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Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120

Republic of Indonesia

Republik Indonesia  (Indonesian)
Motto: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Old Javanese)
(English: "Unity in Diversity")
National ideology: Pancasila[1][2]
Anthem: Indonesia Raya
(English: "Great Indonesia")
Indonesia (orthographic projection).svgCoordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120

/ˌɪndəˈnʒə/ (About this soundlisten) IN-də-NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia] (About this soundlisten)),[a] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of more than seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (Papua). Indonesia is the world's largest island country and the 14th-largest country by land area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). With over 267 million people, it is the world's 4th-most-populous country as well as the most-populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most-populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans introduced Christianity through colonisation. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century[13] and the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is the only regional power in Southeast Asia and is considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Etymology

The name Indonesia derives from Greek Indos (Ἰνδός) and the word nesos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands".[14] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[15] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".[16] In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[17][18] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia; they preferred Malay Archipelago (Dutch: Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[19]

After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[19] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.[15]

History

Early history

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.[20]

Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago.[21][22][23] Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE.[24] Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east.[25] Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE[26] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE.[27] Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.[28][29]

From the seventh century CE, the Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism.[30][31] Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.[32]

The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.[33] Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.[34]

Colonial era

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolise the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in the Maluku Islands.[35] Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power for almost 200 years. The VOC was dissolved in 1800 following bankruptcy, and the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indie

The sovereign state is a presidential, constitutional republic with an elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, of which five have special status. The country's capital, Jakarta, is the second-most populous urban area in the world. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign influences from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Sunni traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while Europeans introduced Christianity through colonisation. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese, French and British, the Dutch were the foremost colonial power for much of their 350-year presence in the archipelago. The concept of "Indonesia" as a nation-state emerged in the early 20th century[13] and the country proclaimed its independence in 1945. However, it was not until 1949 that the Dutch recognised Indonesia's sovereignty following an armed and diplomatic conflict between the two.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest one being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. The economy of Indonesia is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and 7th by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is the only regional power in Southeast Asia and is considered a middle power in global affairs. The country is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the United Nations, World Trade Organization, International Monetary Fund, G20, and a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

The name Indonesia derives from Greek Indos (Ἰνδός) and the word nesos (νῆσος), meaning "Indian islands".[14] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[15] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".[16] In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[17][18] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia; they preferred Malay Archipelago (Dutch: Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[19]

After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[19] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.[15]

History

Early history

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.[20]

Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago.[21][22][23] Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE.[24] Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east.[25] Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE[26] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE.[27] Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.[28][29]

From the seventh century CE, the Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism.[30][31] Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.[32]

The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.Netherlands, and native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[19] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.[15]

Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago.[21][22][23] Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE.[24] Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan. They arrived in the archipelago around 2,000 BCE and confined the native Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions as they spread east.[25] Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE[26] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. The archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, from several centuries BCE.[27] Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.[28][29]

From the seventh century CE, the Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism.[30][31] Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism.[30][31] Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of present-day Indonesia. This period is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history.[32]

The earliest evidence of Islamized populations in the archipelago dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.[33] Other parts of the archipelago gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.[34]

The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolise the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in the Maluku Islands.[35] Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602, the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power for almost 200 years. The VOC was dissolved in 1800 following bankruptcy, and the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalised colony.[36]

For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous. Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces.[37][38][39] Only in the early 20th century did their dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries.[39]colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous. Dutch forces were engaged continuously in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces.[37][38][39] Only in the early 20th century did their dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries.[39][40][41][42]

The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during World War II ended Dutch rule[43][44][45] and encouraged the previously suppressed independence movement. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president respectively.[46][47][48][46][49] The Netherlands attempted to re-establish their rule, and a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949 when the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence in the face of international pressure.[50][48][51] Despite extraordinary political, social and sectarian divisions, Indonesians, on the whole, found unity in their fight for independence.[52][53]

As president, Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism and maintained power by balancing the opposing forces of the military, political Islam, and the increasingly powerful Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI).[54] Tensions between the military and the PKI culminated in an attempted coup in 1965. The army, led by Major General Suharto, countered by instigating a violent anti-communist purge that killed between 500,000 and one million people.[55] The PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed.[56][57][58] Suharto capitalised on Sukarno's weakened position, and following a drawn-out power play with Sukarno, Suharto was appointed president in March 1968. His "New Order" administration,[59] supported by the United States,[60][61][62] encouraged foreign direct investment,[63][64] which was a crucial factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth.

Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[65] It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency.[43][66]1997 Asian financial crisis.[65] It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency.[43][66][67][68] In 1999, East Timor seceded from Indonesia, following its 1975 invasion by Indonesia[69] and a 25-year occupation that was marked by international condemnation of human rights abuses.[70]

In the post-Suharto era, democratic processes have been strengthened by enhancing regional autonomy and instituting the country's first direct presidential election in 2004.[71] Political, economic and social instability, corruption, and terrorism remained problems in the 2000s; however, in recent years, the economy has performed strongly. Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas.[72] A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005 following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 130,000 Indonesians.[73] In 2014, Joko Widodo became the first directly elected president from outside the military and political elite.[74]

Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It is the largest archipelagic country in the world, extending 5,120 kilometres (3,181 mi) from east to west and 1,760 kilometres (1,094 mi) from north to south.[75] According to the country's Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs, Indonesia has 17,504 islands (16,056 of which are registered at the UN),[76] scattered over both sides of the equator, around 6,000 of which are inhabited.[77] The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea). Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo and Sebatik, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor, and maritime borders with Singapore, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Palau, and Australia.

At 4,884 metres (16,024 ft), Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guinea and include Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik and Mahakam. They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.[78]

Climate

Puncak Jaya is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra is the largest lake, with an area of 1,145 km2 (442 sq mi). Indonesia's largest rivers are in Kalimantan and New Guinea and include Kapuas, Barito, Mamberamo, Sepik and Mahakam. They serve as communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.[78]

Indonesia lies along the equator, and its climate tends to be relatively even year-round.[79] Indonesia has two seasons—a wet season and a dry season—with no extremes of summer or winter.[80] For most of Indonesia, the dry season falls between May and October with the wet season between November and April.[80] Indonesia's climate is almost entirely tropical, dominated by the tropical rainforest climate found in every large island of Indonesia. More cooling climate types do exist in mountainous regions that are 1,300 to 1,500 metres (4,300 to 4,900 feet) above sea level. The oceanic climate (Köppen Cfb) prevails in highland areas adjacent to rainforest climates, with reasonably uniform precipitation year-round. In highland areas near the tropical monsoon and tropical savanna climates, the subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb) is prevalent with a more pronounced dry season.[citation needed]

Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, expe

Some regions, such as Kalimantan and Sumatra, experience only slight differences in rainfall and temperature between the seasons, whereas others, such as Nusa Tenggara, experience far more pronounced differences with droughts in the dry season, and floods in the wet. Rainfall varies across regions, with more in western Sumatra, Java, and the interiors of Kalimantan and Papua, and less in areas closer to Australia, such as Nusa Tenggara, which tend to be dry. The almost uniformly warm waters that constitute 81% of Indonesia's area ensure that temperatures on land remain relatively constant. Humidity is quite high, at between 70 and 90%. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October, and from the northwest in November through March. Typhoons and large-scale storms pose little hazard to mariners; significant dangers come from swift currents in channels, such as the Lombok and Sape straits.[82]

Geology

A chart with the heading "Major Volcanoes of Indonesia (with eruptions since 1900 A.D.)". Depicted below the heading is an overhead view of a cluster of islands.Tectonically, Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes.[83] It lies on the Pacific Ring of Fire where the Indo-Australian Plate and the Pacific Plate are pushed under the Eurasian plate where they melt at about 100 kilometres (62 miles) deep. A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and then to the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi.[84] Of the 400 volcanoes, around 130 are active.[83] Between 1972 and 1991, there were 29 volcanic eruptions, mostly on Java.[85] Volcanic ash has made agricultural conditions unpredictable in some areas.[86] However, it has also resulted in fertile soils, a factor in historically sustaining high population densities of Java and Bali.[87]

A massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BCE. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate, and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate.[88] The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash which spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago, and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in 1816.[89] The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event.massive supervolcano erupted at present-day Lake Toba around 70,000 BCE. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate, and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate.[88] The 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora and the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa were among the largest in recorded history. The former caused 92,000 deaths and created an umbrella of volcanic ash which spread and blanketed parts of the archipelago, and made much of the Northern Hemisphere without summer in 1816.[89] The latter produced the loudest sound in recorded history and caused 36,000 deaths due to the eruption itself and the resulting tsunamis, with significant additional effects around the world years after the event.[90] Recent catastrophic disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake.

Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity.[91] Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.[92] The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to mainland Asia, and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna.[93][94] Papua was part of the Australian landmass and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.[95] Forests cover approximately 70% of the country.[96] However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture.

Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.[97] Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometres (50,000 miles) of coastline. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.[14] Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only.[98]

British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line (Wallace Line) between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.[99] It runs roughly north–south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.[100] The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.[99]

Environment

Deforestation in Riau, Sumatra, to make way for an oil palm plantation

Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak

Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.[97] Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometres (50,000 miles) of coastline. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.[14] Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only.[98]

British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line (Wallace Line) between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.[99] It runs roughly north–south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.[100] The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.[99]

Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.[101] Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation—and the resulting Southeast Asian haze—over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services.[101] These issues contribute to Indonesia's poor ranking (number 116 out of 180 countries) in the 2020 Environmental Performance Index. The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context.[102]

Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation.[103] While it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems.[104] This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases.[105] It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened, and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling,palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation.[103] While it can generate wealth for local communities, it may degrade ecosystems and cause social problems.[104] This situation makes Indonesia the world's largest forest-based emitter of greenhouse gases.[105] It also threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) identified 140 species of mammals as threatened, and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling,[106] Sumatran orangutan,[107] and Javan rhinoceros.[108]

Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change.[109] They predict that unreduced emissions would see an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century,[110][111] amounting to almost double the frequency of scorching days (above 35 °C or 95 °F) per year by 2030. That figure is predicted to rise further by the end of the century.[110] It would raise the frequency of drought and food shortages, having an impact on precipitation and the patterns of wet and dry seasons, the basis of Indonesia's agricultural system.[111] It would also encourage diseases and increases in wildfires, which threaten the country's enormous rainforest.[111] Rising sea levels, at current rates, would result in tens of millions of households being at risk of submersion by mid-century.[112] A majority of Indonesia's population lives in low-lying coastal areas,[111] including the capital Jakarta, the fastest-sinking city in the world.[113] Impoverished communities would likely be affected the most by climate change.[114]

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Following the fall of the New Order in 1998, political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches.[115] Chief among them is the delegation of power and authority to various regional entities while remaining a unitary state.[116] The President of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Tentara Nasional Indonesia, TNI), and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.[117]

The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president,[118][119] and formalising broad outlines of state policy. The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), with 575 members, and the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), with 136.[120

The highest representative body at the national level is the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president,[118][119] and formalising broad outlines of state policy. The MPR comprises two houses; the People's Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, DPR), with 575 members, and the Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD), with 136.[120] The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased its role in national governance,[115] while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.[121][119]

Most civil disputes appear before the State Court (Pengadilan Negeri); appeals are heard before the High Court (Pengadilan Tinggi). The Supreme Court of Indonesia (Mahkamah Agung) is the highest level of the judicial branch, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Constitutional Court (Mahkamah Konstitusi) that listens to constitutional and political matters and the Religious Court (Pengadilan Agama) that deals with codified Islamic Law (sharia) cases.[122] Additionally, the Judicial Commission (Komisi Yudisial) monitors the performance of judges.[123]

Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In all legislative elections since the fall of the New Order, no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats. The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), which secured the most votes in the 2019 elections, is the party of the incumbent president, Joko Widodo.[124] Other notable parties include the Party of the Functional Groups (Golkar), the Great Indonesia Movement Party (Gerindra), the Democratic Party, and the Prosperous Justice Party (PKS). The 2019 elections resulted in nine political parties in the DPR, with a parliamentary threshold of 4% of the national vote.[125] The first general election was held in 1955 to elect members of the DPR and the Constitutional Assembly (Konstituante). At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until 2004. Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD.[120][115] Beginning with 2015 local elections, elections for governors and mayors have occurred on the same date. In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that, starting in 2019, legislative and presidential elections are to be held simultaneously.[126]

Administrative divisions

Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions. The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. Each has a legislature (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) and an elected governor. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in 2012.[127] The second level is that of the regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), led by regents (bupati) and mayors (walikota) respectively and a legislature (DPRD Kabupaten/Kota). The third level is that of the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Papua, or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta), and the fourth is of the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh).[citation needed]

The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Following

Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions. The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. Each has a legislature (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah, DPRD) and an elected governor. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in 2012.[127] The second level is that of the regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), led by regents (bupati) and mayors (walikota) respectively and a legislature (DPRD Kabupaten/Kota). The third level is that of the districts (kecamatan, distrik in Papua, or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta), and the fourth is of the villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh).[citation needed]

The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units ca

The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups (rukun warga, RW), which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga, RT). In Java, the village (desa) is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), which are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, regencies and cities have become chief administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village head (lurah or kepala desa).[128]

Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia.[129] Yogyakarta is the only pre-colonial monarchy legally recognised in Indonesia, with the positions of governor and vice governor being prioritised for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Paku Alam, respectively.[130] Papua and West Papua are the only provinces where the indigenous people have privileges in their local government.[131] Jakarta is the only city granted a provincial government due to its position as the capital of Indonesia.[132]

Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies.[133] The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries.[134]

Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union,[135][136] and China to some degree,[137] culminated in the 1965 coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy. Quiet alignment with the West while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then.[138] Today, it maintains close relations with its neighbours and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the East Asia Summit. In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine. However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly.[139]

Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).[140] Indonesia is a signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the World Trade Organization (WTO), and an occasional member of OPEC.[141] During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Indonesia withdrew from the UN due to the latter's election to the United Nations Security Council, although it returned 18 months later. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal.[142] Indonesia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1966,[143][144][145] and recently, the country has expressed interest in becoming an aid donor.[146]

Military

Indonesian Armed Forces. Clockwise from top: Indonesian Army during training session, Sukhoi Su

Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union,[135][136] and China to some degree,[137] culminated in the 1965 coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy. Quiet alignment with the West while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then.[138] Today, it maintains close relations with its neighbours and is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the East Asia Summit. In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine. However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly.[139]

Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950 and was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).[140] Indonesia is a signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the World Trade Organization (WTO), and an occasional member of OPEC.[141] During the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, Indonesia withdrew from the UN due to the latter's election to the United Nations Security Council, although it returned 18 months later. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal.[142] Indonesia has been a humanitarian and development aid recipient since 1966,[143][144][145] and recently, the country has expressed interest in becoming an aid donor.[146]

Indonesia's Armed Forces (TNI) include the Army (TNI–AD), Navy (TNI–AL, which includes Marine Corps), and Air Force (TNI–AU).[147] The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Defence spending in the national budget was 0.7% of GDP in 2018,[148] with controversial involvement of military-owned commercial interests and foundations.[149] The Armed Forces were formed during the Indonesian National Revolution when it undertook guerrilla warfare along with informal militia. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats.[150] The military has possessed a strong political influence since its founding, which peaked during the New Order. Political reforms in 1998 included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature. Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level.[151]

Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements.[152] Some, notably in Aceh and Papua, have led to an armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[153][154] The former was resolved peacefully in 2005,[73] while the latter continues, amid a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses since 2004.[155] Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Konfrontasi to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the mass killings of PKI, and the invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation.[156][157]

Economy

Jakarta, the capital city and the country's commercial centre

Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles.[158] As the

Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements.[152] Some, notably in Aceh and Papua, have led to an armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[153][154] The former was resolved peacefully in 2005,[73] while the latter continues, amid a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses since 2004.[155] Other engagements of the army include the campaign against the Netherlands New Guinea to incorporate the territory into Indonesia, the Konfrontasi to oppose the creation of Malaysia, the mass killings of PKI, and the invasion of East Timor, which remains Indonesia's most massive military operation.[156][157]

Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles.[158] As the only G20 member state in Southeast Asia,[159] the country has the largest economy in the region and is classified as a newly industrialised country. As of 2019, it is the world's 16th largest economy by nominal GDP and 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.100 trillion and US$3.740 trillion respectively. Per capita GDP in PPP is US$14,020, while nominal per capita GDP is US$4,120. The debt ratio to GDP is 29.2%.[160] The services are the economy's largest sector and account for 43.4% of GDP (2018), followed by industry (39.7%) and agriculture (12.8%).[161] Since 2009, it has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 47.7% of the total labour force, followed by agriculture (30.2%) and industry (21.9%).[162]

Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.[163]

Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably.[164] Historically, it has been weighted heavily towards agriculture, reflecting both its stage of economic development and government policies in the 1950s and 1960s to promote agricultural self-sufficiency.[164] A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.[164] This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. As a result, the official poverty rate fell from 60% to 15%.[165] Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. The growth, however, ended with the 1997 Asian financial crisis, which affected the economy severely. It caused a real GDP contraction by 13.1% in 1998, and inflation reached 78%. The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth.[166]

Relatively steady inflation[167] and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index[168] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption,[169] helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession,[170] and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997.[171] As of 2019 and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index[168] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years. From 2007 to 2019, annual growth has accelerated to between 4% and 6% as a result of improvement in the banking sector and domestic consumption,[169] helping Indonesia weather the 2008–2009 Great Recession,[170] and regain in 2011 the investment grade rating it had lost in 1997.[171] As of 2019, 9.41% of the population lived below the poverty line, and the official open unemployment rate was 5.28%.[172] However, in late 2020, the economy fell into a recession for the first time in 22 years due to the effects of the global COVID-19 pandemic.[173]

Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, coal, tin, copper, gold, and nickel, while agriculture produces rice, palm oil, tea, coffee, cacao, medicinal plants, spices, and rubber. These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities. In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports. China, the United States, Japan, Singapore, India, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand are Indonesia's principal export markets and import partners.[174]

Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java.[175] All transport modes play a role in the country's transport system and are generally complementary rather than competitive. In 2016, the transport sector generated about 5.2% of GDP.[176]

The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of 542,310 kilometres (336,980 miles) as of 2018.[177] Jakarta has the most extended bus rapid transit system in the world, boasting some 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes.[178] Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country. Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. In the late 2010s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future.[179] In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia.[180]

Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second- and third-busiest airport respectively. Garuda Indonesia, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port,[181] handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic.

Energy

In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4,200 terawatt-hours (14.2 quadrillion [update].[177] Jakarta has the most extended bus rapid transit system in the world, boasting some 251.2 kilometres (156.1 miles) in 13 corridors and ten cross-corridor routes.[178] Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country. Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. In the late 2010s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future.[179] In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia.[180]

Indonesia's largest airport, Soekarno–Hatta International Airport is among the busiest in the Southern Hemisphere, serving 54 million passengers in 2019. Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second- and third-busiest airport respectively. Garuda Indonesia, the country's flag carrier since 1949, is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam. Port of Tanjung Priok is the busiest and most advanced Indonesian port,[181] handling more than 50% of Indonesia's trans-shipment cargo traffic.

In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4,200 terawatt-hours (14.2 quadrillion British thermal units), and the 15th largest energy consumer, with 2,100 terawatt-hours (7.1 quadrillion British thermal units).[182] The country has substantial energy resources, including 22 billion barrels (3.5 billion cubic metres) of conventional oil and gas reserves (of which about 4 billion barrels are recoverable), 8 billion barrels of oil-equivalent of coal-based methane (CBM) resources, and 28 billion tonnes of recoverable coal.[183] While reliance on domestic coal and imported oil has increased,[184] Indonesia has seen progress in renewable energy with hydropower being the most abundant source. Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy.[185] Indonesia has set out to achieve 23% use of renewable energy by 2025 and 31% by 2050.[184] As of 2015, Indonesia's total national installed power generation capacity stands at 55,528.51 MW.[186]

The country's largest dam, Jatiluhur, has several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and Jatiluhur, has several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture. The earth-fill dam is 105 m (344 ft) high and withholds a reservoir of 3.0 billion m3 (2.4 million acre⋅ft). It helps to supply water to Jakarta and to irrigate 240,000 ha (590,000 acres) of rice fields[187] and has an installed capacity of 186.5 MW which feeds into the Java grid managed by the State Electricity Company (Perusahaan Listrik Negara, PLN).

Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0.1% of GDP (2017).[188] Historical examples of scientific and technological developments include the paddy cultivation technique terasering, which is common in Southeast Asia, and the pinisi boats by the Bugis and Makassar people.[189] In the 1980s, Indonesian engineer Tjokorda Raka Sukawati invented a road construction technique named Sosrobahu that allows the construction of long stretches of flyovers above existing main roads with minimum traffic disruption. It later became widely used in several countries.[190] The country is also an active producer of passenger trains and freight wagons with its state-owned company, the Indonesian Railway Industry (INKA), and has exported trains abroad.[191]

Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft. With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries.[192] Former President B. J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement.[193] Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X.Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries.[192] Former President B. J. Habibie played a vital role in this achievement.[193] Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X.[194]

Indonesia has a space programme and space agency, the National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, LAPAN). In the 1970s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate a satellite system called Palapa,[195] a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo. The first satellite, PALAPA A1 was launched on 8 July 1976 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, United States.[196] As of 2019, Indonesia has launched 18 satellites for various purposes,[197] and LAPAN has expressed a desire to put satellites in orbit with native launch vehicles by 2040.[198]

Tourism contributed around US$19.7 billion to GDP in 2019. In 2018, Indonesia received 15.8 million visitors, a growth of 12.5% from last year, and received an average receipt of US$967.[200][201] China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia. Since 2011, Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism.[202]

Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life according to Conservation International.[203]

Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the l

Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity. Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rain forests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres). Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. Moreover, Indonesia has one of the world's longest coastlines, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi). The ancient Borobudur and Prambanan temples as well as Toraja and Bali, with its traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.[204]

Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands.[205] Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang, and the Indonesia has nine UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Komodo National Park and the Sawahlunto Coal Mine; and a further 19 in a tentative list that includes Bunaken National Park and Raja Ampat Islands.[205] Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang, and the royal palaces of Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta.[204]

The 2010 census recorded Indonesia's population as 237.6 million, the fourth largest in the world, with high population growth at 1.9%.[206] Java is the world's most populous island,[207] where 58% of the country's population lives.[208] The population density is 138 people per km2 (357 per sq mi), ranking 88th in the world,[209] although Java has a population density of 1,067 people per km2 (2,435 per sq mi). In 1961, the first post-colonial census recorded a total of 97 million people.[210] It is expected to grow to around 295 million by 2030 and 321 million by 2050.[211] The country currently possesses a relatively young population, with a median age of 30.2 years (2017 estimate).[77]

The spread of the population is uneven throughout the archipelago with a varying habitat and level of development, ranging from the megacity of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua.[212] As of 2017, about 54.7% of the population lives in urban areas.[213] Jakarta is the country's primate city and the second-most populous urban area in the world with over 34 million residents.[214] About 8 million Indonesians live overseas; most settled in Malaysia, the Netherlands, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United States, and Australia.[215]