. Therefore, legislation is limited to god and laws so far as correspond to divine legislation are valid. Belief in divine revelation and prophecy also are essential to Islamic worldview. We have two kinds of justice. The first kind is legislative (Tashri’i) and the other kind is creative or Takivini. Creative justice is based on the Justice
and equality. Legislative justice is respected to Making divine law in Islamic society. Besides, the basis of Shia
school is in terms of Imamate
or leadership. According to the principle of Imamate
in Shia, it is indispensable to obey of the prophet of God
and of those possessed of authority. Shia Ulama believes that the conception of the term "those possessed of authority" denoted on Innocent Shia
Imams. Certainly, when Imam is absent, Valy faghih is in charge of leadership of society. In other words, religious leaders undertake the responsibility of Imamate. There is more emphasizing on the dignity (Karamat) and the high value of humans which is along with freedom and responsibility.The principle of Dignity is a necessary condition of the Islamic republic
Islamic republic
in terms of existence.There is many meaning for dignity. Sometimes it refers to generosity, nobleness and honor. However Islam
considers with two sorts of dignity for human beings: essential or innate dignity and acquired dignity. According to innate dignity, Human being possessed of the right of living among other creatures. The principle also mentioned by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
in 1948. On the basis of Acquired dignity, human is able to pass the degrees of perfection with the aid of actuality of his potentialities and talents.[7] Opinions[edit] For the First time, Rouhollah Khomeini referred to the terms of Islamic republic
Islamic republic
for Iranian people. He believes that Iranian people want an Islamic state
Islamic state
which is a republic. Responding to Journalist's question on the ambiguity of the term Islamic republic, Khomeini believes that republic has the same sense as other uses. Islamic republic has considered both with Islamic ideology and choice of people.[8] Afghanistan[edit] Afghanistan
is an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
consisting of three branches, the executive, legislative and judicial. The nation is led by President Ashraf Ghani
Ashraf Ghani
with Abdul Rashid Dostum
Abdul Rashid Dostum
and Sarwar Danish
Sarwar Danish
as vice presidents. Abdullah Abdullah
Abdullah Abdullah
serves as the chief executive officer (CEO). The National Assembly is the legislature, a bicameral body having two chambers, the House of the People and the House of Elders. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice
Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice
for Legal Affairs.[9][10] Pakistan[edit] Pakistan
was the first country to adopt the adjective "Islamic" to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Despite this definition, the country did not have a state religion until 1973, when a new constitution, more democratic and less secular, was adopted. Pakistan
only uses the "Islamic" name on its passports, visas, and coins. Although "Islamic Republic" is specifically mentioned in the Constitution of 1973, all government documents are prepared under the name of the Government of Pakistan. The Constitution of Pakistan, part IX, article 227 says "All existing laws shall be brought in conformity with the Injunctions of Islam
as laid down in the Quran
and Sunnah, in this Part referred to as the Injunctions of Islam, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such Injunctions".[11] In 1974, Pakistan
declared Ahmadis as being outside the pale of Islam
through the 2nd Amendment.[12] Mauritania[edit] The Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb
region of western North Africa.[13][14][15] Former[edit] Comoros[edit] 1978–2000 Federal and Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of the Comoros. East Turkestan[edit] The Turkic Uyghur- and Kirghiz-controlled Turkish Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of East Turkestan was declared in 1933 as an independent Islamic republic, by Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki
Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki
and Muhammad Amin Bughra. However, the Chinese Muslim 36th Division of the National Revolutionary Army defeated their armies and destroyed the republic during the Battles of Kashgar, Yangi Hissar and Yarkand.[16] The Chinese Muslim Generals Ma Fuyuan and Ma Zhancang declared the destruction of the rebel forces and the return of the area to the control of the Republic of China in 1934, followed by the executions of the Turkic Muslim Emirs Abdullah Bughra
Abdullah Bughra
and Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra. The Chinese Muslim General Ma Zhongying
Ma Zhongying
then entered the Id Kah Mosque in Kashgar
and lectured the Turkic Muslims on being loyal to the Central Government. The Gambia[edit] In December 2015, then-President Yahya Jammeh
Yahya Jammeh
declared The Gambia
The Gambia
to be an Islamic republic. Jammeh said that the move was designed to distance the West African state from its colonial past and that no dress code would be imposed and citizens of other faiths would be allowed to practice freely.[17] However, he later ordered all female government employees to wear headscarves[18] before rescinding the decision shortly after. The announcement of an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
has been criticized as unconstitutional by at least one opposition group.[19] After the removal of Jammeh in 2017 his successor Adama Barrow said the Gambia will be a republic once again eliminating the Islamic republic.[20] Chechen Republic of Ichkeria[edit] The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria used an Islamic republic
Islamic republic
government system from 1996 to 2000. See also[edit]

by country Islamic state Islamism Religious police Political aspects of Islam Christian republic Jewish state


^ Iran
Islamic Republic, Encyclopædia Britannica. ^ " Iran
Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
Day". The free dictionary by Farlex. Retrieved 17 June 2016.  ^ a b "The first election held after the revolution / day when the government took the poor". Fars News Agency. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ " Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
Day". Islamic Revolution
Islamic Revolution
Document Center. Retrieved 1 March 2016.  ^ Constitution of Iran
Unofficial English translation hosted at University of Bern, Switzerland
(with good summaries) ^ Amir Saeed Vakil, Pouryya Askary (2004). constitution in now law like order. p. 44.  ^ Sayyed Muhammad Hashemi (2013). Constitution of islamic republic of Iran. Mizan.  ^ Arshin Adib-Moghaddam (2014). A Critical Introduction to Khomeini. Cambridge University Press. p. 231.  ^ "The Supreme Court Chief Justice
Biography". supremecourt.gov.af. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.  ^ "Database". afghan-bios.info.  ^ "Part IX: "Islamic Provisions"". Retrieved 20 April 2016.  ^ "The Damnation of Pakistan's Second Amendment". The Huffington Post UK. 4 September 2014. Retrieved 20 April 2016.  ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Facts On File, Inc. 2009. p. 448. ISBN 143812676X. The Islamic Republic of Mauritania, situated in western North Africa  ^ Seddon, David (2004). A Political and Economic Dictionary of the Middle East. We have, by contrast, chosen to include the predominantly Arabic-speaking countries of western North Africa
North Africa
(the Maghreb), including Mauritania
(which is a member of the Arab Maghreb Union)...  ^ Branine, Mohamed (2011). Managing Across Cultures: Concepts, Policies and Practices. p. 437. The Magrebian countries or the Arab countries of western North Africa
North Africa
(Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia)...  ^ Chahryar Adle; Madhavan K. Palat; Anara Tabyshalieva (2005). History of Civilizations of Central Asia: Towards the contemporary period: from the mid-nineteenth to the end of the twentieth century. UNESCO. p. 395. ISBN 92-3-103985-7. Retrieved 28 October 2010.  ^ "Gambia declared Islamic republic
Islamic republic
by President Yahya Jammeh". BBC. 12 December 2015.  ^ "Female government workers in the Gambia told to wear headscarves". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2016.  ^ Rifai, Ryan (12 December 2015) "Gambia's president declares Islamic statehood". Al-Jazeera. Retrieved 13 December 2015. ^ "The Gambia: President Adama Barrow
Adama Barrow
pledges reforms". Al Jazeera. 27 January 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2017. 

Ankerl, Guy (2000). Global communication without universal civilization. INU societal research. Vol.1: Coexisting contemporary civilizations : Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 

External links[edit]

and Politics from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Constitution of Iran, as an unofficial English translation hosted at University of Bern, Switzerland
(with good summaries)

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Islamic states by type

Islamic state

Caliphate Ilkhanate Emirate Sheikhdom Sultanate

Islamic state

Caliphate Government by Shia

Twelver Imams government Sevener Imams government

Regency of the Islamic jurist during the Occultation of the Mahdi

or Pan-Islamic

Islamic republic Islamic monarchy

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