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The Illinois Central Railroad , sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad in the central United States, with its primary routes connecting Chicago, Illinois, with New Orleans, Louisiana, and Mobile, Alabama. A line also connected Chicago with Sioux City, Iowa (1870). There was a significant branch to Omaha, Nebraska (1899), west of Fort Dodge, Iowa, and another branch reaching Sioux Falls, South Dakota (1877), starting from Cherokee, Iowa. The Sioux Falls branch has been abandoned in its entirety. The Canadian National Railway acquired control of the IC in 1998.

History

Riding on the ''City of New Orleans'' Illinois Central Monday morning rail Fifteen cars and fifteen restless riders Three conductors and 25 sacks of mail... Good morning America, how are you? Say, don't you know me? I'm your native son.  – Steve Goodman, "City of New Orleans", 1970
The IC was one of the oldest Class I railroads in the United States. The company was incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly on January 16, 1836. Within a few months Rep. Zadok Casey (D-Illinois) introduced a bill in the U.S. House of Representatives authorizing a land grant to the company to construct a line from the mouth of the Ohio River to Chicago and on to Galena. Federal support, however, was not approved until 1850, when U.S. President Millard Fillmore signed a land grant for the construction of the railroad. The Illinois Central was the first land-grant railroad in the United States. The Illinois Central was chartered by the Illinois General Assembly on February 10, 1851.Steamtown National Historic Site,
Illinois Central Railroad number 790
' . Retrieved February 10, 2006.
Senator Stephen A. Douglas and later President Abraham Lincoln were both Illinois Central men who lobbied for it. Douglas owned land near the terminal in Chicago. Lincoln was a lawyer for the railroad. Illinois legislators appointed Samuel D. Lockwood, recently retired from the Illinois Supreme Court (who may have given both lawyers the oral examination before admitting them to the Illinois bar), as a trustee on the new railroad's board to guard the public's interest. Lockwood, who would serve more than two decades until his death, had overseen federal land monies shortly after Illinois' statehood, then helped oversee early construction of the recently completed Illinois and Michigan Canal. Upon its completion in 1856, the IC was the longest railroad in the world. Its main line went from Cairo, Illinois, at the southern tip of the state, to Galena, in the northwest corner. A branch line went from Centralia (named for the railroad), to the rapidly growing city of Chicago. In Chicago its tracks were laid along the shore of Lake Michigan and on an offshore causeway downtown, but land-filling and natural deposition have moved the present-day shore to the east. Track from Centralia, Il north to Freeport, Il was abandoned in the 90s, as traffic to Galena was routed via Chicago, then to Galena and vice versa. In 1867 the Illinois Central extended its track into Iowa, and during the 1870s and 1880s, the IC acquired and expanded railroads in the southern United States. IC lines crisscrossed the state of Mississippi and went as far as New Orleans, Louisiana, to the south and Louisville, Kentucky, in the east. In the 1880s, northern lines were built to Dodgeville, Wisconsin, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, and Omaha, Nebraska. Further expansion continued into the early twentieth century. The Illinois Central, and the other "Harriman lines" owned by E.H. Harriman by the 20th century, became the target of the Illinois Central shopmen's strike of 1911. Although marked by violence and sabotage in the south, midwest, and western states, the strike was effectively over in a few months. The railroads simply hired replacements, among them African-American strikebreakers, and withstood diminishing union pressure. The strike was eventually called off in 1915. The totals above do not include the Waterloo RR, Batesville Southwestern, Peabody Short Line or CofG and its subsidiaries. On December 31, 1925, IC/Y&MV/G&SI operated 6,562 route-miles on 11,030 miles of track; A&V and VS&P added 330 route-miles and 491 track-miles. At the end of 1970, IC operated 6,761 miles of road and 11,159 of track. On August 31, 1962, the railroad was incorporated as Illinois Central Industries, Inc.https://www.referenceforbusines.com/history2/27/Whitman-Corporation.html With this diversification, ICI, acquired its first business Abex(formerly American Brake Shoe and Foundry) Corporation in 1968.

Illinois Central Gulf Railroad (1972–1988)

On August 10, 1972, the Illinois Central Railroad merged with the Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad to form the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad . On October 30 that year the Illinois Central Gulf commuter rail crash, the company's deadliest, occurred. At the end of 1980 ICG operated 8,366 miles of railroad on 13,532 miles of track; that year it reported 33,276 million ton-miles of revenue freight and 323 million passenger-miles. Later in that decade, the railroad spun off most of its east–west lines and many of its redundant north–south lines, including much of the former GM&O. Most of these lines were bought by other railroads, including entirely new railroads such as the Chicago, Missouri and Western Railway, Paducah and Louisville Railway, Chicago Central and Pacific Railroad and MidSouth Rail Corporation. In 1988 the railroad's then-parent company IC Industries spun off its remaining rail assets and changed its name to the Whitman Corporation. Whitman is currently in the businesses of bottling Pepsi products, Hussman commercial refrigeration, Midas auto repair, and Pet co.- makers of Old El Paso, Progresso, and Whitman Chocolates food products. Whitman sold off Pet Co. With bottling Pepsi products, Whitman purchased a rival Minnesota based PepsiAmericas Inc. bottler in 2000. On February 29, 1988, the newly separated ICG dropped the "Gulf" from its name and again became the Illinois Central Railroad.

Canadian National Railway (1998–present)

On February 11, 1998 the IC was purchased for approximately $2.4 billion in cash and shares by Canadian National Railway (CN). Integration of operations began July 1, 1999.

Fictional Story

A Story written by the first president of the C&NW railroad, surrounding the competition between a Chicago and Northwestern Mikado and a Milwaukee Road Mountain, took place mostly on the Illinois Central Railroad in Kankakee. This was one of Marvin Hughitt's last stories before his death in 1928. The story was eventually rewritten and remade in the fall of 2010 in the form of "Fall Weather Friends".

Locomotives

File:Undated photo of Engine 484 of the Illinois Central Railroad.jpg|An undated photo of Illinois Central steam locomotive No. 484 File:Locomotive ICRR LOC det.8d23306.jpg|An IC steam locomotive taking on coal at a Chicago rail yard in November 1942 File:Illinois Central 1234 (SW9) crossing B&O - C&EI crossing at Tuscola, IL on switching run. Tower is a C&EI tower. May 7, 1966 (27111081984).jpg|IC 1234, an EMD SW9, switching at Tuscola, Illinois in 1966 File:Illinois Central diesel.jpg|A preserved Illinois Central EMD GP11 locomotive on static display in downtown Carbondale, Illinois File:Foreign Power on NS (4599474599).jpg|Illinois Central 1018, an EMD SD70, leads a Norfolk Southern mixed freight File:IC 3115.jpg|IC 3115, an EMD GP40R, sitting in Waukesha, Wisconsin

Passenger train service

Illinois Central was the major carrier of passengers on its Chicago-to-New Orleans mainline and between Chicago and St. Louis. IC also ran passengers on its Chicago-to-Omaha line, though it was never among the top performers on this route. Illinois Central's largest passenger terminal, Central Station, stood at 12th Street east of Michigan Avenue in Chicago. Due to the railroad's north-south route from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes, Illinois Central passenger trains were one means of transport during the African American Great Migration of the 1920s. Illinois Central's most famous train was the ''Panama Limited'', a premier all-Pullman car service between Chicago and New Orleans, with a section breaking off at Carbondale to serve St. Louis. In 1949, it added a daytime all-coach companion, the ''City of New Orleans,'' which operated with a St. Louis section breaking off at Carbondale and a Louisville section breaking off at Fulton, Kentucky. In 1967, due to losses incurred by the operation of the train, the Illinois Central combined the Panama Limited with a coach-only train called the ''Magnolia Star''. On May 1, 1971 Amtrak took over intercity rail service. It retained service over the IC mainline, but dropped the ''Panama Limited'' in favor of the ''City of New Orleans.'' However, since it did not connect with any other trains in either New Orleans or Chicago, Amtrak moved the route to an overnight schedule and brought back the ''Panama Limited'' name. However, it restored the ''City of New Orleans'' name in 1981, while retaining the overnight schedule. This was to capitalize on the popularity of a song about the train written by Steve Goodman and performed by Arlo Guthrie. Willie Nelson's recording of the song was #1 in 1984. Illinois Central ran several other trains along the main route including ''The Creole'' and ''The Louisiane''. The ''Green Diamond'' was the Illinois Central's premier train between Chicago, Springfield and St. Louis. Other important trains included the ''Hawkeye'' which ran daily between Chicago and Sioux City and the ''City of Miami'' eventually running every other day between Chicago and Miami via the Atlantic Coast Line, the Central of Georgia Railroad and Florida East Coast Railway. The Illinois Central was also a major operator of commuter trains in the Chicago area, operating what eventually became the "IC Electric" line from Randolph Street Terminal in downtown Chicago to the southeast suburbs. In 1987, IC sold this line to Metra, who operates it as the Metra Electric District. It still operates out of what is now Millennium Station, which is still called "Randolph Street Terminal" by many longtime Chicago-area residents. In honor of the ''Panama Limited,'' the Electric District appears as "Panama Orange" on Metra system maps and timetables. Additionally, the IC operated a second commuter line out of Chicago (the West Line) which served Chicago's western suburbs. Unlike the electrified commuter service, the West Line did not generate much traffic and was eliminated in 1931. Amtrak presently runs three trains daily over this route, the ''City of New Orleans'' and the ''Illini'' and ''Saluki'' between Chicago and Carbondale. Another Illinois corridor service is planned for the former ''Black Hawk'' route between Chicago, Rockford and Dubuque. Amtrak, at the state of Illinois' request, did a feasibility study to reinstate the ''Black Hawk'' route to Rockford and Dubuque. Initial capital costs range from $32 million to $55 million, depending on the route. Once in operation, the service would require roughly $5 million a year in subsidies from the state. On December 10, 2010, IDOT announced the route choice for the resumption of service to begin in 2014 going over mostly CN railway.

List of Illinois Central Named Trains



Company officers

Presidents of the Illinois Central Railroad have included: * Sidney Breese, Father of the Illinois Central Railroad * Robert Schuyler, 1851–1853 * William P. Burrall, 1853–1854 * John N. A. Griswold, 1855 * William H. Osborn, 1855–1865 * John M. Douglas, 1865–1871, 1875–1876 * John Newell, 1871–1874 * Wilson G. Hunt, 1874–1875 * William K. Ackerman, 1876–1883 * James C. Clarke, 1883–1887 * Stuyvesant Fish, 1887–1906 * James Theodore Harahan, 1906–1911 * Charles H. Markham, 1911–1918 * Charles A. Peabody, 1918–1919 * Charles H. Markham, 1919–1926 * Lawrence A. Downs, 1926–1938 * John L. Beven, 1938–1945 * Wayne A. Johnston, 1945–1966 (chairman of Illinois Central Industries to 1967) * William B. Johnson, 1967–1969 (chairman of IC Industries to 1987) * Alan Stephenson Boyd, 1969–1972 * William J Taylor, 1976–1983 * Harry J Bruce, 1983–1990 * Edward L. Moyers, 1990–1993 * E. Hunter Harrison, 1993–1998

Preservation

. Image:IC333.JPG.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad Company Depot">Image:IC333.JPG">220px|IC 333 preserved at 201,_a_[[2-4-4.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Illinois Central 201">201, a [[2-4-4">Illinois Central 201">201, a [[2-4-4 tank locomotive that participated in the "Wheels A-Rolling" pageant at the [[Chicago Railroad Fair. Preserved on static display at [[Illinois Railway Museum. * 764, a 651 class [[2-8-0 donated to the [[Museum of Transportation, [[St. Louis, Missouri in 1956. * [[Illinois Central Railroad No. 790|790. Preserved on static display at Steamtown National Historic Site, believed to be in good condition that restoration to operations is feasible. * 1518. A 1500 series 2-8-2 Mikado on static display in Paducah, Kentucky. It was built by the Lima Locomotive Works in 1923 and was the last steam locomotive to run on the IC in 1960. * 2500. A 2500 class 4-8-2 preserved on static display in th
Age of Steam Memorial
in Centralia, Illinois. * 2542. A 2500 class 4-8-2 preserved on static display at McComb, Mississippi. * A yard office and unique coal-fueling tower remain at the Illinois Central yards in Council Bluffs, Iowa. * IC 8408 GP10 locomotive/IC 9426 caboose static display Homewood, IL * IC-333, a 0-6-0 steam engine, and several passenger cars are on display just outside the historic Yazoo and Mississippi Valley Railroad Company Depot in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. * Illinois Central GP11 #8701, along with an IC caboose, preserved on static display at the Carbondale passenger station in Carbondale, Illinois. * Illinois Central GP11 #8733 preserved at the Monticello Railway Museum in Monticello, Illinois. * An Illinois Central caboose and banana car are preserved at the Casey Jones Railroad Museum in Water Valley, Mississippi. * An Illinois Central caboose is privately owned and preserved in Raymond, Mississippi at the old train depot in the center of the town. *IC combine #892, IC Day Coaches 2920 2855 2612, IC Business Car #7, IC 10-6 sleeper #3531 "Council Bluffs", IC Dorm-baggage #1906, IC #518 (MAIL STORAGE),IC Panama Limited Observation "Gulfport", ICG cement hopper #100040, IC #65018, IC bridge crane #X238,IC #X1957 Boxcar, IC #X2000 Idler Flat, IC #'s X4342 and X4352 tenders, IC X9151 Jordan Spreader, and IC cabooses 9926 9831 9880. All of which are restored and displayed at the Monticello Railway Museum in Monticello Illinois. *Illinois Central SD40X #6071 (Ex-Gulf, Mobile and Ohio) at the Monticello Railway Museum in Monticello, Illinois *Illinois Central Gulf GP8 #7738 at the Bluegrass Railroad Museum in Versailles, Kentucky *1974 Illinois Central Gulf caboose (199422) in service as IRM 9422 at the Indiana Railway Museum in French Lick, Indiana. *Illinois Central caboose on historic main street in Palestine, Illinois.

Mississippi Central (1852–1878)

The original Mississippi Central line was chartered in 1852. Construction of the gauge line began in 1853 and was completed in 1860, just prior to the Civil War, from Canton, Mississippi to Jackson, Tennessee. The southern terminus of the line connected to the New Orleans, Jackson and Great Northern Railroad at Canton. It also connected to the Memphis and Charleston Railroad at Grand Junction, Tennessee and the Mobile and Ohio Railroad at Jackson, Tennessee. The Mississippi Central was the scene of several military actions from 1862–1863 and was severely damaged during the fighting. Company president, Absolom M. West succeeded in repairing the damage and returning it to operating condition soon after the end of the War. By 1874, interchange traffic with the Illinois Central Railroad was important enough that the IC installed a Nutter hoist at Cairo, Illinois to interchange between its standard gauge equipment broad gauge used by the Mississippi Central. This allowed the trucks to be exchanged on 16-18 freight cars per hour, and one Pullman car could be changed in 15 minutes.Edward Vernon, The Decline in Railroad Construction, Editorial
American Railroad Manual
New York, 1874; page li.
The original Mississippi Central line was merged into the Illinois Central Railroad subsidiary Chicago, St. Louis and New Orleans Railroad in several transactions finally completed in 1878.

Mississippi Central (1897–1967)

A line started in 1897 as the "Pearl and Leaf Rivers Railroad" was built by the J.J. Newman Lumber Company from Hattiesburg, to Sumrall. In 1904 the name was changed to the Mississippi Central Railroad . In 1906 the Natchez and Eastern Railway was formed to build a rail line from Natchez to Brookhaven. In 1909 this line was absorbed by the Mississippi Central. For a short time during the 1920s, the line operated a service named "The Natchez Route", running trains from Natchez to Mobile, Alabama through trackage agreements with the Gulf, Mobile and Northern Railroad. At Natchez, freight cars were ferried across the Mississippi River to connect with the Louisiana and Arkansas Railway to institute through traffic into Shreveport, Louisiana. In 1967 the property of the Mississippi Central was sold to the Illinois Central Railroad.Moody's Transportation Manual (1975), p. xxx

See also

*David L. Gunn *Harry D. Wilson *Tammany Trace *Billups Neon Crossing Signal A unique railroad crossing signal erected in Grenada, MS *Illinois Central Missouri River Bridge, the world's longest swing bridge when constructed

References

* Stover, John F., Purdue University,
The Management of the Illinois Central Railroad in the 20th Century
' (PDF). Retrieved February 9, 2006. * University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Archives,
Wayne A. Johnston Papers, 1945–1967
'. Retrieved February 9, 2006. *

External links


Official website, archived 1999

Illinois Central Historical SocietyIllinois Central Railroad On-LineSTB decision, docket number FD_33556_0
(granting CN control of the IC)

at the Newberry Library
Guide to the Illinois Central Gulf Railroad. Memorabilia, 1857–1971. 5197. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University.

Illinois Central Railroad Collection
McLean County Museum of History
Guide to Tracy W. Simpson, Electrification Project : The Illinois Central Railroad Company Suburban Service at Chicago, Ill. 1909
at th
University of Chicago Special Collections Research Center
{{DEFAULTSORT:Illinois Central Railroad Category:Railway companies established in 1851 Category:Railway companies disestablished in 1972 Category:Railway companies established in 1988 Category:Canadian National Railway subsidiaries Category:Predecessors of the Canadian National Railway Category:Former Class I railroads in the United States Category:Railroads in the Chicago Switching District Category:Rail lines receiving land grants Category:Companies operating former Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad lines Category:Companies operating former Chicago and North Western Transportation Company lines Category:Companies operating former Gulf, Mobile and Ohio Railroad lines Category:Companies operating former Illinois Central Railroad lines Category:Defunct companies based in Chicago Category:Defunct Alabama railroads Category:Defunct Arkansas railroads Category:Defunct Illinois railroads Category:Defunct Indiana railroads Category:Defunct Iowa railroads Category:Defunct Kentucky railroads Category:Defunct Louisiana railroads Category:Defunct Minnesota railroads Category:Defunct Mississippi railroads Category:Defunct Missouri railroads Category:Defunct Nebraska railroads Category:Defunct South Dakota railroads Category:Defunct Tennessee railroads Category:Defunct Wisconsin railroads Category:Superfund sites in Tennessee Category:Non-operating common carrier freight railroads in the United States Category:1851 establishments in Illinois Category:American companies established in 1851 Category:1998 mergers and acquisitions