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Hungary ( hu|Magyarország ) is a country in
Central Europe Central Europe is the central region of Europe. Central Europe includes contiguous territories that are sometimes also considered parts of Western Europe, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe. The concept of Central Europe is based on a common histo ...
. It borders
Slovakia Slovakia (; sk|Slovensko ), officially the Slovak Republic ( sk|Slovenská republika|links=no, ), is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the we ...
to the north,
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk|Україна|Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest country in Europe, after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east; it also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia a ...
to the northeast,
Romania Romania ( ; ro|România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...
to the east and southeast,
Serbia Serbia (, ; sr|Србија|Srbija, ),, * cs|Srbsko, * ro|Serbia * rue|Сербия *german: Serbien *french: Serbie * uk|Сербія * hu|Szerbia * bg|Сърбия * sq|Serbia * bs|Srbija * officially the Republic of Serbia,, is a cou ...
to the south,
Croatia :* french: link=no|République de Croatie :* hu|Horvát Köztársaság :* it|Repubblica di Croazia :* rue|Републіка Хорватія :* sr|Република Хрватска :* sk|Chorvátska republika :* sl|Republika Hrvaška ...

Croatia
and
Slovenia Slovenia ( ; sl|Slovenija ), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene: , abbr.: ''RS''), is a country in Central Europe. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and th ...

Slovenia
to the southwest, and
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich|links=no, ), is a landlocked East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine federated states (''Bund ...

Austria
to the west. Hungary covers an area of in the
Carpathian Basin alt=The Roman empire in red with a land in darker red; water is in pale blue, and non-Roman land in grey|The highlighted borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire The Pannonian Basin, or Carpathian Basin, is a large basin in ...

Carpathian Basin
, with a population of 10 million.
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...

Hungarian
, the
official language An official language, also called state language, is a language given a special status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a country's official language refers to the language used in government (judiciary, legislature ...

official language
, is the world's most widely spoken
Uralic language The Uralic languages (; sometimes called Uralian languages ) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian, Fin ...

Uralic language
, and among the few non-
Indo-European languages The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau. A few of these languages, su ...

Indo-European languages
widely spoken in Europe.
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
is the country's capital and
largest city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a pe ...

largest city
; other major urban areas include
Debrecen Debrecen ( , is Hungary's second-largest city, after Budapest, the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar County. It was the largest Hungarian city in the 18th century and it is one of the Hungarian peopl ...

Debrecen
,
Szeged Szeged ( , ; see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most di ...

Szeged
,
Miskolc Miskolc ( , , ; Czech and sk|Miškovec; german: Mischkolz; yi|script=Latn|Mishkoltz; ro|Mișcolț) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 (1 Jan 2014) Miskolc is the fourth largest city in ...

Miskolc
,
Pécs Pécs ( , ; german: Fünfkirchen, ; known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and eco ...

Pécs
, and
Győr Győr ( , ; german: Raab|links=no; names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of ...

Győr
. The territory of present-day Hungary was for centuries inhabited by various peoples, including
Celts The Celts (, see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) are. "CELTS location: Greater Europe time period: Second millennium B.C.E. to present ancestry: Celtic a collection of Indo-European peoples. "The Celts, an ancient Indo-European ...

Celts
,
Romans Roman or Romans usually refers to: *Rome, the capital city of Italy *Ancient Rome, Roman civilization from 8th century BC to 5th century AD *Roman people, the people of ancient Rome *''Epistle to the Romans'', shortened to ''Romans'', a letter in ...
,
Germanic tribes This list of ancient Germanic peoples is a list of groups and alliances of ancient Germanic peoples in ancient times. These reports begin in the 2nd century BC and extend into late antiquity. Beginning with the states of the Early Middle Ages, the ...
,
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part o ...
,
West Slavs The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages. They separated from the common Slavic group around the 7th century, and established independent polities in Central Europe by the 8th to 9th centuries. The West ...
and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century AD with the conquest of the Carpathian Basin by
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
grand prince
Árpád Árpád (; 845 – 907) was the head of the confederation of the Magyar tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. He might have been either the sacred ruler or ''kende'' of the Hungarians, or their military leader or ''gyula' ...
. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a
Christian kingdom
Christian kingdom
. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century. Following the
Battle of Mohács The Battle of Mohács (; hu|Mohácsi csata, tr|Mohaç Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of H ...
in 1526, it was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541–1699). Hungary came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, later
joining Join may refer to: * Join (law), to include additional counts or additional defendants on an indictment *In mathematics: ** Join (mathematics), a least upper bound of sets orders in lattice theory ** Join (topology), an operation combining two topo ...
with the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most ...
to form
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dis ...

Austria-Hungary
, a
major power#REDIRECT Great power {{R from other capitalisation ...
into the early 20th century. Austria-Hungary collapsed after
World War I World War I or the First World War, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously known as the Great War or "the war to end all wars", i ...
, and the subsequent
Treaty of Trianon 's pacifist speech for military officers, and declaration of Hungarian self-disarmament on 2 November 1918. The Treaty of Trianon (french: Traité de Trianon, hu|Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919– ...
established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous
interwar period In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War on 11 November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War on 1 September 1939. Despite the relatively short period ...
, Hungary joined the
Axis Powers#REDIRECT Axis powers#REDIRECT Axis powers {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
in
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
, suffering significant damage and casualties.''Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite''
John F. Montgomery, ''Hungary: The Unwilling Satellite''.http://kapos.hu/hirek/kis_szines/2018-06-16/megerkezett_az_idei_balaton_sound_himnusza.html Devin-Adair Company, New York, 1947. Reprint: Simon Publications, 2002.
Thomas, ''The Royal Hungarian Army in World War II'', pg. 11 Postwar Hungary became a
satellite state A satellite state is a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country. The term was coined by analogy to planetary objects orbiting a larger object, such ...
of the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
, leading to the establishment of the
Hungarian People's Republic The Hungarian People's Republic ( hu|Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989. It was governed by the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party, which was under the influence of the Soviet Un ...
. Following the failed
1956 revolution The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 ( hu|1956-os forradalom), or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from the 23rd of October until the 10th of November ...
, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressive, member of the
Eastern Bloc#REDIRECT Eastern Bloc#REDIRECT Eastern Bloc {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...

Eastern Bloc. The
removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria occurred in 1989 during the collapse of communism in Hungary, which was part of a broad wave of revolutions in various communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The border was still closely ...
accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a
democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy, or democratic government; a form of government involving rule by the people. *A member of a Democratic Party: **Democratic Party (United States) (D) **Democratic Party (Cy ...

democratic
parliamentary republicThe Parliamentary Republic can refer to: * A republican form of government with a Parliamentary system and a ceremonial head of state or head of state elected by parliament - see Parliamentary republic * The History of Chile during the Parliamentary ...
. Hungary joined the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
in 2004 and has been part of the
Schengen Area The Schengen Area (; ) is an area comprising 26 European countries that have officially abolished all passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders. The area mostly functions as a single jurisdiction for international ...

Schengen Area
since 2007. Hungary is a
middle power In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a great power nor a superpower, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition. The concept of the "middle power" dates back to the origins of ...
in international affairs, owing mostly to its
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.Tylor, Edward. (1871). ...
and economic influence. It has a
high-income economy A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita of US$12,536 or more in 2019, calculated using the Atlas method. While the term "high-income" is often used interchangeably with "First World" an ...
and ranks "very high" in the
Human Development Index#REDIRECT Human Development Index#REDIRECT Human Development Index {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
, with citizens enjoying
universal health care Universal healthcare (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, or universal care) is a health care system in which all residents of a particular country or region are assured access to health care. It is generally organized aroun ...
and tuition-free
secondary education#REDIRECT Secondary education#REDIRECT Secondary education {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. Hungary has a long history of significant contributions to
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity found in human cultures and societies through skills and imagination in order to produce objects, environments and experiences. Major constituents of th ...
,
music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time to produce a composition through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societies. General definitions of music include common e ...
,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to incl ...
,
sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to spectators. Sports can, throu ...
,
science and technology Science and technology is an interdisciplinary topic encompassing science, technology, and their interactions: * Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of explanations and predictions about nature and the ...
.''Hungarian literature – ”Popular poetry is the only real poetry was the opinion of Sándor Petőfi, one of the greatest Hungarian poets, whose best poems rank among the masterpieces of world literature”''.
''Encyclopædia Britannica'', 2012 edition
It is the thirteenth-most popular
tourist destination A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. Types Places of natural be ...
in Europe, drawing 15.8 million international tourists in 2017. It is a member of numerous international organisations, including the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of ...
,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
,
WTO The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. It officially commenced operations on 1 January 1995, pursuant to the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, thus rep ...
,
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for ...
, IIB, the
AIIB The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to improve economic and social outcomes in Asia. The bank currently has 103 members as well as 21 prospective members from around the world. The bank ...
, the
Council of Europe The Council of Europe (CoE) (french: Conseil de l'Europe, CdE) is an international organisation founded in the wake of World War II to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe. Founded in 1949, it has 47 member states, with a ...

Council of Europe
, and the
Visegrád Group The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4, is a cultural and political alliance of four countries of Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia), all of which are members of the EU and of NATO, to advance co-operation in militar ...
.


Etymology

The "H" in the name of Hungary (and Latin ''Hungaria'') is most likely due to founded historical associations with the
Huns The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part o ...
, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of
Byzantine Greek Medieval Greek (also known as Middle Greek or Byzantine Greek) is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of ...
''Oungroi'' (Οὔγγροι). The Greek name was borrowed from
Old Bulgarian Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other ...
''ągrinŭ'', in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic '' Onogur'' ('ten ribes of the Ogurs'). ''Onogur'' was the collective name for the tribes who later joined the
Bulgar Bulgar may refer to: *Bulgars, extinct people of Central Asia *Bulgar language, the extinct language of the Bulgars *Oghur languages Bulgar may also refer to: *Bolghar, the capital city of Volga Bulgaria *Bulgur, a wheat product See also *Bulgari ...

Bulgar
tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars. The Hungarian
endonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name for a geographical place, group of people, or a language/dialect, that is used only inside that particular place, group, or linguistic community in ques ...
is ''Magyarország'', composed of ''magyar'' ('Hungarian') and ''ország'' ('country'). The name "Magyar", which refers to the people of the country, more accurately reflects the name of the country in some other languages such as
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey ** Turkish language *** Turkish alphabet ** Turkish people, a Turkic ethnic group and nation *** Turkish citizen, a citizen of Turkey *** Turkish communities and minorities in the former Ottoman Empire * ...
, Persian and other languages as ''Magyaristan'' or ''Land of Magyars'' or similar. The word ''magyar'' is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, ''magyeri''. The first element ''magy'' is likely from Proto-Ugric *''mäńć-'' 'man, person', also found in the name of the
Mansi people The Mansi (Mansi: Мāньси / Мāньси мāхум, ''Māńsi / Māńsi māhum'', ) are a Ugrian indigenous people living in Khanty–Mansia, an autonomous okrug within Tyumen Oblast in Russia. In Khanty–Mansia, the Khanty and Mansi langu ...
(''mäńćī, mańśi, måńś''). The second element ''eri'', 'man, men, lineage', survives in Hungarian ''férj'' 'husband', and is cognate with
Mari
Mari
''erge'' 'son', Finnish archaic ''yrkä'' 'young man'.


History


Before 895

The
Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire#REDIRECT Roman Empire {{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{Redirect category shell|1= {{R from other capitalisation ...

Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD,
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day we ...
, the western part of the Carpathian Basin, was part of the Roman Empire. After the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century AD under the stress of the migration of
Germanic tribes This list of ancient Germanic peoples is a list of groups and alliances of ancient Germanic peoples in ancient times. These reports begin in the 2nd century BC and extend into late antiquity. Beginning with the states of the Early Middle Ages, the ...
and Carpian pressure, the Migration Period continued to bring many invaders into Central Europe, beginning with the
Hunnic Empire The history of the Huns spans the time from before their first secure recorded appearance in Europe around 370 AD to after the disintegration of their empire around 469. The Huns likely entered Europe shortly before 370 from Central Asia: they firs ...
(c. 370–469). The most powerful ruler of the Hunnic Empire was
Attila the Hun Attila (; ), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, Alans and Bulgars, among others, in Central and Easter ...
(434–453) who later became a central figure in Hungarian mythology. After the disintegration of the Hunnic Empire, the
Gepids The Gepids ( la|Gepidae, Gipedae) were an East Germanic tribe who lived in the area of modern Romania, Hungary and Serbia, roughly between the Tisza, Sava and Carpathian mountains. They were closely related to, or a subdivision of, the Goths. Th ...
, an Eastern Germanic tribe, who had been vassalized by the Huns, established their own kingdom in the Carpathian Basin. Other groups which reached the Carpathian Basin in the Migration Period were the
Goths The Goths ( got|𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰|translit=''Gutþiuda''; la|Gothi) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe. In his book ''Getica'' (c. 551), the ...
,
Vandals The Vandals were a Germanic people who first inhabited what is now southern Poland. They established Vandal kingdoms on the Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean islands, and North Africa in the 5th century. The Vandals migrated to the area between ...
,
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la|Langobardi) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774. The medieval Lombard historian Paul the Deacon wrote in the ''History of the Lombards'' (written between 787 and 79 ...
, and
Slavs Slavs are a European ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern and Southeaster ...
. In the 560s, the Avars founded the Avar Khaganate, a state that maintained supremacy in the region for more than two centuries. The Franks under
Charlemagne Charlemagne (; ) or Charles the Great or ''Carolus'', whence in English or in German (for this individual, specifically ''Karl der Große''). The French form and the Italian or () come from his nickname ("Charles the Great")., ''Karil' ...

Charlemagne
defeated the Avars in a series of campaigns during the 790s. By the mid-9th century, the
Balaton Principality The Slavs in Lower Pannonia were an early medieval settlement of Early Slavs in the eastern and southern parts of the former Roman province of Pannonia. The term ''Lower Pannonia'' ( la|Pannonia inferior, hu|Alsó-pannoniai grófság, hr|Donja P ...
, also known as Lower Pannonia, was established west of the Danube river as part of the Frankish
March of Pannonia The Eastern March ( la|marcha orientalis) or March of Pannonia was a frontier march of the Carolingian Empire, named after the former Roman province of ''Pannonia''. It was erected in the mid-ninth century in the lands of the former Avar Khaganate ...
. The
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Church Slavonic: блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, ''blŭgarĭsko cěsarĭstvije'') was a medieval Bulgar-Slavic and later Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th ce ...
conquered the lands east of the Danube river and took over rule of the local Slavic tribes and remnants of the Avars.


Medieval Hungary (895–1526)

The freshly unified
Hungarians Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( hu|magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary ( hu|Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common ancestry, culture, history and language. Hungarian belongs to the Uralic lan ...
led by
Árpád Árpád (; 845 – 907) was the head of the confederation of the Magyar tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. He might have been either the sacred ruler or ''kende'' of the Hungarians, or their military leader or ''gyula' ...
(by tradition a descendant of Attila), settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to the Finno-Ugrian theory, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that formerly inhabited the forested area between the
Volga River The Volga (; rus|Во́лга|a=Ru-Волга.ogg|p=ˈvoɫɡə) is the longest river in Europe. Flowing through Central Russia to Southern Russia and into the Caspian Sea, it has a length of and a catchment area of .Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (; rus|Ура́льские го́ры|r=Uralskiye gory|p=ʊˈralʲskʲɪjə ˈgorɨ; ba|Урал тауҙары, ''Ural tauźarı'') or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south throu ...
. As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty, which had ruled as kings of the Franks since 751 and as kings of the Lom ...
at the
Treaty of Verdun The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur ...
in 843, before the unification of the
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms 250px|The penultimate set of Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms was fivefold. The map annotates the names of the peoples of Essex and Sussex taken into the Kingdom of Wessex, (which later took in the Kingdom_of_Kent_and_became_the_senior_dynasty)_and_the_outl_...
._Initially,_the_rising_[[Principality_of_Hungary_("Western_Tourkia"_in_medieval_Greek_sources)_was_a_state_created_by_a_semi-nomadic_people._It_accomplished_an_enormous_transformation_into_a_Christian_realm_during_the_10th_century. This_state_was_well-functioning_and_the_nation's_military_power_allowed_the_Hungarians_to_conduct_successful_[[Hungarian_invasions_of_Europe.html" ;"title="Principality_of_Hungary.html" ;"title="Kingdom of Kent and became the senior dynasty) and the outl ...
. Initially, the rising [[Principality of Hungary">Kingdom of Kent and became the senior dynasty) and the outl ...
. Initially, the rising [[Principality of Hungary ("Western Tourkia" in medieval Greek sources) was a state created by a semi-nomadic people. It accomplished an enormous transformation into a Christian realm during the 10th century. This state was well-functioning and the nation's military power allowed the Hungarians to conduct successful [[Hungarian invasions of Europe">fierce campaigns and raids, from [[Constantinople to as far as today's Spain. The Hungarians defeated no fewer than [[Hungarian invasions of Europe|three major East Frankish imperial armies between 907 and 910. A later defeat at the
Battle of Lechfeld The Battle of Lechfeld were a series of military engagements over the course of three days from 10–12 August 955 in which the Kingdom of Germany led by king Otto I the Great annihilated the Hungarian army led by ''harka ''Bulcsú and the chiefta ...
in 955 signalled a provisory end to most campaigns on foreign territories, at least towards the West.


Age of Árpádian kings

The year 972 marked the date when the ruling prince ( hu|fejedelem)
GézaGéza is a Hungarian given name and may refer to any of the following: * Benjamin Géza Affleck * Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians * Géza I of Hungary, King of Hungary * Géza II of Hungary, King of Hungary * Géza, son of Géza II of Hungary ...
of the
Árpád dynasty The Árpáds or Arpads ( hu|Árpád-ház, hr|Arpadovići, sr|Арпадовићи, sk|Arpádovci) were the ruling dynasty of the Principality of Hungary in the 9th and 10th centuries and of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1301. The dynasty ...
officially started to integrate Hungary into the Christian Western Europe. His first-born son, Saint Stephen I, became the first
King of Hungary The King of Hungary ( hu|magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918. The style of title "Apostolic King of Hungary" (''Apostoli Magyar Király'') was endorsed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758 a ...
after defeating his
pagan Paganism (from classical Latin ''pāgānus'' "rural", "rustic", later "civilian") is a term first used pejoratively in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism or ethnic religions other than ...
uncle
Koppány Koppány, also known as Cupan, was the Duke of Somogy in Hungary in the late 10th century. According to modern scholars' consensual view, he was a member of the royal Árpád dynasty. Koppány was the lord of the southern region of Transdanubia duri ...
, who also claimed the throne. Under Stephen, Hungary was recognised as a Catholic Apostolic Kingdom. Applying to
Pope Sylvester II Pope Sylvester II ( – 12 May 1003), originally known as Gerbert of Aurillac, was a French-born scholar and teacher who served as the bishop of Rome and ruled the Papal States from 999 to his death. He endorsed and promoted study of Arab and Grec ...
, Stephen received the insignia of royalty (including probably a part of the
Holy Crown of Hungary The Holy Crown of Hungary ( hu|Szent Korona; hr|Kruna svetoga Stjepana; la|Sacra Corona; sk|Svätoštefanská koruna ), also known as the Crown of Saint Stephen, was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existen ...
, currently kept in the
Hungarian Parliament The National Assembly ( hu|Országgyűlés; "Country Assembly") is the parliament of Hungary. The unicameral body consists of 199 (386 between 1990 and 2014) members elected to 4-year terms. Election of members is done using parallel voting; in ...
) from the papacy. By 1006, Stephen consolidated his power, and started sweeping reforms to convert Hungary into a Western
feudal state Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was a combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society aroun ...
. The country switched to using the
Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language ...
, and until as late as 1844, Latin remained the official language of Hungary. Around this time, Hungary began to become a powerful kingdom. Ladislaus I extended Hungary's frontier in Transylvania and invaded
Croatia :* french: link=no|République de Croatie :* hu|Horvát Köztársaság :* it|Repubblica di Croazia :* rue|Републіка Хорватія :* sr|Република Хрватска :* sk|Chorvátska republika :* sl|Republika Hrvaška ...
in 1091. The Croatian campaign culminated in the [[Battle of Gvozd Mountain in 1097 and a [[Croatia in personal union with Hungary|personal union of Croatia and Hungary in 1102, ruled by [[Coloman of Hungary|Coloman i.e. Könyves Kálmán. The most powerful and wealthiest king of the Árpád dynasty was [[Béla III of Hungary|Béla III, who disposed of the equivalent of 23 tonnes of pure silver a year. This exceeded the income of the French king (estimated at 17 tonnes) and was double the receipts of the English Crown. [[Andrew II of Hungary|Andrew II issued the [[Diploma Andreanum which secured the special privileges of the [[Transylvanian Saxons and is considered the first [[Autonomy law in the world. He led the [[Fifth Crusade to the [[Holy Land in 1217, setting up the largest royal army in the history of Crusades. His [[Golden Bull of 1222 was the first constitution in [[Continental Europe. The lesser nobles also began to present Andrew with grievances, a practice that evolved into the institution of the parliament (''parlamentum publicum''). In 1241–1242, the kingdom received a major blow with the [[Mongolian invasion of Hungary|Mongol (Tatar) invasion. Up to half of Hungary's then population of 2,000,000 were victims of the invasion. King Béla IV let [[Cumans and [[Jassic people into the country, who were fleeing the Mongols. Over the centuries, they were fully assimilated into the Hungarian population. As a consequence, after the Mongols retreated, King Béla ordered the construction of hundreds of stone castles and fortifications, to defend against a possible second Mongol invasion. The [[Second Mongol invasion of Hungary|Mongols returned to Hungary in 1285, but the newly built stone-castle systems and new tactics (using a higher proportion of heavily armed knights) stopped them. The invading Mongol force was defeated near Pest by the royal army of Ladislaus IV of Hungary. As with later invasions, it was repelled handily, the Mongols losing much of their invading force.


Age of elected kings

The [[Kingdom of Hungary reached one of its greatest extents during the Árpádian kings, yet royal power was weakened at the end of their rule in 1301. After a destructive period of [[interregnum (1301–1308), the first [[Capetian House of Anjou|Angevin king, [[Charles I of Hungary – a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty – successfully restored royal power, and defeated oligarch rivals, the so-called "little kings". The second Angevin Hungarian king, [[Louis I of Hungary|Louis the Great (1342–1382), led many successful military campaigns from Lithuania to Southern Italy (Kingdom of Naples), and was also [[King of Poland from 1370. After King Louis died without a male heir, the country was stabilized only when [[Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor|Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387–1437) succeeded to the throne, who in 1433 also became [[Holy Roman Emperor. Sigismund was also (in several ways) a bilineal descendant of the Árpád dynasty. The first Hungarian [[Bible translation was completed in 1439. For half a year in 1437, there was an antifeudal and anticlerical peasant revolt in [[Transylvania, the [[Budai Nagy Antal Revolt, which was strongly influenced by [[Hussite ideas. From a small noble family in Transylvania, [[John Hunyadi grew to become one of the country's most powerful lords, thanks to his outstanding capabilities as a mercenary commander. He was elected governor then regent. He was a successful crusader against the Ottoman Turks, one of his greatest victories being the [[Siege of Belgrade (1456)|Siege of Belgrade in 1456. The last strong king of medieval Hungary was the Renaissance king [[Matthias Corvinus (1458–1490), son of John Hunyadi. His election was the first time that a member of the nobility mounted to the Hungarian royal throne without dynastic background. He was a successful military leader and an enlightened patron of the arts and learning. His library, the [[Bibliotheca Corviniana, was Europe's greatest collection of historical chronicles, philosophic and scientific works in the 15th century, and second only in size to the [[Vatican Library. Items from the Bibliotheca Corviniana were inscribed on [[UNESCO's [[Memory of the World Register in 2005. The serfs and common people considered him a just ruler because he protected them from excessive demands from and other abuses by the magnates. Under his rule, in 1479, the Hungarian army destroyed the Ottoman and Wallachian troops at the [[Battle of Breadfield. Abroad he defeated the Polish and German imperial armies of Frederick at Breslau ([[Wrocław). Matthias' mercenary standing army, the [[Black Army of Hungary, was an unusually large army for its time, and it conquered parts of Austria, Vienna (1485) and parts of [[Bohemia.


Decline of Hungary (1490–1526)

King Matthias died without lawful sons, and the Hungarian magnates procured the accession of the Pole [[Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary|Vladislaus II (1490–1516), supposedly because of his weak influence on Hungarian aristocracy. Hungary's international role declined, its political stability shaken, and social progress was deadlocked. In 1514, the weakened old King Vladislaus II faced a major peasant rebellion led by [[György Dózsa, which was ruthlessly crushed by the [[Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary|nobles, led by [[John Zápolya. The resulting degradation of order paved the way for Ottoman pre-eminence. In 1521, the strongest Hungarian fortress in the South, Nándorfehérvár (today's [[Belgrade, Serbia), [[Siege of Belgrade (1521)|fell to the Turks. The early appearance of Protestantism further worsened internal relations in the country.


Ottoman wars (1526–1699)

After some [[Ottoman wars in Europe|150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the
Battle of Mohács The Battle of Mohács (; hu|Mohácsi csata, tr|Mohaç Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary, between the forces of the Kingdom of H ...
in 1526, where [[Louis II of Hungary|King Louis II died while fleeing. Amid political chaos, the divided [[Nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary|Hungarian nobility elected two kings simultaneously, [[John Zápolya and [[Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor|Ferdinand I of the Habsburg dynasty. With the conquest of Buda by the Turks in 1541, Hungary was divided into three parts and remained so until the end of the 17th century. The north-western part, termed as [[Royal Hungary, was annexed by the Habsburgs who ruled as Kings of Hungary. The eastern part of the kingdom became independent as the [[Principality of Transylvania (1571–1711)|Principality of Transylvania, under Ottoman (and later Habsburg) [[suzerainty. The remaining central area, including the capital Buda, was known as the [[Ottoman Hungary|Pashalik of Buda. The vast majority of the seventeen and nineteen thousand Ottoman soldiers in service in the Ottoman fortresses in the territory of Hungary were Orthodox and Muslim Balkan Slavs rather than ethnic Turkish people. Orthodox Southern Slavs were also acting as [[akinjis and other light troops intended for pillaging in the territory of present-day Hungary. In 1686, the [[Holy League (1684)|Holy League's army, containing over 74,000 men from various nations, [[Battle of Buda (1686)|reconquered Buda from the Turks. After some more crushing [[Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18|defeats of the Ottomans in the next few years, the entire Kingdom of Hungary was removed from Ottoman rule by 1718. The last raid into Hungary by the Ottoman vassals [[Crimean Khanate|Tatars from [[Crimea took place in 1717. The constrained Habsburg Counter-Reformation efforts in the 17th century reconverted the majority of the kingdom to Catholicism. The ethnic composition of Hungary was fundamentally changed as a consequence of the prolonged warfare with the Turks. A large part of the country became devastated, population growth was stunted, and many smaller settlements perished. The Austrian-Habsburg government settled large groups of Serbs and other Slavs in the depopulated south, and settled [[Germans of Hungary|Germans (called [[Danube Swabians) in various areas, but Hungarians were not allowed to settle or re-settle in the south of the [[Pannonian Plain|Great Plain.


From the 18th century to World War I (1699–1918)

offered one year's income to establish the [[Hungarian Academy of Sciences. [[File:E. Poulton Portrait of Lajos Kossuth 1860s.jpg|left|180px|[[Lajos Kossuth, Regent-President during the [[Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Between 1703 and 1711, there was a large-scale uprising led by [[Francis II Rákóczi, who after the dethronement of the Habsburgs in 1707 at the Diet of [[Ónod, took power provisionally as the Ruling Prince of Hungary for the wartime period, but refused the Hungarian Crown and the title "King". The uprisings lasted for years. The Hungarian [[Kuruc army, although taking over most of the country, lost the main [[Battle of Trencsén|battle at Trencsén (1708). Three years later, because of the growing desertion, defeatism and low morale, the Kuruc forces finally surrendered. During the [[Napoleonic Wars and afterwards, the Hungarian Diet had not convened for decades. In the 1820s, the Emperor was forced to convene the Diet, which marked the beginning of a Reform Period (1825–1848, hu|reformkor). Count [[István Széchenyi, one of the most prominent statesmen of the country, recognised the urgent need of modernisation and his message got through. The Hungarian Parliament was reconvened in 1825 to handle financial needs. A liberal party emerged and focused on providing for the peasantry. [[Lajos Kossuth – a famous journalist at that time – emerged as leader of the lower [[gentry in the Parliament. A remarkable upswing started as the nation concentrated its forces on modernisation even though the Habsburg monarchs obstructed all important liberal laws relating to [[civil and political rights and economic reforms. Many reformers ([[Lajos Kossuth, [[Mihály Táncsics) were imprisoned by the authorities. On 15 March 1848, mass demonstrations in Pest and Buda enabled Hungarian reformists to push through a list of [[12 points of the Hungarian Revolutionaries of 1848|12 demands. Under governor and president [[Lajos Kossuth and the first Prime Minister, [[Lajos Batthyány, the [[House of Habsburg was dethroned. The Habsburg Ruler and his advisors skilfully manipulated the Croatian, Serbian and Romanian peasantry, led by priests and officers firmly loyal to the Habsburgs, and induced them to rebel against the Hungarian government, though the Hungarians were supported by the vast majority of the Slovak, German and [[Rusyns|Rusyn nationalities and by all the Jews of the kingdom, as well as by a large number of Polish, Austrian and Italian volunteers. In July 1849 the Hungarian Parliament proclaimed and enacted the first laws of ethnic and [[minority rights in the world. Many members of the nationalities gained the coveted highest positions within the Hungarian Army, like General [[János Damjanich, an ethnic Serb who became a Hungarian national hero through his command of the 3rd Hungarian Army Corps or [[Józef Bem, who was Polish and also became a national hero in Hungary. The Hungarian forces (''[[Royal Hungarian Landwehr|Honvédség'') defeated Austrian armies. To counter the successes of the Hungarian revolutionary army, Habsburg Emperor [[Franz Joseph I asked for help from the "Gendarme of Europe", Tsar [[Nicholas I of Russia|Nicholas I, whose Russian armies invaded Hungary. This made [[Artúr Görgey surrender in August 1849. The leader of the Austrian army, [[Julius Jacob von Haynau, became governor of Hungary for a few months, and ordered the execution of [[the 13 Martyrs of Arad, leaders of the Hungarian army, and Prime Minister Batthyány in October 1849. Lajos Kossuth escaped into exile. Following the war of 18481849, the whole country was in "passive resistance". Because of external and internal problems, reforms seemed inevitable and major military defeats of Austria forced the Habsburgs to negotiate the [[Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, by which the dual Monarchy of
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dis ...

Austria-Hungary
was formed. This Empire had the second largest area in Europe (after the [[Russian Empire), and it was the third most populous (after Russia and the [[German Empire). The two realms were governed separately by two parliaments from two capital cities, with a common monarch and common external and military policies. Economically, the empire was a customs union. The old Hungarian Constitution was restored, and Franz Joseph I was crowned as
King of Hungary The King of Hungary ( hu|magyar király) was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 (or 1001) to 1918. The style of title "Apostolic King of Hungary" (''Apostoli Magyar Király'') was endorsed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758 a ...
. The era witnessed impressive economic development. The formerly backward Hungarian economy became relatively modern and industrialised by the turn of the 20th century, although agriculture remained dominant until 1890. In 1873, the old capital [[Buda and [[Óbuda were officially united with [[Pest, Hungary|Pest, thus creating the new metropolis of
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
. Many of the state institutions and the modern administrative system of Hungary were established during this period. After the [[Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, the Hungarian prime minister [[István Tisza and his cabinet tried to avoid the outbreak and escalating of a war in Europe, but their diplomatic efforts were unsuccessful.
Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy and great power in Central Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed with the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and was dis ...

Austria-Hungary
drafted 9 million (fighting forces: 7.8 million) soldiers in World War I (over 4 million from the Kingdom of Hungary) on the side of Germany, Bulgaria and Turkey. The troops raised in the Kingdom of Hungary spent little time defending the actual territory of Hungary, with the exceptions of the [[Brusilov Offensive in June 1916, and a few months later, when the Romanian army made an attack into Transylvania, both of which were repelled. In comparison, of the total army, Hungary's loss ratio was more than any other nations of Austria-Hungary. The [[Central Powers conquered Serbia. Romania declared war. The Central Powers conquered Southern Romania and the Romanian capital [[Bucharest. In 1916 Emperor Franz Joseph died, and the new monarch [[Charles IV of Hungary|Charles IV sympathized with the pacifists. With great difficulty, the Central powers stopped and repelled the attacks of the Russian Empire. The Eastern front of the Allied ([[Allies of World War I|Entente) Powers completely collapsed. The Austro-Hungarian Empire then withdrew from all defeated countries. On the Italian front, the Austro-Hungarian army made no progress against Italy after January 1918. Despite great Eastern successes, Germany suffered complete defeat on the more important Western front. By 1918, the economic situation had deteriorated (strikes in factories were organised by leftist and pacifist movements) and uprisings in the army had become commonplace. In the capital cities, the Austrian and Hungarian leftist liberal movements (the maverick parties) and their leaders supported the separatism of ethnic minorities. Austria-Hungary signed a general armistice in [[Padua on 3 November 1918. In October 1918, Hungary's union with Austria was dissolved.


Between the World Wars (1918–1941)

Following the First World War, Hungary underwent a period of profound political upheaval, beginning with the [[Aster Revolution in 1918, which brought the social-democratic [[Mihály Károlyi to power as Prime Minister. The [[Royal Hungarian Honvéd|Hungarian Royal Honvéd army still had more than 1,400,000 soldiers when Mihály Károlyi was announced as prime minister of Hungary. Károlyi yielded to U.S. President [[Woodrow Wilson's demand for [[pacifism by ordering the disarmament of the Hungarian army. This happened under the direction of [[Béla Linder, minister of war in the Károlyi government.Dixon J. C
''Defeat and Disarmament, Allied Diplomacy and Politics of Military Affairs in Austria, 1918–1922''
Associated University Presses 1986. p. 34.
Sharp A
''The Versailles Settlement: Peacemaking after the First World War, 1919–1923''
Palgrave Macmillan 2008. p. 156.
Due to the full disarmament of its army, Hungary was to remain without a national defence at a time of particular vulnerability. During the rule of Károlyi's pacifist cabinet, Hungary lost the control over approx. 75% of its former pre-WW1 territories (325 411 km) without fight and was subject to foreign occupation. The [[Little Entente, sensing an opportunity, invaded the country from three sides—Romania [[Hungarian-Romanian War|invaded [[Transylvania, Czechoslovakia annexed [[Upper Hungary (today's Slovakia), and a joint [[Kingdom of Serbia|Serb-[[French Army|French coalition annexed [[Vojvodina and other southern regions. In March 1919, communists led by [[Béla Kun ousted the Károlyi government and proclaimed the [[Hungarian Soviet Republic (''Tanácsköztársaság''), followed by a thorough [[Red Terror (Hungary)|Red Terror campaign. Despite some successes on the Czechoslovak front, Kun's forces were ultimately unable to resist the Romanian invasion; by August 1919, Romanian troops occupied Budapest and ousted Kun. In November 1919, rightist forces led by former Austro-Hungarian admiral [[Miklós Horthy entered Budapest; exhausted by the war and its aftermath, the populace accepted Horthy's leadership. In January 1920, parliamentary elections were held and Horthy was proclaimed Regent of the reestablished [[Kingdom of Hungary (1920–46)|Kingdom of Hungary, inaugurating the so-called "Horthy era" (''Horthy-kor''). The new government worked quickly to normalize foreign relations while turning a blind eye to a [[White Terror (Hungary)|White Terror that swept through the countryside; extrajudicial killings of suspected communists and Jews lasted well into 1920. On 4 June of that year, the
Treaty of Trianon 's pacifist speech for military officers, and declaration of Hungarian self-disarmament on 2 November 1918. The Treaty of Trianon (french: Traité de Trianon, hu|Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919– ...
established new borders for Hungary. The country lost 71% of its territory and 66% of its antebellum population, as well as many sources of raw materials and its sole [[port, [[Rijeka|Fiume. Though the revision of the Treaty quickly rose to the top of the national political agenda, the Horthy government was not willing to resort to military intervention to do so. The initial years of the Horthy regime were preoccupied by putsch attempts by [[Charles IV of Hungary|Charles IV, the Austro-Hungarian [[pretender; continued suppression of communists; and a migration crisis triggered by the Trianon territorial changes. Though free elections continued, Horthy's personality, and those of his personally selected prime ministers, dominated the political scene. The government's actions continued to drift right with the passage of antisemitic laws and, due to the continued isolation of the Little Entente, economic and then political gravitation towards [[Kingdom of Italy#Fascist regime (1922–1943)|Italy and [[Nazi Germany|Germany. The [[Great Depression further exacerbated the situation and the popularity of fascist politicians such as [[Gyula Gömbös and [[Ferenc Szálasi, promising economic and social recovery, rose. Horthy's nationalist agenda reached its apogee in 1938 and 1940, when the Nazis rewarded Hungary's staunchly pro-Germany foreign policy in the [[First Vienna Award|First and [[Second Vienna Awards, respectively, peacefully restoring ethnic-Hungarian-majority areas lost after Trianon. In 1939, Hungary regained further territory from Czechoslovakia [[Slovak-Hungarian War|through force. Hungary [[Tripartite Pact|formally joined the
Axis Powers#REDIRECT Axis powers#REDIRECT Axis powers {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
on 20 November 1940, and in 1941, participated in the [[German invasion of Yugoslavia|invasion of Yugoslavia, gaining some of its former territories in the south.


World War II (1941–1945)

Hungary formally entered World War II as an Axis Power on 26 June 1941, declaring war on the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
after unidentified planes bombed [[Košice|Kassa, [[Munkacheve|Munkács, and [[Rakhiv|Rahó. Hungarian troops fought on the [[Eastern Front (World War II)|Eastern Front for two years. Despite [[Battle of Uman|some early successes,J. Lee Ready (1995), ''World War Two. Nation by Nation'', London, Cassell, page 130. the Hungarian government began seeking a secret peace pact with [[Allies (World War II)|the Allies after the [[Hungarian Second Army|Second Army suffered catastrophic losses [[Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive|at the River Don in January 1943. Learning of the planned defection, German troops [[Operation Margarethe|occupied Hungary on 19 March 1944 to guarantee Horthy's compliance. In October, as the Soviet front approached and the Hungarian government made further efforts to disengage from the war, German troops ousted Horthy and installed a puppet government under Szálasi's fascist [[Arrow Cross Party. Szálasi pledged all the country's capabilities in service of the German war machine. By October 1944, the Soviets had reached the river Tisza, and despite [[Battle of Debrecen|some losses, succeeded in encircling and [[Battle of Budapest|besieging Budapest in December. After German occupation, Hungary [[Holocaust in Hungary|participated in [[the Holocaust. During the German occupation in May–June 1944, the Arrow Cross and Hungarian police deported nearly 440,000 Jews, mainly to [[Auschwitz concentration camp|Auschwitz. Nearly all of them were murdered. The Swedish Diplomat [[Raoul Wallenberg managed to save a considerable number of Hungarian Jews by giving them Swedish passports. [[Rezső Kasztner, one of the leaders of the Hungarian [[Aid and Rescue Committee, bribed senior SS officers such as [[Adolf Eichmann to allow some Jews to escape. The Horthy government's complicity in the Holocaust remains a point of controversy and contention. The war left Hungary devastated, destroying over 60% of the economy and causing significant [[World War II casualties#endnote Hungary|loss of life. In addition to the over 600,000 Hungarian Jews killed, as many as 280,000 other Hungarians were raped, murdered and executed or deported for slave labour by Czechoslovaks, Soviet [[Red Army troops, and Yugoslavs. On 13 February 1945, Budapest surrendered; by April, German troops left the country under Soviet military occupation. 200,000 Hungarians were expelled from Czechoslovakia in exchange for 70,000 Slovaks living in Hungary. 202,000 ethnic Germans were expelled to Germany, and through the 1947 [[Paris Peace Treaties, Hungary was again reduced to its immediate post-Trianon borders.


Communism (1945–1989)

Following the defeat of Nazi Germany, Hungary became a [[Soviet satellite|satellite state of the Soviet Union. The Soviet leadership selected [[Mátyás Rákosi to front the [[Stalinization of the country, and Rákosi ''de facto'' ruled Hungary from 1949 to 1956. His government's policies of militarization, industrialisation, collectivization, and war compensation led to a severe decline in living standards. In imitation of Stalin's [[KGB, the Rákosi government established a secret political police, the [[State Protection Authority|ÁVH, to enforce the new regime. In the ensuing purges approximately 350,000 officials and intellectuals were imprisoned or executed from 1948 to 1956. Many freethinkers, democrats, and Horthy-era dignitaries were secretly arrested and extrajudicially interned in domestic and foreign [[Gulags. Some 600,000 Hungarians were deported to Soviet labour camps, where at least 200,000 died. After Stalin's death in 1953, the Soviet Union pursued a programme of [[destalinization that was inimical to Rákosi, leading to his deposition. The following political cooling saw the ascent of [[Imre Nagy to the premiership, and the growing interest of students and intellectuals in political life. Nagy promised market liberalization and political openness, while Rákosi opposed both vigorously. Rákosi eventually managed to discredit Nagy and replace him with the more hard-line [[Ernő Gerő. Hungary joined the [[Warsaw Pact in May 1955, as societal dissatisfaction with the regime swelled. Following the firing on peaceful demonstrations by Soviet soldiers and secret police, and rallies throughout the country on 23 October 1956, protesters took to the streets in Budapest, initiating the [[Hungarian Revolution of 1956|1956 Revolution. In an effort to quell the chaos, Nagy returned as premier, promised free elections, and took Hungary out of the Warsaw Pact. The violence nonetheless continued as revolutionary militias sprung up against the Soviet Army and the ÁVH; the roughly 3,000-strong resistance fought Soviet tanks using [[Molotov cocktails and machine-pistols. Though the preponderance of the Soviets was immense, they suffered heavy losses, and by 30 October 1956, most Soviet troops had withdrawn from Budapest to garrison the countryside. For a time, the Soviet leadership was unsure how to respond to developments in Hungary but eventually decided to intervene to prevent a destabilization of the Soviet bloc. On 4 November, reinforcements of more than 150,000 troops and 2,500 tanks entered the country from the Soviet Union. Nearly 20,000 Hungarians were killed resisting the intervention, while an additional 21,600 were imprisoned afterwards for political reasons. Some 13,000 were interned and 230 brought to trial and executed. Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June 1958. Because borders were briefly opened, nearly a quarter of a million people fled the country by the time the revolution was suppressed.


Kádár era (1956–1988)

After a second, briefer period of Soviet military occupation, [[János Kádár, Nagy's former Minister of State, was chosen by the Soviet leadership to head the new government and chair the new ruling [[Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party|Socialist Workers' Party (MSzMP). Kádár quickly normalized the situation. In 1963, the government granted a general amnesty and released the majority of those imprisoned for their active participation in the uprising. Kádár proclaimed a new policy line, according to which the people were no longer compelled to profess loyalty to the party if they tacitly accepted the Socialist regime as a fact of life. In many speeches, he described this as, "Those who are not against us are with us." Kádár introduced new planning priorities in the economy, such as allowing farmers significant plots of private land within the collective farm system (''háztáji gazdálkodás''). The living standard rose as consumer good and food production took precedence over military production, which was reduced to one-tenth of pre-revolutionary levels. In 1968, the [[New Economic Mechanism (NEM) introduced free-market elements into socialist command economy. From the 1960s through the late 1980s, Hungary was often referred to as "[[the happiest barrack" within the [[Eastern bloc. During the latter part of the Cold War Hungary's [[GDP per capita was fourth only to [[East Germany, [[Czechoslovak Socialist Republic|Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union itself.* As a result of this relatively high standard of living, a more liberalized economy, a less censored press, and less restricted travel rights, Hungary was generally considered one of the more liberal countries in which to live in Central Europe during communism. In the 1980s, however, living standards steeply declined again due to [[Early 1980s recession|a worldwide recession to which communism was unable to respond. By the time Kádár died in 1989, the Soviet Union was in steep decline and a younger generation of reformists saw liberalization as the solution to economic and social issues.


Third Republic (1989–present)

Hungary's [[fall of communism|transition from communism to democracy and capitalism (''rendszerváltás'', "regime change") was peaceful and prompted by economic stagnation, domestic political pressure, and changing relations with other [[Warsaw Pact countries. Although the MSzMP began [[Hungarian Round Table Talks|Round Table Talks with various opposition groups in March 1989, the reburial of Imre Nagy as a revolutionary martyr that June is widely considered the symbolic end of communism in Hungary. Over 100,000 people attended the Budapest ceremony without any significant government interference, and many speakers openly called for Soviet troops to leave the country. Free elections were held [[1990 Hungarian parliamentary election|in May 1990, and the [[Hungarian Democratic Forum, a major conservative opposition group, was elected to the head of a coalition government. [[József Antall became the first democratically elected Prime Minister since World War II. With the removal of state subsidies and rapid privatization in 1991, Hungary was affected by a severe economic recession. The Antall government's austerity measures proved unpopular, and the Communist Party's legal and political heir, the [[Hungarian Socialist Party|Socialist Party, won the subsequent [[1994 Hungarian parliamentary election|1994 elections. This abrupt shift in the political landscape was repeated in [[1998 Hungarian parliamentary election|1998 and [[2002 Hungarian parliamentary election|2002; each electoral cycle, the governing party was ousted and the erstwhile opposition elected. Like most other post-communist European states, however, Hungary broadly pursued an [[European integration|integrationist agenda, [[Enlargement of NATO|joining
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
in 1999 and the European Union [[2003 Hungarian European Union membership referendum|in 2004. As a NATO member, Hungary was involved in the [[Yugoslav Wars. In 2006, [[2006 protests in Hungary|major protests erupted after it was revealed that Prime Minister [[Ferenc Gyurcsány had claimed in [[Őszöd speech|a private speech that [[Hungarian Socialist Party|his party "lied" to win the [[2006 Hungarian parliamentary election|recent elections. The popularity of left-wing parties plummeted in the ensuing political upheaval, and in 2010, [[Viktor Orbán's [[national conservatism|national-conservative [[Fidesz was [[2010 Hungarian parliamentary election|elected to a parliamentary [[supermajority. The legislature consequently approved a [[Constitution of Hungary|new constitution, among other sweeping governmental and legal changes. Although these developments were met with and still engender controversy, Fidesz secured a second parliamentary supermajority [[2014 Hungarian parliamentary election|in 2014 and a third [[2018 Hungarian parliamentary election|in 2018. In September 2018, the European parliament voted to act against Hungary, under the terms of [[Article 7 of the Treaty on European Union. Proponents of the vote claimed that the Hungarian government posed a [[Democratic backsliding|"systematic threat" to democracy and the rule of law. The vote was carried with the support of 448 MEPs, narrowly clearing the two-thirds majority required. The vote marked the first the European parliament had triggered an article 7 procedure against an EU member state. [[Péter Szijjártó, the [[Minister of Foreign Affairs (Hungary)|Hungarian foreign minister, described the vote as "petty revenge" which had been provoked by Hungary's tough anti-migration policies. Szijjártó alleged that the vote was fraudulent because abstentions were not counted which made it easier to reach the two-thirds majority required to pass the vote. At the [[European elections in May 2019, Viktor Orbán's Fidesz Party secured another a sweeping victory, receiving more than 50% of the votes. In October 2019, the opposition won mayoral election in capital Budapest, meaning prime minister Orbán and the [[Fidesz-KDNP governing coalition got first major electoral blow since 2006. In March 2020, during the ongoing [[COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary|coronavirus pandemic, the Hungarian parliament passed a law granting the Government the power to rule by decree to the extent it is necessary to diminish the consequences of the pandemic, suspending [[by-elections and outlawing the "spreading of misinformation". The Government's special authorisation is in force until the pandemic is declared to have ended.


Geography

Hungary's geography has traditionally been defined by its two main waterways, the [[Danube and [[Tisza rivers. The common tripartite division of the country into three sections—''Dunántúl'' ("beyond the Danube", [[Transdanubia), ''[[Tiszántúl'' ("beyond the Tisza"), and ''Duna-Tisza köze'' ("between the Danube and Tisza")—is a reflection of this. The Danube flows north–south right through the centre of contemporary Hungary, and the entire country lies within its [[drainage basin. [[Transdanubia, which stretches westward from the centre of the country towards Austria, is a primarily hilly region with a terrain varied by low mountains. These include the very eastern stretch of the [[Alps, ''[[Alpokalja'', in the west of the country, the [[Transdanubian Mountains in the central region of Transdanubia, and the [[Mecsek Mountains and [[Villány Mountains in the south. The highest point of the area is the Írott-kő in the Alps, at . The [[Little Hungarian Plain (''Kisalföld'') is found in northern Transdanubia. [[Lake Balaton and [[Lake Hévíz, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest thermal lake in the world, respectively, are in Transdanubia as well. The ''Duna-Tisza köze'' and ''Tiszántúl'' are characterised mainly by the [[Great Hungarian Plain (''Alföld''), which stretches across most of the eastern and southeastern areas of the country. To the north of the Plain are the foothills of the [[Carpathian Mountains|Carpathians in a wide band near the [[Slovakian border. The [[Kékes at is the tallest mountain in Hungary and is found here. [[Phytogeography|Phytogeographically, Hungary belongs to the Central European province of the [[Circumboreal Region within the [[Boreal Kingdom. According to the [[World Wide Fund for Nature|WWF, the territory of Hungary belongs to the terrestrial ecoregion of [[Pannonian mixed forests. It had a 2019 [[Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 2.25/10, ranking it 156th globally out of 172 countries. Hungary has 10 national parks, 145 minor nature reserves, and 35 landscape protection areas. Hungary is a [[landlocked country.


Climate

Hungary has a [[Temperate climate|temperate seasonal climate, with generally warm summers with low overall humidity levels but frequent rainshowers and cold snowy winters. Average annual temperature is . Temperature extremes are on 20 July 2007 at Kiskunhalas in the summer and on 16 February 1940 Miskolc-Görömbölytapolca in the winter. Average high temperature in the summer is and average low temperature in the winter is . The average yearly rainfall is approximately . Hungary is ranked sixth in an environmental protection index by ''GW''/''[[Climate Action Network|CAN''.


Government and politics

Hungary is a [[Unitary state|unitary, [[parliamentary democratic|parliamentary, [[representative democracy|representative democratic [[parliamentary republic|republic. The Hungarian political system operates under a framework reformed in 2012; this constitutional document is the [[Constitution of Hungary|Fundamental Law of Hungary. Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution (as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the state structure, and the [[rule of law) are valid in perpetuity. 199 Members of Parliament (''országgyűlési képviselő'') are elected to the highest organ of state authority, the [[Unicameralism|unicameral ''[[National Assembly of Hungary|Országgyűlés'' (National Assembly), every four years in a single-round [[first-past-the-post voting|first-past-the-post election with an [[election threshold of 5%. The [[President of Hungary|President of the Republic (''köztársasági elnök'') serves as the [[head of state and is elected by the National Assembly every five years. The president is invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers: receiving foreign heads of state, formally nominating the Prime Minister at the recommendation of the National Assembly, and serving as [[Commander-in-chief of the [[Hungarian Army|armed forces. Importantly, the president is also invested with [[veto power, and may send legislation to the 15-member [[Constitutional Court of Hungary|Constitutional Court for review. The third most-significant governmental position in Hungary is the [[List of Speakers of the National Assembly (Hungary)|Speaker of the National Assembly, who is elected by the National Assembly and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body. The [[Prime Minister of Hungary|Prime Minister (''miniszterelnök'') is elected by the National Assembly, serving as the [[head of government and exercising [[Executive (government)|executive power. Traditionally, the Prime Minister is the leader of the largest party in parliament. The Prime Minister selects [[Government of Hungary|Cabinet ministers and has the exclusive right to dismiss them, although cabinet nominees must appear before consultative open hearings before one or more parliamentary [[committees, survive a vote in the National Assembly, and be formally approved by the president. The cabinet reports to [[National Assembly (Hungary)|parliament. In 2009 Hungary, due to strong economic difficulties, had to request the help of the IMF for about €9 billion. The [[debt-to-GDP ratio of Hungary had its peak in 2011 when it stood at 83% and decreased since then. According to [[Eurostat, the [[Government debt|government gross debt of Hungary amounts to 25.119 billion HUF or 74.1% of its [[Gross domestic product|GDP in 2016. The government achieved a budget deficit 1.9% of the GDP in 2015. Hungary's [[credit rating by [[credit rating agencies [[Standard & Poor's, [[Moody's and [[Fitch Ratings stands at Investment Grade ''BBB'' with a stable outlook in 2016. On [[Transparency International's 2019 [[Corruption Perceptions Index Hungary's [[public sector has deteriorated from a score of 51 in 2015 to 44 in 2019 making it the 2nd most corrupt EU member at pair with Romania and behind Bulgaria. Following a decade of [[Fidesz-[[KDNP rule lead by [[Viktor Orbán, [[Freedom House's ''Nations in Transit 2020'' report reclassified Hungary from a [[democracy to a transitional or [[hybrid regime. According to the report, "the right-wing alliance... has gradually undermined the rule of law in Hungary and established tight control over the country’s independent institutions... [it] has steadily rewritten the Hungarian constitution, and eliminated democratic safeguards statutorily embodied in the Constitutional Court, Prosecutors Office, Media Authority, and State Audit Office...". It also limited parliamentary oversight, independent [[News media|media, [[non-governmental organizations and [[academic freedom|academics, while consolidating power around the central government.


Political parties

Since the fall of communism, Hungary has a [[multi-party system. The [[2018 Hungarian parliamentary election|last Hungarian parliamentary election took place on 8 April 2018. This parliamentary election was the 7th since the [[1990 Hungarian parliamentary election|1990 first multi-party election. The result was a victory for [[Fidesz–[[Christian Democratic People's Party (Hungary)|KDNP alliance, preserving its two-thirds majority with [[Viktor Orbán remaining Prime Minister. It was the second election according to the new [[Constitution of Hungary which went into force on 1 January 2012. The new electoral law also entered into force that day. The voters elected 199 MPs instead of previous 386 lawmakers. The current political landscape in Hungary is dominated by the conservative [[Fidesz, who have a near supermajority, and two medium-sized parties, the left-wing [[Democratic Coalition (Hungary)|Democratic Coalition (DK) and liberal [[Momentum Movement|Momentum. The democratic character of the Hungarian parliament was reestablished with [[revolutions of 1989|the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist dictatorship in 1989. Today's parliament is still called ''Országgyűlés'' just like in royal times, but in order to differentiate between the historical royal diet is referred to as "National Assembly" now. The [[Diet of Hungary was a legislative institution in the [[Kingdom of Hungary in the Middle Ages|medieval kingdom of Hungary from the 1290s, and in its successor states, [[Royal Hungary and the [[Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen|Habsburg kingdom of Hungary throughout the [[Early Modern period. The articles of the 1790 diet set out that the diet should meet at least once every 3 years, but, since the diet was called by the [[Habsburg monarchy, this promise was not kept on several occasions thereafter. As a result of the [[Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867|Austro-Hungarian Compromise, it was reconstituted in 1867. The Latin term ''Natio Hungarica'' ("Hungarian nation") was used to designate the political elite which had participation in the diet, consisting of the [[Hungarian nobility|nobility, the Catholic clergy, and a few enfranchised burghers, regardless of language or ethnicity.


Law and judicial system

The judicial system of Hungary is a [[Civil law (legal system)|civil law system divided between [[courts with regular civil and criminal jurisdiction and [[administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and the public administration. Hungarian law is codified and based on [[Law of Germany|German law and in a wider sense, civil law or [[Roman law. The court system for civil and criminal jurisdiction consists of local courts (''járásbíróság''), regional appellate courts (''ítélőtábla''), and the supreme court (''Kúria''). Hungary's highest [[courts are located in
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
. Law enforcement in Hungary is split among the [[Rendőrség|police and the National Tax and Customs Administration. The Hungarian Police is the main and largest state [[law enforcement agency in Hungary. It carries nearly all general police duties such as criminal investigation, patrol activity, traffic policing, border control. It is led by the National Police Commissioner under the control of the [[Ministry of Interior (Hungary)|Minister of the Interior. The body is divided into county police departments which are also divided into regional and town police departments. The National Police also have subordinate agencies with nationwide jurisdiction, such as the "Nemzeti Nyomozó Iroda" (National Bureau of Investigation), a civilian police force specialised in investigating serious crimes, and the gendarmerie-like, militarised "Készenléti Rendőrség" (Stand-by Police) mainly dealing with riots and often reinforcing local police forces. Due to Hungary's accession to the [[Schengen Treaty, the Police and Border Guards were merged into a single national corps, with the Border Guards becoming Police Officers. This merger took place in January 2008. The Customs and Excise Authority remained subject to the Ministry of Finance under the National Tax and Customs Administration.


Administrative divisions

Hungary is a [[unitary state|unitary state nation divided into 19 [[Counties of Hungary|counties (''megye''). In addition, the [[Capitals of Hungary|capital (''főváros''),
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
, is an independent entity. The counties and the capital are the 20 [[Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics|NUTS third-level units of Hungary. The states are further subdivided into 174 [[Districts of Hungary|districts (''járás'') . The districts are further divided into [[List of cities and towns of Hungary|towns and villages, of which 23 are designated [[Town with county rights|towns with county rights (''megyei jogú város''), sometimes known as "urban counties" in English. The local authorities of these towns have extended powers, but these towns belong to the territory of the respective district instead of being independent territorial units. County and district councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government. The role of the counties are basically administrative and focus on strategic development, while preschools, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities. Since 1996, the counties and City of Budapest have been grouped into seven [[Regions of Hungary|regions for statistical and development purposes. These seven regions constitute [[Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics|NUTS' second-level units of Hungary. They are [[Central Hungary, [[Central Transdanubia, [[Northern Great Plain, [[Northern Hungary, [[Southern Transdanubia, [[Southern Great Plain, and [[Western Transdanubia.


Foreign relations

The [[foreign policy of Hungary is based on four basic commitments: to [[atlanticism|Atlantic co-operation, to [[European integration, to [[international development and to [[international law. The [[Economy of Hungary|Hungarian economy is fairly open and relies strongly on [[international trade. Hungary has been a member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of ...
since December 1955 and a member of the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
,
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
, the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|OECD, the
Visegrád Group The Visegrád Group, Visegrád Four, or V4, is a cultural and political alliance of four countries of Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia), all of which are members of the EU and of NATO, to advance co-operation in militar ...
, the
WTO The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. It officially commenced operations on 1 January 1995, pursuant to the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, thus rep ...
, the
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for ...
, the
AIIB The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to improve economic and social outcomes in Asia. The bank currently has 103 members as well as 21 prospective members from around the world. The bank ...
and the [[International Monetary Fund|IMF. Hungary took on the presidency of the [[Council of the European Union for half a year in 2011 and the next will be in 2024. In 2015, Hungary was the fifth largest [[OECD Non-DAC donor of [[development aid in the world, which represents [[List of development aid country donors|0.13% of its Gross National Income. Hungary's capital city, Budapest, is home to more than 100 embassies and representative bodies as an international political actor. Hungary hosts the main and regional headquarters of many international organisations as well, including [[European Institute of Innovation and Technology, [[European Police College, [[United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, [[Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, [[International Centre for Democratic Transition, [[Institute of International Education, [[International Labour Organization, [[International Organization for Migration, [[International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies|International Red Cross, [[Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe, [[Danube Commission (1948)|Danube Commission and others. Since 1989, Hungary's top foreign policy goal has been achieving integration into Western economic and security organisations. Hungary joined the [[Partnership for Peace programme in 1994 and has actively supported the [[IFOR and [[SFOR missions in Bosnia. Hungary since 1989 has also improved its often frosty neighbourly relations by signing basic treaties with
Romania Romania ( ; ro|România ) is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. It shares land borders with Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, and Moldov ...
, [[Slovakia, and
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk|Україна|Ukraina, ) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest country in Europe, after Russia, which it borders to the east and north-east; it also shares borders with Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia a ...
. These renounce all outstanding territorial claims and lay the foundation for constructive relations. However, the issue of [[Hungarian diaspora|ethnic Hungarian minority rights in Romania, Slovakia and Serbia periodically causes bilateral tensions to flare up. Since 2017, the [[Hungary–Ukraine relations|relations with Ukraine rapidly deteriorated over the issue of the [[Hungarians in Ukraine|Hungarian minority in Ukraine. Hungary since 1989 has signed all of the [[Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe|OSCE documents, and served as the OSCE's Chairman-in-Office in 1997.


Military

The [[List of heads of state of Hungary|President holds the title of [[commander-in-chief of the nation's armed forces. The [[Minister of Defence (Hungary)|Ministry of Defence jointly with [[General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Hungary|Chief of staff administers the armed forces, including the [[Hungarian Ground Force and the [[Hungarian Air Force. Since 2007, the Hungarian Armed Forces has been under a unified command structure. The Ministry of Defence maintains the political and civil control over the army. A subordinate Joint Forces Command coordinates and commands the HDF. In 2016, the armed forces had 31,080 personnel on active duty, the operative reserve brought the total number of troops to fifty thousand. In 2016, it was planned that military spending the following year would be $1.21 billion, about 0.94% of the country's GDP, well below the NATO target of 2%. In 2012, the government adopted a resolution in which it pledged to increase defence spending to 1.4% of GDP by 2022. [[Military service is voluntary, though [[conscription may occur in wartime. In a significant move for modernisation, Hungary decided in 2001 to buy 14 [[JAS 39 Gripen fighter aircraft for about 800 million EUR. Hungarian National Cyber Security Center was re-organised in 2016 in order to become more efficient through [[cyber security. In 2016, the Hungarian military had about 700 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including 100 HDF troops in the
NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, ; french: Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique nord, ), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 30 European and North American countries. The ...
-led [[ISAF force in [[Afghanistan, 210 Hungarian soldiers in [[Kosovo under command of [[Kosovo Force|KFOR, and 160 troops in [[Bosnia and Herzegovina. Hungary sent a 300-strong logistics unit to Iraq in order to help the US occupation with armed transport convoys, though public opinion opposed the country's participation in the war.


Economy

] Hungary is an [[OECD [[high-income economy|high-income [[mixed economy with [[List of countries by Human Development Index|very high human development index and skilled [[labour force with the [[List of countries by income equality|16th lowest income inequality in the world. Furthermore, it is the [[List of countries by economic complexity|9th most complex economy according to the Economic Complexity Index. The Hungarian is the [[List of countries by GDP (PPP)|57th-largest economy in the world (out of 188 countries measured by [[IMF) with $265.037 billion output, and ranks [[List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita|49th in the world in terms of GDP per capita measured by [[purchasing power parity. Hungary is an export-oriented [[market economy with a heavy emphasis on [[foreign trade, thus the country is the [[List of countries by exports|36th largest export economy in the world. The country has more than $100 billion export in 2015 with high, $9.003 billion [[Balance of trade|trade surplus, of which 79% went to the EU and 21% was extra-EU trade. Hungary has a more than 80% [[Private sector|privately owned economy with [[List of countries by tax revenue as percentage of GDP|39,1% overall taxation, which provides the basis for the country's [[Welfare state|welfare economy. On the expenditure side, [[household consumption is the main component of [[GDP and accounts for 50 percent of its total use, followed by gross fixed [[capital formation with 22 percent and [[government expenditure with 20 percent. Hungary continues to be one of the leading nations for attracting [[foreign direct investment in [[Central and Eastern Europe, the inward FDI in the country was $119.8 billion in 2015, while Hungary invests more than $50 billion abroad. , the key trading partners of Hungary were Germany, Austria, Romania, Slovakia, France, Italy, Poland and Czech Republic. Major industries include food processing, pharmaceuticals, motor vehicles, information technology, chemicals, metallurgy, machinery, electrical goods, and tourism (in 2014 Hungary welcomed 12.1 million international tourists). Hungary is the largest electronics producer in [[Central and Eastern Europe. [[Electronics manufacturing and research are among the main drivers of [[innovation and economic growth in the country. In the past 20 years Hungary has also grown into a major centre for [[mobile technology, [[information security, and related hardware research. The [[employment rate in the economy was 68.3% in 2017, the employment structure shows the characteristics of [[Post-industrial society|post-industrial economies, 63.2% of employed workforce work in service sector, the industry contributed by 29.7%, while agriculture with 7.1%. Unemployment rate was 4.1% in 2017 September, down from 11% during the [[financial crisis of 2007–08. Hungary is part of the [[Internal market|European single market which represents more than 508 million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union members and by EU legislation. Large [[List of companies of Hungary|Hungarian companies are included in the [[BUX, the Hungarian stock market index listed on [[Budapest Stock Exchange. Well-known companies include the [[Fortune Global 500 firm [[MOL Group, the [[OTP Bank, [[Gedeon Richter Plc., [[Magyar Telekom, [[CIG Pannonia, [[FHB Mortgage Bank|FHB Bank, [[Zwack liqueur|Zwack Unicum and more. Besides this Hungary has a large portion of specialised [[small and medium enterprise, for example a significant number of automotive suppliers and technology [[Startup company|start ups among others.
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
is the financial and business capital of Hungary. The capital is a significant economic hub, classified as an Alpha – [[world city in the study by the [[Globalization and World Cities Research Network and it is the second fastest-developing [[urban economy in [[Europe as GDP per capita in the city increased by 2.4 per cent and employment by 4.7 per cent compared to the previous year in 2014. On the national level, Budapest is the [[primate city of Hungary regarding business and economy, accounting for 39% of the national income, the city has a [[gross metropolitan product more than $100 billion in 2015, making it one of the largest regional economies in the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million. The EU has developed an internal s ...
. Budapest is also among the Top 100 GDP performing cities in the world, measured by [[PricewaterhouseCoopers and in a global city competitiveness ranking by [[Economist Intelligence Unit|EIU, Budapest stands before [[Tel Aviv, [[Lisbon, [[Moscow and [[Johannesburg among others. Furthermore, Hungary's corporate tax rate is only 9%, which is relatively low for EU states. Hungary maintains its own currency, the [[Hungarian forint (HUF), although the economy fulfills the [[Maastricht criteria with the exception of public debt, [[List of countries by public debt|but it is also significantly below the EU average with the level of 75.3% in 2015. The [[Hungarian National Bank—founded in 1924, after the dissolution of [[Austria-Hungary|Austro-Hungarian Empire—is currently focusing on price stability with an inflation target of 3%.


Science and technology

Hungary's achievements in [[science and [[technology have been significant, and [[research and development efforts form an integral part of the [[Economy of Hungary|country's economy. Hungary spent 1.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on civil [[research and development in 2015, which is the [[List of countries by research and development spending|25th highest ratio in the world. Hungary ranks 32nd among the most innovative countries in the [[Bloomberg Innovation Index, standing before [[Hong Kong, [[Iceland or [[Malta. The [[Global Innovation Index places Hungary 33rd among the countries of the world in 2016. In 2014, Hungary counted 2,651 full-time equivalent researchers per million inhabitants, steadily increasing from 2,131 in 2010 and compares with 3,984 in the US or 4,380 in Germany. Hungary's [[high technology industry has benefited from both the country's skilled workforce and the strong presence of foreign high-tech firms and [[Research center|research centres. Hungary also has one of the highest rates of filed [[patents, the sixth highest ratio of high-tech and medium high-tech output in the total industrial output, the 12th highest research [[Foreign direct investment|FDI inflow, placed 14th in research talent in business enterprise and has the 17th best overall innovation efficiency ratio in the world. The key actor of research and development in Hungary is the National Research, Development and Innovation Office (NRDI Office), which is a national strategic and [[Funding of science|funding agency for scientific research, development and innovation, the primary source of advice on RDI policy for the [[Government of Hungary|Hungarian Government, and the primary RDI funding agency. Its role is to develop RDI policy and ensure that Hungary adequately invest in RDI by funding excellent research and supporting innovation to increase competitiveness and to prepare the RDI strategy of the Hungarian Government, to handle the National Research, Development and Innovation Fund, and represents the Hungarian Government and a Hungarian RDI community in international organisations. Scientific research in the country is supported partly by industry and partly by the state, through the [[List of universities in Hungary|network of Hungarian universities and by scientific state-institutions such as [[Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Hungary has been the home of some of the most prominent researchers in various scientific disciplines, notably [[physics, [[mathematics, [[chemistry and [[engineering. As of 2018, [[List of Hungarian Nobel laureates|twelve Hungarian scientists have been recipients of a [[Nobel Prize. Until 2012 three individuals: Csoma, [[János Bolyai and Tihanyi were included in the UNESCO Memory of the world register as well as the collective contributions: [[Tabula Hungariae and [[Bibliotheca Corviniana. Contemporary, internationally well-known Hungarian scientists include: mathematician [[László Lovász, physicist [[Albert-László Barabási, physicist [[Ferenc Krausz, and biochemist [[Árpád Pusztai. Hungary is famous for its excellent [[mathematics education which has trained numerous outstanding scientists. Famous Hungarian mathematicians include father [[Farkas Bolyai and son [[János Bolyai, who was one of the founders of [[non-Euclidean geometry; [[Paul Erdős, famed for publishing in over forty languages and whose [[Erdős numbers are still tracked, and [[John von Neumann, a key contributor in the fields of [[quantum mechanics and [[game theory, a pioneer of [[digital computing, and the chief mathematician in the [[Manhattan Project. Notable Hungarian inventions include the [[lead dioxide [[match ([[János Irinyi), a type of [[carburetor ([[Donát Bánki, [[János Csonka), the electric (AC) train engine and generator ([[Kálmán Kandó), [[holography ([[Dennis Gabor), the [[Kalman filter ([[Rudolf E. Kálmán), and [[Rubik's Cube ([[Ernő Rubik).


Transport

Hungary has a highly developed road, railway, air and water transport system. Budapest, the capital, serves as an important hub for the [[Hungarian State Railways|Hungarian railway system (''MÁV''). The capital is served by three large train stations called ''[[Eastern Railway Station (Budapest)|Keleti'' (Eastern), ''[[Western Railway Station (Budapest)|Nyugati'' (Western), and ''[[Southern Railway Station (Budapest)|Déli'' (Southern) ''pályaudvar''s. [[Szolnok is the most important railway hub outside Budapest, while [[Tiszai Railway Station in
Miskolc Miskolc ( , , ; Czech and sk|Miškovec; german: Mischkolz; yi|script=Latn|Mishkoltz; ro|Mișcolț) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 (1 Jan 2014) Miskolc is the fourth largest city in ...

Miskolc
and the main stations of [[Szombathely,
Győr Győr ( , ; german: Raab|links=no; names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of ...

Győr
,
Szeged Szeged ( , ; see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most di ...

Szeged
, and [[Székesfehérvár are also key to the network. Budapest,
Debrecen Debrecen ( , is Hungary's second-largest city, after Budapest, the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar County. It was the largest Hungarian city in the 18th century and it is one of the Hungarian peopl ...

Debrecen
,
Miskolc Miskolc ( , , ; Czech and sk|Miškovec; german: Mischkolz; yi|script=Latn|Mishkoltz; ro|Mișcolț) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 (1 Jan 2014) Miskolc is the fourth largest city in ...

Miskolc
, and
Szeged Szeged ( , ; see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most di ...

Szeged
have tram networks. The [[Budapest Metro is the second-oldest underground [[rapid transit|metro system in the world; its [[Line 1 (Budapest Metro)|Line 1 dates from 1896. The system consists of four lines. A [[regional rail|commuter rail system, ''[[HÉV'', operates in the Budapest metropolitan area. Hungary has a total length of approximately motorways ( hu|autópálya). Motorway sections are being added to the existing network, which already connects many major economically important cities to the capital. The most important port is Budapest. Other important ones include [[Dunaújváros and [[Baja, Hungary|Baja. There are five international airports in Hungary: [[Budapest Liszt Ferenc International Airport|Budapest Liszt Ferenc (informally called "Ferihegy" after its previous name), [[Debrecen International Airport|Debrecen, [[Sármellék International Airport|Sármellék (also called Hévíz-Balaton Airport), [[Győr-Pér International Airport|Győr-Pér, and [[Pécs-Pogány International Airport|Pécs-Pogány. The national carrier, [[Malév Hungarian Airlines|MALÉV, operated flights to over 60, mostly European cities, but ceased operations in 2012. Low-budget airline [[WizzAir is based in Hungary, at Ferihegy.


Demographics

Hungary's population was 9,937,628 according to the 2011 [[census, making it the fifth most populous country in [[Central and Eastern Europe and [[Demographics of the European Union|medium-sized member state of the European Union. [[Population density stands at 107 inhabitants per square kilometre, which is about two times higher than the [[List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density|world average. More than one quarter of the population lived in the [[Budapest metropolitan area, 6,903,858 people (69.5%) in [[List of cities and towns of Hungary|cities and towns overall. Like most other European countries, Hungary is experiencing [[sub-replacement fertility; its estimated [[total fertility rate of 1.43 children per woman is well below the replacement rate of 2.1, albeit higher than its nadir of 1.28 in 1999, and remains considerably below the high of 5.59 children born per woman in 1884. As a result, its population has been gradually declining and rapidly ageing. In 2011, the conservative government began a programme to increase the birth rate with a focus on ethnic Magyars by reinstating 3 year maternity leave as well as boosting part-time jobs. The fertility rate has gradually increased from 1.27 children born/woman in 2011. The natural decrease in the first 10 months of 2016 was only 25,828 which was 8,162 less than the corresponding period in 2015. In 2015, 47.9% of births were to unmarried women. Hungary has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 42.7 years. [[Life expectancy was 71.96 years for men and 79.62 years for women in 2015, growing continuously since the [[End of Communism in Hungary (1989)|fall of Communism. Hungary recognises two sizeable minority groups, designated as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries in Hungary: a [[Germans of Hungary|German community of about 130,000 that lives throughout the country, and a [[Romani people in Hungary|Romani minority numerous around 300,000 that mainly resides in [[Northern Hungary|the northern part of the country. Some studies indicate a considerably larger number of Romani in Hungary (876,000 people – c. 9% of the population.). According to the 2011 census, there were 8,314,029 (83.7%) ethnic [[Hungarians, 308,957 (3.1%) [[Romani people|Romani, 131,951 (1.3%) [[Germans, 29,647 (0.3%) [[Slovaks, 26,345 (0.3%) [[Romanians, and 23,561 (0.2%) [[Croats in Hungary; 1,455,883 people (14.7% of the total population) did not declare their ethnicity. Thus, Hungarians made up more than 90% of people who declared their ethnicity. In Hungary, people can declare more than one ethnicity, so the sum of ethnicities is higher than the total population. Today approximately [[Hungarian diaspora|5 million Hungarians live outside Hungary.


Urbanization

Hungary has 3,152 localities as of 15 July 2013. 346 towns (Hungarian term: ''város'', plural: ''városok''; the terminology doesn't distinguish between [[city|cities and [[towns – the term town is used in official translations) and 2,806 villages (Hungarian: ''község'', plural: ''községek''). The number of towns can change, since villages can be elevated to town status by act of the President. The capital Budapest has a special status and is not included in any county while 23 of the towns are so-called urban counties (''megyei jogú város'' – town with county rights). All county seats except Budapest are urban counties. Four of the cities (
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
,
Miskolc Miskolc ( , , ; Czech and sk|Miškovec; german: Mischkolz; yi|script=Latn|Mishkoltz; ro|Mișcolț) is a city in northeastern Hungary, known for its heavy industry. With a population of 161,265 (1 Jan 2014) Miskolc is the fourth largest city in ...

Miskolc
,
Győr Győr ( , ; german: Raab|links=no; names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of ...

Győr
, and
Pécs Pécs ( , ; german: Fünfkirchen, ; known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and eco ...

Pécs
) have agglomerations, and the Hungarian Statistical Office distinguishes seventeen other areas in earlier stages of agglomeration development. The largest city is the capital, Budapest, the smallest town is [[Pálháza with 1038 inhabitants (2010). The largest village is [[Solymár (population: 10,123 as of 2010) There are more than 100 villages with fewer than 100 inhabitants while the smallest villages have fewer than 20 inhabitants.


Languages

HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...

Hungarian
is the [[official language|official and predominant spoken language in Hungary. Hungarian is the [[Languages of Europe|13th most widely spoken first language in Europe with around 13 million native speakers and it is one of 24 official and working languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarian people in neighbouring countries and by [[Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide. According to the 2011 census, 9,896,333 people (99.6%) speak Hungarian in Hungary, of whom 9,827,875 people (99%) speak it as a [[first language, while 68,458 people (0.7%) speak it as a [[second language. English (1,589,180 speakers, 16.0%), and German (1,111,997 speakers, 11.2%) are the most widely spoken [[foreign languages, while there are several recognised minority languages in Hungary ([[Armenian language|Armenian, [[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian, [[Croatian language|Croatian, [[German language|German, [[Greek language|Greek, [[Romanian language|Romanian, [[Romani language|Romani, [[Rusyn language|Rusyn, [[Serbian language|Serbian, [[Slovak language|Slovak, [[Slovenian language|Slovenian, and [[Ukrainian language|Ukrainian). Hungarian (Magyar) is a member of the [[Uralic languages|Uralic language family, unrelated to any neighbouring language and distantly related to Finnish and [[Estonian language|Estonian. It is the largest of the Uralic languages in terms of the number of speakers and the only one spoken in [[Central Europe. There are sizeable populations of Hungarian speakers in Romania, Czechia, Slovakia, the former Yugoslavia, Ukraine, Israel, and the U.S. Smaller groups of Hungarian speakers live in Canada, Slovenia, and Austria, but also in Australia, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Venezuela and Chile. Standard Hungarian is based on the variety spoken in the capital of
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
, although use of the standard dialect is enforced, Hungarian has a number of urban and rural [[dialects.


Religion

Hungary is a historically [[Christianity|Christian country. Hungarian historiography identifies the foundation of the Hungarian state with [[Stephen I of Hungary|Stephen I's [[baptism and coronation with the [[Szentkorona|Holy Crown in A.D. 1000. Stephen promulgated [[Roman Catholicism as the state religion, and his successors were traditionally known as the [[Apostolic Kings. The [[Catholic Church in Hungary remained strong through the centuries, and the [[Archbishop of Esztergom was granted extraordinary temporal privileges as [[prince-primate (''hercegprímás'') of Hungary. Although contemporary Hungary has no [[official religion and recognises [[freedom of religion as a fundamental right, the Hungarian constitution "recognizes Christianity's nation-building role" in its preamble and in Article VII affirms that "the state may cooperate with the churches for community goals." The 2011 census showed that the majority of Hungarians were Christians (54.2%), with [[Catholic Church in Hungary|Roman Catholics (''Katolikusok'') (37.1%) and [[Hungarian Reformed [[Calvinists (''Reformátusok'') (11.1%) making up the bulk of these alongside [[Lutherans (''Evangélikusok'') (2.2%), [[Greek Catholics (1.8%), and other Christians (1.3%). [[Jewish (0.1%), [[Buddhist (0.1%) and [[Muslim (0.06%) communities are in the minority. 27.2% of the population did not declare a religious affiliation while 16.7% declared themselves explicitly [[irreligious, another 1.5% [[atheist. During the initial stages of the [[Protestant Reformation, most Hungarians adopted first [[Lutheranism and then [[Calvinism in the form of the [[Hungarian Reformed Church. In the second half of the 16th century, the [[Jesuits led a [[Counterreformation campaign and the population once again became predominantly Catholic. This campaign was only partially successful, however, and the (mainly Reformed) Hungarian nobility were able to secure freedom of worship for Christians. In practice this meant ''[[cuius regio, eius religio''; thus, most individual localities in Hungary are still identifiable as historically Catholic, Lutheran, or Reformed. The country's eastern regions, especially around
Debrecen Debrecen ( , is Hungary's second-largest city, after Budapest, the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar County. It was the largest Hungarian city in the 18th century and it is one of the Hungarian peopl ...

Debrecen
(the "Calvinist Rome"), remain almost completely [[Reformed, a trait they share with historically contiguous [[Hungarians in Romania|ethnically Hungarian regions across the Romanian border. [[Eastern Orthodox Church|Orthodox Christianity in Hungary is associated with the country's ethnic minorities: [[Armenians, [[Bulgarians, [[Greeks, [[Romanians, [[Rusyns, [[Ukrainians, and [[Serbs. Historically, Hungary was home to a [[History of the Jews in Hungary|significant Jewish community with a pre-
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—forming two opposing milit ...
population of more than 800,000, but it is estimated that just over 564,000 Hungarian Jews were killed between 1941 and 1945 during [[the Holocaust in Hungary. Between 15 May and 9 July 1944 alone, over 434,000 Jews were deported on 147 trains, most of them to [[Auschwitz, where about 80 percent were gassed on arrival. Some Jews were able to escape, but most were either deported to concentration camps, where they were killed, or murdered in Hungary by [[Arrow Cross Party|Arrow Cross members. From over 800,000 Jews living within Hungary's borders in 1941–1944, about 255,500 are thought to have survived. There are about 120,000 Jews in Hungary today.


Education

Education in Hungary is predominantly public, run by the [[Minister of Education (Hungary)|Ministry of Education. [[Preschool-[[kindergarten education is [[compulsory education|compulsory and provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is also [[compulsory education|compulsory until the age of sixteen. [[Primary education usually lasts for eight years. [[Secondary education includes three traditional types of schools focused on different academic levels: the [[Gymnasium (school)|Gymnasium enrolls the most gifted children and prepares students for university studies; the secondary vocational schools for intermediate students lasts four years and the technical school prepares pupils for [[vocational training|vocational education and the world of work. The system is partly flexible and bridges exist, graduates from a vocational school can achieve a two years programme to have access to vocational higher education for instance. The [[Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated 13–14-year-old pupils in Hungary among the bests in the world for maths and science. Most of the [[List of universities in Hungary|Hungarian universities are [[public university|public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment. The general requirement for university is the [[Matura. The Hungarian public [[higher education system includes universities and other higher education institutes, that provide both education curricula and related degrees up to doctoral degree and also contribute to research activities. Health insurance for students is free until the end of their studies. English and German language is important in Hungarian higher education, there are a number of degree programmes that are taught in these languages, which attracts thousands of [[Student exchange program|exchange students every year. Hungary's higher education and training has been ranked 44 out of 148 countries in the Global Competitiveness Report 2014. Hungary has a long tradition of higher education reflecting the existence of established [[knowledge economy. The established [[List of universities in Hungary|universities in Hungary include some of the [[List of oldest universities in continuous operation|oldest in the world, the first was the [[University of Pécs founded in 1367 which is still functioning, although, in the year 1276, the university of [[Veszprém was destroyed by the troops of [[Peter I Csák|Peter Csák, but it was never rebuilt. [[Sigismund established [[Óbuda University in 1395. Another, [[Universitas Istropolitana, was established 1465 in [[Pozsony by [[Mattias Corvinus. [[Nagyszombat University was founded in 1635 and moved to Buda in 1777 and it is called [[Eötvös Loránd University today. The world's first [[institute of technology was founded in [[Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary in 1735, its legal successor is the [[University of Miskolc. The [[Budapest University of Technology and Economics is considered the oldest institute of technology in the world with university rank and structure, its legal predecessor the Institutum Geometrico-Hydrotechnicum was founded in 1782 by [[Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor|Emperor Joseph II. Hungary ranks fourth (above neighbour Romania, and after China, the United States and Russia) in the all-time medal count at the [[International Mathematical Olympiad with 336 total medals, dating back to 1959.


Health

[[Image:Szentistvankorhazcivertanlegi.jpg|250px|Szent István Kórház ([[Stephen I of Hungary|Saint Stephen Hospital) at [[Üllői Avenue,
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
. With Szent László Kórház ([[Ladislaus I of Hungary|Saint Ladislaus Hospital) making the largest hospital complex in Hungary, built at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Hungary maintains a [[universal health care system largely financed by government [[national health insurance. According to the [[OECD, 100% of the population is [[List of countries by health insurance coverage|covered by universal health insurance, which is absolutely free for [[children, [[students, [[pensioners, [[Poverty|people with low income, [[Disability|handicapped people, and church employees. Hungary spends 7.2% of GDP on healthcare, spending $2,045 per capita, of which $1,365 is provided by the government. Hungary is one of the main destinations of medical tourism in [[Europe, particularly in [[dental tourism, in which its share is 42% in Europe and 21% worldwide. [[Plastic surgery is also a key sector, with 30% of the clients coming from abroad. Hungary is well known for its spa culture and is home to [[Culture of Hungary#Spa culture|numerous medicinal spas, which attract "spa tourism". In common with other developed countries, [[cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of mortality, accounting for 49.4% (62,979) of all deaths in 2013. However, this number peaked in 1985 with 79,355 deaths, and has been declining continuously since the fall of Communism. The second leading cause of death is [[cancer with 33,274 (26.2%), which has been stagnant since the 1990s. Deaths from [[accidents dropped from 8,760 in 1990 to 3,654 in 2013; the number of [[suicides has declined precipitously from 4,911 in 1983 to 2,093 in 2013 (21.1 per 100,000 people), the lowest since 1956. There are considerable health disparities between the western and eastern parts of Hungary; [[heart disease, [[hypertension, [[stroke, and [[suicide is prevalent in the mostly [[agricultural and low-income [[Great Hungarian Plain|Great Plain region in the east, but infrequent in the high-income, [[middle class areas of [[Western Transdanubia and [[Central Hungary. [[Smoking is a leading cause of death in the country, although it is in steep decline: The proportion of adult smokers declined to 19% in 2013 from 28% in 2012, owing to strict regulations such as a nationwide smoking ban in every indoor public place and the limiting of tobacco sales to state-controlled "National Tobacco Shops". Hungary ranks as the [[Global Peace Index|17th safest country in the world, with a homicide rate of 1.3 per 100,000 people.


Culture


Architecture

Hungary is home to the largest synagogue in Europe ([[Dohány Street Synagogue|Great Synagogue), built in 1859 in Moorish Revival style with a capacity of 3,000 people, the largest medicinal bath in Europe ([[Széchenyi Medicinal Bath), completed in 1913 in Modern Renaissance Style and located in the Budapest city park, the biggest building in Hungary with its length (the Parliament building), one of the largest basilicas in Europe ([[Esztergom Basilica), the second largest territorial abbey in the world ([[Pannonhalma Archabbey), and the largest early Christian necropolis outside Italy (
Pécs Pécs ( , ; german: Fünfkirchen, ; known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and eco ...

Pécs
). Notable architectural styles in Hungary include [[Historicism and [[Art Nouveau, or rather several variants of Art Nouveau. In contrast to Historicism, Hungarian Art Nouveau is based on the national architectural characteristics. Taking the eastern origins of the Hungarians into account, [[Ödön Lechner (1845–1914), the most important figure in Hungarian Art Nouveau, was initially inspired by Indian and Syrian architecture, and later by traditional Hungarian decorative designs. In this way, he created an original synthesis of architectural styles. By applying them to three-dimensional architectural elements, he produced a version of Art Nouveau that was specific to Hungary. Turning away from the style of Lechner, yet taking inspiration from his approach, the group of "Young People" (''Fiatalok''), which included [[Károly Kós and Dezsö Zrumeczky, were to use the characteristic structures and forms of traditional Hungarian architecture to achieve the same end. Besides the two principal styles, Budapest also displays local versions of trends originating from other European countries. The Sezession from [[Vienna, the German [[Jugendstil, Art Nouveau from Belgium and France, and the influence of English and Finnish architecture are all reflected in the buildings constructed at the turn of the 20th century. [[Béla Lajta initially adopted Lechner's style, subsequently drawing his inspiration from English and Finnish trends; after developing an interest in the [[Ancient Egypt|Egyptian style, he finally arrived at modern architecture. [[Aladár Árkay took almost the same route. [[István Medgyaszay developed his own style, which differed from Lechner's, using stylised traditional motifs to create decorative designs in concrete. In the sphere of applied arts, those chiefly responsible for promoting the spread of Art Nouveau were the School and Museum of Decorative Arts, which opened in 1896. Foreigners have unexpectedly "discovered" that a significantly large portion of the citizens live in old and architecturally valuable buildings. In the
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
downtown area almost all the buildings are about one hundred years old, with thick walls, high ceilings, and motifs on the front wall.


Music

Hungarian music consists mainly of traditional [[Hungarian folk music and music by prominent composers such as [[Liszt and [[Bartók, considered to be among the greatest Hungarian composers. Other renowned composers are [[Ernő Dohnányi|Dohnányi, [[Franz Schmidt, [[Zoltán Kodály, [[Gabriel von Wayditch, [[Rudolf Wagner-Régeny, [[László Lajtha, [[Franz Lehár, [[Imre Kálmán, [[Sándor Veress and [[Miklós Rózsa|Rózsa. Hungarian traditional music tends to have a strong [[dactyl (poetry)|dactylic rhythm, as the language is invariably stressed on the first syllable of each word. Hungary has renowned composers of contemporary classical music, [[György Ligeti, [[György Kurtág, [[Peter Eötvös|Péter Eötvös, [[Zoltán Kodály and [[Zoltán Jeney among them. One of the greatest Hungarian composers, [[Béla Bartók, was also among the most significant musicians of the 20th century. His music was invigorated by the themes, modes, and rhythmic patterns of the Hungarian and neighbouring folk music traditions he studied, which he synthesised with influences from his contemporaries into his own distinctive style. Hungary has made many contributions to the fields of [[folk music|folk, [[popular music|popular and [[european classical music|classical music. Hungarian folk music is a prominent part of the national identity and continues to play a major part in Hungarian music. Hungarian folk music has been significant in former country parts that belong – since the 1920
Treaty of Trianon 's pacifist speech for military officers, and declaration of Hungarian self-disarmament on 2 November 1918. The Treaty of Trianon (french: Traité de Trianon, hu|Trianoni békeszerződés) was prepared at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919– ...
 – to neighbouring countries such as Romania, Slovakia, Poland and especially in southern Slovakia and [[Transylvania; both regions have significant numbers of Hungarians. After the establishment of a music academy led by [[Ferenc Erkel and [[Franz Liszt Hungary produced an important number of art musicians: * Pianists: [[Ernö von Dohnányi|Ernő von Dohnányi, [[Ervin Nyiregyházi, [[Andor Földes, [[Tamás Vásáry, [[György Sándor, [[Géza Anda, [[Annie Fischer, [[György Cziffra, [[Edward Kilenyi|Edward Kilényi, [[Balint Vazsonyi|Bálint Vázsonyi, [[András Schiff, [[Zoltán Kocsis, [[Dezső Ránki, [[Jenő Jandó and others. * Violists: [[Joseph Joachim, [[Leopold Auer, [[Jenő Hubay, [[Jelly d'Arányi, [[Joseph Szigeti, [[Sándor Végh, [[Emil Telmanyi, [[Zathurecky|Ede Zathurecky, [[Zsigmondy, [[Franz von Vecsey, [[Zoltán Székely, [[Tibor Varga (violinist)|Tibor Varga and newcomers [[Antal Szalai, [[Vilmos Szabadi, [[Kristóf Baráti (b. 79) and others. * Opera singers: [[Astrid Varnay, [[József Simándy, [[Júlia Várady, [[Julia Hamari|Júlia Hamari, [[Kolos Kováts (Bluebeard in Bartók's Bluebeard) * Conductors: [[Eugene Ormandy, [[George Szell, [[Antal Doráti, [[János Ferencsik, [[Fritz Reiner, [[sir Georg Solti, [[István Kertész (conductor)|István Kertész, [[Ferenc Fricsay, [[Zoltán Rozsnyai, [[Sándor Végh, [[Arpad Joo|Árpád Joó, [[Ádám Fischer, [[Iván Fischer, [[Péter Eötvös, [[Zoltán Kocsis, [[Tamás Vásáry, [[Gilbert Varga and others * String Quartets: [[Budapest Quartet, [[Hungarian Quartet, [[Végh Quartet, [[Takács Quartet, [[Kodály Quartet, [[Éder Quartet, [[Festetics Quartet, Broughton claims that Hungary's "infectious sound has been surprisingly influential on neighboring countries (thanks perhaps to the common Austro-Hungarian history) and it's not uncommon to hear Hungarian-sounding tunes in Romania, Slovakia and Poland". It is also strong in the [[Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg|Szabolcs-Szatmár area and in the southwest part of [[Transdanubia, near the border with Croatia. The [[Busójárás carnival in [[Mohács is a major Hungarian folk music event, formerly featuring the long-established and well-regarded [[Bogyiszló orchestra.Broughton, pp. 159–167 Hungarian [[European classical music|classical music has long been an "experiment, made from Hungarian antecedents and on Hungarian soil, to create a conscious musical culture [using the] musical world of the folk song". Although the Hungarian upper class has long had cultural and political connections with the rest of Europe, leading to an influx of European musical ideas, the rural peasants maintained their own traditions such that by the end of the 19th century Hungarian composers could draw on rural peasant music to (re)create a Hungarian classical style. For example, Bartók collected folk songs from across Central and Eastern Europe, including Romania and Slovakia, while Kodály was more interested in creating a distinctively Hungarian musical style. During the era of communist rule in Hungary (1944–1989), a Song Committee scoured and censored popular music for traces of subversion and ideological impurity. Since then, however, the Hungarian music industry has begun to recover, producing successful performers in the fields of [[jazz such as trumpeter [[Rudolf Tomsits, pianist-composer [[Károly Binder and, in a modernised form of Hungarian folk, [[Ferenc Sebő and [[Márta Sebestyén. The three giants of Hungarian rock, [[Illés (band)|Illés, [[Metró (band)|Metró and [[Omega (band)|Omega, remain very popular, especially Omega, which has followings in Germany and beyond as well as in Hungary. Older veteran underground bands such as [[Beatrice (band)|Beatrice, from the 1980s, also remain popular.


Literature

In the earliest times, [[Hungarian language was written in a [[Old Hungarian script|runic-like script (although it was not used for literature purposes in the modern interpretation). The country switched to the [[Latin alphabet after being Christianized under the reign of [[Stephen I of Hungary (1000–1038).
The oldest remained written record in Hungarian language is a fragment in the [[Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany (1055) which contains several Hungarian terms, among them the words ''feheruuaru rea meneh hodu utu rea'', "up the military road to [[Székesfehérvár|Fehérvár" The rest of the document was written in Latin.
The oldest remaining complete text in Hungarian language is the [[Funeral Sermon and Prayer ''(Halotti beszéd és könyörgés)'' (1192–1195), a translation of a Latin sermon.
The oldest remaining poem in Hungarian is the [[Old Hungarian 'Lamentations of Mary'|Old Hungarian Laments of Mary ''(Ómagyar Mária-siralom)'', also a (not very strict) translation from Latin, from the 13th century. It is also the oldest surviving Uralic poem.
Among the first chronicles about Hungarian history were [[Gesta Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Hungarians") by the unknown author usually called ''Anonymus'', and [[Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum ("Deeds of the Huns and the Hungarians") by Simon Kézai. Both are in Latin. These chronicles mix history with legends, so historically they are not always authentic. Another chronicle is the ''Képes krónika'' (Illustrated Chronicle), which was written for [[Louis I of Hungary|Louis the Great. [[Renaissance literature flourished under the reign of [[Matthias Corvinus of Hungary|King Matthias (1458–1490). [[Janus Pannonius, although he wrote in Latin, counts as one of the most important persons in Hungarian literature, being the only significant Hungarian Humanist poet of the period. The first printing house was also founded during Matthias' reign, by [[András Hess, in Buda. The first book printed in Hungary was the [[Chronica Hungarorum. The most important poets of the period was [[Bálint Balassi (1554–1594) and [[Nikola Zrinski|Miklós Zrínyi (1620–1664). Balassi's poetry shows medieval influences, his poems can be divided into three sections: love poems, war poems and religious poems. Zrínyi's most significant work, the epic ''[[Peril of Sziget|Szigeti veszedelem'' ("Peril of Sziget", written in 1648/49) is written in a fashion similar to the ''[[Iliad'', and recounts the heroic [[Battle of Szigetvár, where his great-grandfather died while defending the castle of Szigetvár. Among the religious literary works the most important is the Bible translation by [[Gáspár Károli (The second Hungarian Bible translation in the history), the Protestant pastor of [[Gönc, in 1590. The translation is called the ''Bible of Vizsoly'', after the town where it was first published. (See [[Bible translations into Hungarian for more details.) The Hungarian enlightenment took place about fifty years after the French [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment. The first enlightened writers were [[Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1717–1780)|Maria Theresia's bodyguards ([[György Bessenyei, [[János Batsányi and others). The greatest poets of the time were [[Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and [[Dániel Berzsenyi. The greatest figure of the language reform was [[Ferenc Kazinczy. The [[Hungarian language became feasible for all type of scientific explanations from this time, and furthermore many new words were coined for describing new inventions. [[Hungarian literature has recently gained some renown outside the borders of Hungary (mostly through translations into German, French and English). Some modern Hungarian authors have become increasingly popular in Germany and Italy especially [[Sándor Márai, [[Péter Esterházy, [[Péter Nádas and [[Imre Kertész. The latter is a contemporary Jewish writer who survived the Holocaust and won the Nobel Prize for literature in 2002. The older classics of Hungarian literature and Hungarian poetry have remained almost totally unknown outside Hungary. [[János Arany, a famous 19th-century Hungarian poet, is still much loved in Hungary (especially his collection of [[Ballads), among several other "true classics" like [[Sándor Petőfi, the poet of the Revolution of 1848, [[Endre Ady, [[Mihály Babits, [[Dezső Kosztolányi, [[Attila József, [[Miklós Radnóti and [[János Pilinszky. Other well-known Hungarian authors are [[László Krasznahorkai, [[Ferenc Móra, [[Géza Gárdonyi, [[Zsigmond Móricz, [[Gyula Illyés, [[Albert Wass, [[Miklós Szentkuthy, [[Magda Szabó and [[Stephen Vizinczey.


Cuisine

Traditional dishes such as the world-famous [[Goulash (''gulyás'' stew or ''gulyás'' soup) feature prominently in Hungarian cuisine. Dishes are often flavoured with [[paprika (ground red peppers), a Hungarian innovation. The paprika powder, obtained from a special type of pepper, is one of the most common spices used in typical Hungarian cuisine. Thick, heavy Hungarian sour cream called ''[[tejföl'' is often used to soften the dishes' flavour. The famous Hungarian hot river fish soup called Fisherman's soup or ''[[halászlé'' is usually a rich mixture of several kinds of poached fish. Other dishes are chicken paprikash, [[foie gras made of goose liver, ''[[pörkölt'' stew, ''vadas'', (game stew with vegetable gravy and [[Spätzle|dumplings), [[trout with almonds and salty and sweet dumplings, like ''[[túrós csusza'', (dumplings with fresh [[quark (cheese)|quark cheese and thick sour cream). Desserts include the iconic [[Dobos Cake, [[strudels (''rétes''), filled with apple, cherry, poppy seed or cheese, [[palacsinta|Gundel pancake, plum dumplings (''[[Klöße|szilvás gombóc''), ''somlói'' dumplings, dessert soups like chilled [[sour cherry soup and sweet chestnut puree, ''gesztenyepüré'' (cooked [[chestnuts mashed with sugar and rum and split into crumbs, topped with whipped cream). ''[[Pretzel|Perec'' and ''[[kifli'' are widely popular pastries. The ''csárda'' is the most distinctive type of Hungarian inn, an old-style tavern offering traditional cuisine and beverages. ''Borozó'' usually denotes a cosy old-fashioned wine tavern, ''pince'' is a beer or wine cellar and a ''söröző'' is a [[pub offering draught beer and sometimes meals. The ''bisztró'' is an inexpensive restaurant often with self-service. The ''büfé'' is the cheapest place, although one may have to eat standing at a counter. Pastries, cakes and coffee are served at the confectionery called ''cukrászda'', while an ''eszpresszó'' is a café. [[Pálinka is a fruit brandy, distilled from fruit grown in the orchards situated on the [[Great Hungarian Plain. It is a spirit native to Hungary and comes in a variety of flavours including apricot (''barack'') and cherry (''cseresznye''). However, plum (''szilva'') is the most popular flavour. Beer goes well with many traditional Hungarian dishes. The five main Hungarian beer brands are: [[Borsod Brewery|Borsodi, [[Soproni, [[Arany Ászok, [[Kõbányai, and [[Dreher Brewery|Dreher. In Hungary, people traditionally do not clink their glasses or mugs when drinking beer. There is an urban legend in Hungarian culture that Austrian generals clinked their beer glasses to celebrate the execution of [[the 13 Martyrs of Arad in 1849. Many people still follow the tradition, although younger people often disavow it, citing that the vow was only meant to last 150 years. Wine: As [[Hugh Johnson (wine)|Hugh Johnson says in ''The History of Wine'', the territory of Hungary is ideal for wine-making and the country can be divided to six wine regions: [[North-Transdanubia, [[Lake Balaton, [[South-Pannónia, [[Duna-region or Alföld, [[Upper-Hungary and [[Tokaj-Hegyalja. The Romans brought vines to
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province of the Roman Empire bounded on the north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located in the territory of present-day we ...
, and by the 5th century AD, there are records of extensive vineyards in what is now Hungary. The [[Hungarians brought their wine-making knowledge from the East. According to [[Ahmad ibn Rustah|Ibn Rustah, the Hungarian tribes were familiar with wine-making long time before the [[Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. Hungarian wine regions offer a great variety of styles: the main products of the country are elegant and full-bodied dry whites with good acidity, although complex sweet whites (Tokaj), elegant ([[Eger) and full-bodied robust reds ([[Villány and [[Szekszárd). The main varieties are: [[Olaszrizling, [[Hárslevelű, [[Furmint, [[Pinot gris or Szürkebarát, [[Chardonnay (whites), [[Kékfrankos (or Blaufrankisch in German), [[Kadarka, [[Portugieser, [[Zweigelt, [[Cabernet sauvignon, [[Cabernet franc and [[Merlot. The most famous wines from Hungary are [[Tokaji Aszú and [[Egri Bikavér. [[Tokaji, meaning "of Tokaj", or "from Tokaj" in Hungarian, is used to label wines from the wine region of [[Tokaj-Hegyalja. Tokaji wine has received accolades from numerous great writers and composers including [[Beethoven, [[Liszt, [[Schubert and [[Goethe; [[Joseph Haydn's favourite wine was a Tokaji. [[Louis XV and [[Frederick the Great tried to outdo one another when they entertained guests with Tokaji. Napoleon III, the last Emperor of France, ordered 30–40 barrels of Tokaji at the French Royal Court every year. Gustav III, King of Sweden, loved Tokaji. In Russia, customers included Peter the Great and Empress Elizabeth, while Catherine the Great actually established a Russian garrison in the town of Tokaj with the aim of assuring regular wine deliveries to St. Petersburg. For over 150 years, a blend of forty Hungarian herbs has been used to create the liqueur [[Unicum. Unicum is a bitter, dark-coloured liqueur that can be drunk as an apéritif or after a meal, thus helping the digestion.


Recreation

Hungary is a land of [[thermal water. A passion for spa culture and [[Hungarian history have been connected from the very beginning. Hungarian spas feature [[ancient Rome|Roman, [[Greek architecture|Greek, [[Architecture of Turkey|Turkish, and northern country architectural elements. Because of an advantageous geographical location, good quality thermal water can be found in great quantities on over 80% of Hungary's territory. Approximately 1,500 thermal springs can be found in Hungary (more than 100 just in the Capital area). There are approximately 450 public baths in Hungary. The [[ancient Rome|Romans heralded the first age of spas in Hungary. The remains of their bath complexes are still to be seen in [[Óbuda. Spa culture was revived during the [[Turkish Invasion and the thermal springs of [[Buda were used for the construction of a number of bathhouses, some of which such as ([[Király Baths, [[Rudas Baths) are still functioning. In the 19th century, the advancement in deep drilling and medical science provided the springboard for a further leap in bathing culture. Grand spas such as [[Gellért Baths, Lukács Baths, [[Margaret Island, and [[Széchenyi Medicinal Bath are a reflection of this resurgence in popularity. The Széchenyi Thermal Bath is the largest spa complex in Europe and it was the first thermal bath built in the Pest side of Budapest. This building is a noted example of modern Renaissance style. Located on the Buda side of Budapest, the Gellért spa is the most famous and luxurious thermal complex of the capital city.


Folk art

[[Ugrós (Jumping dances) are old style dances dating back to the [[Middle Ages. Solo or couple dances accompanied by old style music, shepherd and other solo man's dances from [[Transylvania, and marching dances along with remnants of medieval weapon dances belong in this group. [[Karikázó is a circle dance performed by women only accompanied by singing of folk songs. [[Csárdás are new style dances developed in the 18–19th centuries. Csárdás is the Hungarian name for the national dances, with Hungarian embroidered costumes and energetic music. From the men's intricate bootslapping dances to the ancient women's circle dances, Csárdás demonstrates the infectious exuberance of the Hungarian folk dancing still celebrated in the villages. [[Verbunkos is a solo man's dance evolved from the recruiting performances of the [[Austria-Hungary|Austro-Hungarian army. The [[Legényes is a men's solo dance done by the ethnic Hungarian people living in the [[Kalotaszeg region of Transylvania. Although usually danced by young men, it can be also danced by older men. The dance is generally performed freestyle by one dancer at a time in front of a band. Women participate in the dance by standing in lines to the side, and singing or shouting verses while the men dance. Each man performs a number of points (dance phrases), typically four to eight without repetition. Each point consists of four parts, each lasting four counts. The first part is usually the same for everyone (there are only a few variations). It was in the beginning of the 18th-century that the present style of Hungarian folk art took shape, incorporating both [[Renaissance and [[Baroque elements, depending on the area, as well as Persian [[Sassanide influences. Flowers and leaves, sometimes a bird or a spiral ornament, are the principal decorative themes. The most frequent ornament is a flower with a centrepiece resembling the eye of a peacock's feather. Nearly all the manifestations of folk art practiced elsewhere in Europe also flourished among the [[hungarian people|Magyar peasantry at one time or another, their ceramics and textile being the most highly developed of all. The finest achievements in their textile arts are the embroideries which vary from region to region. Those of [[Kalotaszeg in Transylvania are charming products of Oriental design, sewn chiefly in a single colour – red, blue, or black. Soft in line, the embroideries are applied on altar cloths, pillow-cases and sheets. In Hungary proper, Sárköz in [[Transdanubia and the [[Mezőkövesd|Matyóföld in the [[Great Hungarian Plain produce the finest embroideries. In the [[Tolna (county)|Sárköz region the women's caps show black and white designs as delicate as lace, and give evidence of the people's wonderfully subtle artistic feeling. The embroidery motifs applied to women's wear have also been transposed to tablecloths and runners suitable for modern use as wall decorations. These vessels, made of black clay, reflect more than three hundred years of traditional Transdanubian folk patterns and shapes. No two are precisely alike, since all work is done by hand, including both the shaping and the decorating. The imprints are made by the thumb or a finger of the ceramist who makes the piece.


Porcelain

Founded in 1826, [[Herend Porcelain is one of the world's largest ceramic factories, specialising in luxury hand painted and gilded [[porcelain. In the mid-19th century it was purveyor to the [[Habsburg Dynasty and aristocratic customers throughout Europe. Many of its classic patterns are still in production. After the fall of communism in Hungary, the factory was privatised and is now 75% owned by its management and workers, exporting to over 60 countries of the world. Zsolnay Porcelain Manufacture is a Hungarian manufacturer of porcelain, pottery, ceramics, tiles and stoneware. The company introduced the eosin glazing process and pyrogranite ceramics. The Zsolnay factory was established by Miklós Zsolnay in
Pécs Pécs ( , ; german: Fünfkirchen, ; known by alternative names) is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and eco ...

Pécs
, Hungary, to produce stoneware and ceramics in 1853. In 1863, his son, [[Vilmos Zsolnay (1828–1900) joined the company and became its manager and director after several years. He led the factory to worldwide recognition by demonstrating its innovative products at world fairs and international exhibitions, including the 1873 World Fair in Vienna, then at the 1878 World Fair in Paris, where Zsolnay received a Grand Prix.


Sport

[[Hungary at the Olympics|Hungarian athletes have been successful contenders in the [[Olympic Games, only ten countries have won more Olympic medals than Hungary, with a total of 498 medals ranking eighth in an [[all-time Olympic Games medal count. Hungary has the third-highest number of [[Olympic medals per capita and second-highest number of gold medals per capita in the world. Hungary has historically excelled in Olympic water sports. In [[water polo the Hungarian team is the [[Water polo at the Summer Olympics|leading medal winner by a significant margin and in [[List of Olympic medalists in swimming (men)|swimming Hungarian men are fourth most successful overall, while [[List of Olympic medalists in swimming (women)|the women are eighth most successful overall. They have also seen success in canoeing and kayaking [[Canoeing and kayaking at the Summer Olympics|they are the third most successful overall. Hungary won its first gold medal in Winter Olympics in 2018 in mens short track speed skating with a team of four
Csaba BurjánSándor LiuShaoang LiuViktor Knoch
In 2015 the Assembly of the [[Hungarian Olympic Committee and the [[General Assembly of Budapest|Assembly of Budapest decided to bid for the [[2024 Summer Olympics but eventually awarded to [[Paris. Budapest has also lost several bids to host the games, in [[1916 Summer Olympics|1916, [[1920 Summer Olympics|1920, [[1936 Summer Olympics|1936, [[1944 Summer Olympics|1944, and [[1960 Summer Olympics|1960 to [[Berlin, [[Antwerp, [[London, and [[Rome, respectively. Hungary hosted many global [[sport event in the past, among others the [[1997 World Amateur Boxing Championships, [[2000 World Fencing Championships, [[2001 World Allround Speed Skating Championships, [[2008 World Interuniversity Games, [[2008 World Modern Pentathlon Championships, [[2010 ITU World Championship Series, 2011 [[IIHF World Championship, [[2013 World Fencing Championships, [[2013 World Wrestling Championships, 2014 [[World Masters Athletics Championships, [[2017 World Aquatics Championships and [[2017 World Judo Championships, only in the last two decade. Besides these, Hungary was the home of many European-level tournaments, like [[2006 European Aquatics Championships, [[2010 European Aquatics Championships, [[2013 European Judo Championships, [[2013 European Karate Championships, [[2017 European Rhythmic Gymnastics Championships|2017 European Rhythmic Gymnastics Championship and will be the host of 4 matches in the [[UEFA Euro 2020, which will be held in the 67,889-seat new [[Multi-purpose stadium|multi-purpose [[New Puskás Ferenc Stadium|Puskás Ferenc Stadium. The [[Hungarian Grand Prix in [[Formula One has been held at the [[Hungaroring just outside
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
, which circuit has [[FIA Grade 1 license. Since 1986, the race has been a round of the [[FIA [[Formula One World Championship. At the [[2013 Hungarian Grand Prix, it was confirmed that Hungary will continue to host a Formula 1 race until 2021. The track was completely resurfaced for the first time in early 2016, and it was announced the Grand Prix's deal was extended for a further five years, until 2026. [[Chess is also a popular and successful sport in Hungary, the Hungarian players are the 10th most powerful overall on the ranking of [[World Chess Federation. There are about 54 [[Grandmaster (chess)|Grandmasters and 118 [[International Masters in Hungary, which is more than in [[France or [[United Kingdom. World top junior player is the Hungarian [[Richárd Rapport currently on the [[FIDE World Rankings, while [[Judit Polgár generally considered the [[Glossary of chess#Strength|strongest female chess player of all time. Some of the world's best [[Sabre (fencing)|sabre athletes have historically also hailed from Hungary, and in 2009, the [[Hungary men's national ice hockey team qualified for their first [[IIHF World Championships|IIHF World Championship, in 2015, they qualified for their second World Championship in the top division.


Football

Hungary has won three Olympic football titles, finished runners-up in the [[1938 FIFA World Cup|1938 and [[1954 FIFA World Cups, and third in [[1964 European Nations' Cup|Euro 1964. Hungary revolutionised the sport in the 1950s, laying the tactical fundamentals of [[total football and dominating international football with the [[Magical Magyars|''Aranycsapat'' ("Golden Team"), which included [[Ferenc Puskás, top goalscorer of the 20th century, to whom FIFA dedicated its newest award, the [[FIFA Ferenc Puskás Award|Puskás Award. The side of that era has the second [[World Football Elo Ratings#All-time highest ratings|all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2166, and one of the longest undefeated runs in football history, remaining unbeaten in 31 games spanning more than four years. The post-golden age decades saw a gradually weakening Hungary, though recently there is renewal in all aspects. The Hungarian Children's Football Federation was founded in 2008, as youth development thrives. For the first time in Hungarian football's history, they hosted the [[2010 UEFA Futsal Championship in
Budapest Budapest (, ) is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and the ninth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city has an estimated population of 1,752,286 over a land area of about . Budapest is bot ...

Budapest
and
Debrecen Debrecen ( , is Hungary's second-largest city, after Budapest, the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar County. It was the largest Hungarian city in the 18th century and it is one of the Hungarian peopl ...

Debrecen
, the first time the [[Hungarian Football Federation|MLSZ staged a [[UEFA finals tournament. Also, the national teams have produced some surprise successes such as beating [[Euro 2004 winner [[Greece national football team|Greece 3–2 and [[2006 FIFA World Cup winner [[Italy national football team|Italy 3–1. During [[UEFA Euro 2016 Hungary won [[UEFA Euro 2016 Group F|Group F and were eventually defeated in the round of 16.


See also

* [[Outline of Hungary * [[Index of Hungary-related articles


Notes


References


Further reading

* Kontler, László: ''Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary'', Atlantisz Könyvkiadó, Budapest, 1999 (East-European Non-Fiction),


External links

; Government
Official site of the Hungarian Government

Official site of the Hungarian Prime Minister

Official site of the President of Hungary

Official Hungarian Tourism website
; General information
"Hungary"
in the ''[[Encyclopædia Britannica''
Hungary
from the [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development|OECD
Hungary
at the [[European Union|EU *
Forecasts for Hungary
from [[International Futures
Hungary
from the [[BBC News
Hungary
''[[The World Factbook''. [[Central Intelligence Agency.
Statistical Profile of Hungary at the Association of Religion Data Archives
*
FAO Country Profiles: Hungary

Daily News Hungary

Hungary Today – The latest news about Hungary
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